NutritionFacts.org http://nutritionfacts.org The Latest in Nutrition Research Mon, 25 May 2015 15:45:38 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Colon Cancer Prevention: Is it the Fiber or the Phytates?http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/21/colon-cancer-prevention-is-it-the-fiber-or-the-phytates/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=colon-cancer-prevention-is-it-the-fiber-or-the-phytates http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/21/colon-cancer-prevention-is-it-the-fiber-or-the-phytates/#comments Thu, 21 May 2015 12:00:21 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=26345 Dietary factors are considered the most important environmental risk factors for cancer. Within recent years, a large number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances of plant origin known as phytonutrients have been recognized to have beneficial effects on certain cancers. Beans, chickpeas, split peas and lentils are packed with all sorts of wonderful nutrients, but the […]]]>

Dietary factors are considered the most important environmental risk factors for cancer. Within recent years, a large number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances of plant origin known as phytonutrients have been recognized to have beneficial effects on certain cancers. Beans, chickpeas, split peas and lentils are packed with all sorts of wonderful nutrients, but the reason they may protect against several degenerative diseases may be due to non-nutritive compounds, or even so-called “antinutrient” compounds like phytates.

Phytates have a somewhat negative reputation for binding to certain minerals (like iron, zinc and manganese) and slowing their absorption. But they have also been found to offer anti-inflammatory health benefits. “The reputation of phytate has had a roller coaster ride ever since its discovery; it has undergone alternate eminence and infamy.” (I previously explored the surprising new science about phytates in my video Phytates for the Prevention of Osteoporosis). Could they play a potential role in preventing colon cancer?

In the U.S., colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death, but some parts of the world have had just a tiny fraction of our rates, with the highest rates reported in Connecticut, and the lowest in Kampala, Uganda. The famous surgeon Denis Burkitt spent 24 years in Uganda and most of the hospitals he contacted there had never seen a case of colon cancer. Noting they live off diets centered on whole plant foods, he figured that maybe it was the fiber that was so protective.

Some studies have called that interpretation into question. Danes appear to have more colon cancer than Finns, yet Danes consume almost twice the dietary fiber. What else, then, could explain the low cancer rates among plant-based populations? Well, fiber isn’t the only thing found in whole plant foods, but missing from processed and animal foods. Maybe it’s the phytate.

Dietary phytate, rather than fiber per se, may be the most important variable governing the frequency of colon cancer, as phytate is known to be a powerful inhibitor of the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl radicals, a particularly dangerous type of free radical. So the standard American diet may be a double whammy, the heme iron in muscle meat plus the lack of phytate in refined plant foods to extinguish the iron radicals.

This may account for what researchers found in the Adventist study, highlighted in my video, Phytates for the Prevention of Cancer. They found excess risk of cancer for higher intakes of both red meat and white meat, suggesting all meats contribute to colon cancer formation — about twice the risk for red meat eaters, and three times the risk for those eating chicken and fish.

Those who eat meat could reduce their risk in two ways: by cutting down on meat or by eating more beans, an excellent source of phytates.

So it’s not just how much meat we eat, but our meat to vegetables ratio. Between the two extremes (high-vegetable and low-meat diets versus high-meat and low-vegetable diets) a risk ratio of about eight appears to exist, sufficient to explain a substantial part of the international variation in the incidence of colorectal cancer. Those with the worst of both worlds, high meat and low vegetable, were at eight times the risk.

More on colon cancer in Stool Size Matters.

Here are a few of my latest videos on the latest wonders of the musical fruit:

What about that music, though? See my blog Beans and Gas: Clearing the air.

What about soybeans and cancer? See Breast Cancer Survival and Soy and BRCA Breast Cancer Genes and Soy.

Other ways to mediate the effects of meat intake can be found in my video Reducing Cancer Risk in Meateaters.

For more about how phytates may play a role in both cancer prevention and treatment see Phytates for Rehabilitating Cancer Cells and Phytates for the Treatment of Cancer.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Ton Rulkens / Flickr

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Low Carb Diets Found to Feed Heart Diseasehttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/19/low-carb-diets-and-coronary-blood-flow/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=low-carb-diets-and-coronary-blood-flow http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/19/low-carb-diets-and-coronary-blood-flow/#comments Tue, 19 May 2015 12:00:51 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=26340 People going on low carb diets may not see a rise in their cholesterol levels. How is that possible? Because weight loss by any means can drop our cholesterol. We could go on an all-Twinkie diet and lower our cholesterol as long as we didn’t eat too many. A good cocaine habit could do it. […]]]>

People going on low carb diets may not see a rise in their cholesterol levels. How is that possible? Because weight loss by any means can drop our cholesterol. We could go on an all-Twinkie diet and lower our cholesterol as long as we didn’t eat too many. A good cocaine habit could do it. Anything that drops our weight can drop our cholesterol, but the goal isn’t to fit into a skinnier casket; the reason we care about cardiovascular risk factors like cholesterol is because we care about cardiovascular risk, the health of our arteries.

Now we have studies that measure the impact of low carb diets on arteries directly, and a review of all the best studies to date found that low-carb diets impair arterial function, as evidenced by a decrease in flow-mediated dilation, meaning low-carb diets effectively stiffen people’s arteries. And since that meta-analysis was published, a new study found the same thing: “A dietary pattern characterized by high protein and fat, but low carbohydrate was associated with poorer peripheral small artery function,” again measuring blood flow into people’s limbs. But peripheral circulation is not as important as the circulation in the coronary arteries that feed our heart.

There has only been one study ever done measuring actual blood flow to the heart muscles of people eating low-carb diets. Dr. Richard Fleming, an accomplished nuclear cardiologist, enrolled 26 people into a comprehensive study of the effects of diet on cardiac function using the latest in nuclear imaging technology–so-called SPECT scans, enabling him to actually directly measure the blood flow within the coronary arteries.

He then put them all on a healthy vegetarian diet, and a year later the scans were repeated. By that time, however, ten of the patients had jumped ship onto the low carb bandwagon. At first I bet he was disappointed, but surely soon realized he had an unparalleled research opportunity dropped into his lap. Here he had extensive imaging of ten people before and after following a low carb diet and 16 following a high carb diet. What would their hearts look like at the end of the year? We can talk about risk factors all we want, but compared to the veg group, did the coronary heart disease of the patients following the Atkins-like diets improve, worsen, or stay the same?

Those sticking to the vegetarian diet showed a reversal of their heart disease as expected. Their partially clogged arteries literally got cleaned out. They had 20% less atherosclerotic plaque in their arteries at the end of the year than at the beginning. What happened to those who abandoned the treatment diet, and switched over to the low-carb diet? Their condition significantly worsened. 40% to 50% more artery clogging at the end of the year.  In heart scans of the patients, as seen in my video, Low Carb Diets and Coronary Blood Flow, the yellow and particularly red areas represent blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle. The scan of one of the patients who went on a plant-based diet, shows how their arteries opened right up increasing the blood flow. Another person, however, started out with good flow, but after a year on a low-carb diet, they significantly clogged down their arterial blood flow.

So this is the best science we have, demonstrating the threat of low-carb diets, not just measuring risk factors, but actual blood flow in people’s hearts on different diets. Of course the reason we care about cardiac blood flow, is we don’t want to die. Another meta-analysis was recently published that finally went ahead and measured the ultimate end-point, death, and low-carb diets were associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality, meaning living a significantly shorter lifespan.

The reason I have so few videos about low-carb diets is that I already wrote a book about it. Carbophobia is now available free online full-text at AtkinsFacts.org. Atkins’ lawyers threatened to sue, leading to a heated exchange you’re sure to enjoy that I reprint in the book. I did touch on it Atkins Diet: Trouble Keeping it Up, though low carb diets don’t necessarily have to be that unhealthy (see my video Plant-Based Atkins Diet).

Here are some videos I’ve done on conquering our #1 killer:

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: ryan.dowd / Flickr

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Nuts May Extend Your Lifespan By About 2 yearshttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/14/nuts-may-extend-your-lifespan-by-about-2-years/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=nuts-may-extend-your-lifespan-by-about-2-years http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/14/nuts-may-extend-your-lifespan-by-about-2-years/#comments Thu, 14 May 2015 12:00:27 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=26336 We’ve known that increased nut consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes. But do those who eat nuts actually live longer lives? Clinical trials have shown nuts help lower cholesterol and oxidation, and improve our arterial function and blood sugar levels. Does all this […]]]>

We’ve known that increased nut consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes. But do those who eat nuts actually live longer lives? Clinical trials have shown nuts help lower cholesterol and oxidation, and improve our arterial function and blood sugar levels. Does all this translate into greater longevity?

Researchers at Harvard examined the association between nut consumption and subsequent mortality of over 100,000 people followed for decades. In that time, tens of thousands died, but those that ate nuts every day lived significantly longer. Daily nut consumers had fewer deaths from cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease, even after controlling for other lifestyle factors. Nut consumers lived significantly longer whether they were older or younger, fat or skinny, whether they exercised more, smoked, drank, or ate other foods that may affect mortality.

But nuts are so filled with fat that there “may be a concern that frequent nut consumption can result in weight gain.” However, that’s not what the Harvard researchers found. In fact, other studies have associated nut consumption with a slimmer waist, less weight gain, and lower risk of obesity. If we look at all the studies put together, it’s pretty much a wash. Diets enriched with nuts do not seem to affect body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference much at all. For example, one of the most recent such studies, highlighted in my video, Nuts May Help Prevent Death, in which subjects were told to add either 0, 70, or 120 pistachios to their daily diet as an afternoon snack every day for three months, found no noticeable difference between the three groups. You couldn’t see any difference between those eating no nuts and those eating more than 100 a day. Hence, it appears that the incorporation of nuts (around one to two small handfuls a day) would be advisable to ensure various health benefits without the risk of body weight gain.

How nuts do we have to go? Not much. Just a few servings a week may boost our lifespan and lower cancer rates—but it appears we have to keep it up. In the PREDIMED study, when long-time nut eaters were told to cut down on eating nuts or choose extra virgin olive oil, within five years they apparently lost much of their longevity benefit. Only the group that started out eating nuts and continued to eat at least the same amount of nuts died significantly less often.

You can find more on nuts and heart disease in my videos Nuts and Bolts of Cholesterol Lowering and How Do Nuts Prevent Sudden Cardiac Death?

More on nuts and cancer in Tree Nuts or Peanuts for Breast Cancer Prevention?

Nuts and inflammatory disease: Fighting Inflammation in a Nut Shell.

More than you ever wanted to know about nuts and weight here: Nuts and Obesity: The Weight of Evidence.

What if your physician tells you to not eat nuts because you have diverticulosis? Share this video with them: Diverticulosis & Nuts.

Those 100 pistachios a day may have one side-effect, though: Pistachio Nuts for Erectile Dysfunction.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Aoife mac / Flickr

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How Curry Can Kill Cancer Cellshttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/12/how-curry-can-kill-cancer-cells/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=how-curry-can-kill-cancer-cells http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/12/how-curry-can-kill-cancer-cells/#comments Tue, 12 May 2015 12:00:47 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=26066 It is estimated that the human body consists of ten or so trillion cells. Almost all of these cells get turned over within approximately 100 days. That means we’re like a new person every three months. We reinvent ourselves physically. And since we’re physically made of air, water, and food—those are essentially the only inputs—we […]]]>

It is estimated that the human body consists of ten or so trillion cells. Almost all of these cells get turned over within approximately 100 days. That means we’re like a new person every three months. We reinvent ourselves physically. And since we’re physically made of air, water, and food—those are essentially the only inputs—we are what we eat, literally and physically. In a sense our body has to rebuild itself every three months with the building materials we deliver to it through our stomach. Our mouths are like the access road to the continual construction site of our body. Trucks roll in three times a day. What do we want them to deliver? Some shoddy cheap stuff we scrounged around for or bought at the discount outlets that’s just going to fall apart? Or do we want to build our foundation solid? We are each walking inside the greatest known architectural structures in the universe. Let’s not ruin such grand blueprints by consuming junk.

We only own the biological real estate we’re born with, so if we need to rebuild every three months, we also need a wrecking crew. If we’re replacing ten trillion cells every hundred days, that means we have to kill off about 100 billion cells every day. Out with the old, in with the new. We do that primarily through “apoptosis,” pre-programmed cell death (from the Greek ptosis, meaning “falling”, and apo, “away from”). For example, we all used to have webbed fingers and toes. Literally. Each one of us did in the womb until about four months, when apoptosis kicked in, and the cells in the webbing kill themselves off to separate our fingers.

However, some cells overstay their welcome: cancer cells. They don’t die when they’re supposed to by somehow turning off their suicide genes. What can we do about that? Well, one of the ways the yellow pigment in curry powder kills cancer cells is by reprogramming the self-destruct mechanism back into cancer cells. Let me just run through one of these pathways.

FAS is a so-called death receptor that activates the FAS associated death domain, death receptor five, and death receptor four. The FADD associated death domain then activates caspase-8, which “ignites the death machine,” and kills the cell. (To see the diagram of the pathway, go to my video Turmeric Curcumin Reprogramming Cancer Cell Death). Where does curry powder fit into all this? In cancer cells, curcumin, the pigment in the spice turmeric that makes curry powder yellow, upregulates and activates death receptors (as shown in human kidney cancer cells, skin cancer cells, and nose and throat cancer cells).

Curcumin can also activate the death machine directly (as shown in lung cancer and colon cancer). Caspases are so-called “executioner enzymes,” that when activated, destroy the cancer cell from within by chopping up proteins left and right—kind of like death by a thousand cuts.

And that’s just one pathway. Curcumin can also affect apoptosis in a myriad other ways, affecting a multitude of different types of cancer cells. It also tends to leave normal cells alone for reasons that are not fully understood. Overall, researchers “showed that curcumin can kill a wide variety of tumor cell types through diverse mechanisms. And because curcumin can affect numerous mechanisms of cell death at the same time, it’s possible that cancer cells may not easily develop resistance to curcumin-induced cell death like they do to most chemotherapy.”

For more on turmeric and cancer, check out Back to Our Roots: Curry and Cancer and Carcinogen Blocking Effects of Turmeric.

Other herbs and spices such as garlic and amla have similar selective effects against cancer cell (See #1 Anticancer Vegetable and Some Ayurvedic Medicine Worse than Lead Paint Exposure).

I talk more about this concept of “apoptosis,” programmed cell death in:

What else can turmeric do? Here’s the videos I have so far (with more on the way!):

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Steven Jackson / Flickr

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Testing Turmeric on Smokershttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/07/testing-turmeric-on-smokers/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=testing-turmeric-on-smokers http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/07/testing-turmeric-on-smokers/#comments Thu, 07 May 2015 12:00:30 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=26062 Researchers are becoming increasingly aware of “plant-derived substances that act as chemopreventive agents.” Chemopreventatives are substances that help prevent cancer, as opposed to chemotherapy agents aimed at treating cancer. These plant-derived substances are not only inexpensive, they are also easily available and may have no or limited toxicity. Since 1987, the National Cancer Institute has […]]]>

Researchers are becoming increasingly aware of “plant-derived substances that act as chemopreventive agents.” Chemopreventatives are substances that help prevent cancer, as opposed to chemotherapy agents aimed at treating cancer. These plant-derived substances are not only inexpensive, they are also easily available and may have no or limited toxicity.

Since 1987, the National Cancer Institute has tested more than a thousand different potential agents for chemopreventive activity, of which only a few dozen were moved to clinical trials. Curcumin, present in the Indian spice, turmeric, which is used in curry powder, is one such agent currently under clinical investigation for cancer chemoprevention.

According to their mode of action, chemopreventive agents are classified into different subgroups: antiproliferatives, antioxidants, or carcinogen-blockers. Curcumin belongs to all three, given its multiple mechanisms of action. Curcumin appears to play a role helping to block every stage of cancer transformation, proliferation, and invasion, and may even help before carcinogens even get to our cells.

A study back in 1987, highlighted in my video, Carcinogen Blocking Effects of Turmeric,  investigated the effects of curcumin on the mutagenicity (DNA mutating ability) of several toxins and found that curcumin was an effective antimutagen against several environmental and standard mutagenic and cancer-causing substances. However, this was in vitro (from the Latin meaning “in glass,” as in a test tube or petri dish). What about in people? We can’t just take a group of people and expose them to some nasty carcinogen so we can give half of them turmeric and see what happens. We could wait until some toxic waste spill happens or nuclear accident, but otherwise, how could researchers find people who would voluntarily expose themselves to carcinogens—unless, they smoke! That’s why researchers test antimutagenic agents on smokers, who have carcinogens coursing through their veins every day.

If smokers pee on some bacteria, the number of DNA mutations shoot up dramatically. Remember, all life is encoded by DNA, whether bacteria, banana, or bunny rabbit. (When measuring urinary mutagens, it’s easier to just pee on some bacteria.)

The urine of nonsmokers caused far fewer DNA mutations. It makes sense: nonsmokers have fewer chemicals running through their system. If we have nonsmokers eat some turmeric for a month, nothing really happens. But what if we do the same for smokers? In just fifteen days the mutagenic potential of their urine noticeably decreases, and it drops even more by day 30. The turmeric the researchers used was not some concentrated curcumin supplement, but just plain turmeric you might buy at the store. They also used less than a teaspoon of turmeric a day, indicating that dietary turmeric is an effective anti-mutagen.

However, in the same study the researchers found an even more effective anti-mutagen: not smoking. Even after eating turmeric for a month, the DNA-damaging power of smoker pee exceeded that of nonsmokers.

To find out more, check out Back to Our Roots: Curry and Cancer and Turmeric Curcumin Reprogramming Cancer Cell Death.

Other foods that may protect DNA include kiwifruit (Kiwifruit and DNA Repair), cruciferous vegetables (DNA Protection from Broccoli), leafy vegetables (Eating Green to Prevent Cancer), garlic (Cancer, Interrupted: Garlic & Flavonoids), green tea (Cancer, Interrupted: Green Tea), but which is better? (Antimutagenic Activity of Green Versus White Tea), and plants in general (Repairing DNA Damage).

Smokers are common research subjects for carcinogen studies. But other groups of people following similar lifestyles are used. For example, see what happens to carcinogen levels when those eating processed meat start eating vegetarian in my video Heterocyclic Amines in Eggs, Cheese, and Creatine.

More information on cancer prevention, treatment, and reversal can be found in my latest annual presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day: Combating Common Diseases, and From Table to Able.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

Image Credit: Ed Schipul / Flickr

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Why are Cancer Rates so Low in India?http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/05/why-are-cancer-rates-so-low-in-india/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=why-are-cancer-rates-so-low-in-india http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/05/why-are-cancer-rates-so-low-in-india/#comments Tue, 05 May 2015 12:00:08 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=26059 It is estimated that many tumors start around the age of 20. However, detection of cancer is normally around the age of 50 or later. Thus, it takes cancer decades to incubate. Why does it take so long? Recent studies indicate that in any given type of cancer, hundreds of different genes must be modified […]]]>

It is estimated that many tumors start around the age of 20. However, detection of cancer is normally around the age of 50 or later. Thus, it takes cancer decades to incubate. Why does it take so long? Recent studies indicate that in any given type of cancer, hundreds of different genes must be modified to change a normal cell into a cancer cell. Although cancers are characterized by the dysregulation of cell signaling pathways at multiple steps, most current anticancer therapies involve the modulation of a single target. Chemotherapy has gotten incredibly specific, but the ineffectiveness, lack of safety, and high cost of these monotargeted therapies has led to real disappointment, and drug companies are now trying to develop chemo drugs that take a multitargeted approach.

Many plant-based products, however, accomplish multitargeting naturally and are inexpensive and safe compared to drugs. However, because drug companies are not usually able to secure intellectual property rights to plants, the development of plant-based anticancer therapies has not been prioritized. They may work (and work better for all we know), and they may be safer, or even fully risk free.

If we were going to choose one plant-based product to start testing, we might choose curcumin, the pigment in the spice turmeric (the reason curry powder looks yellow). Before we start throwing money at research, we might want to ask some basic questions, like “Do populations that eat a lot of turmeric have lower cancer rates?” The incidence of cancer does appear to be significantly lower in regions where turmeric is heavily consumed. Population-based data indicate that some extremely common cancers in the Western world are much less prevalent in regions where turmeric is widely consumed in the diet.

For example, “overall cancer rates are much lower in India than in western countries.”  U.S. men get 23 times more prostate cancer than men in India. Americans get between 8 and 14 times the rate of melanoma, 10 to 11 times more colorectal cancer, 9 times more endometrial cancer, 7 to 17 times more lung cancer, 7 to 8 times more bladder cancer, 5 times more breast cancer, and 9 to 12 times more kidney cancer. This is not mere 5, 10, or 20 percent more, but 5, 10, or 20 times more. Hundreds of percent more breast cancer, thousands of percent more prostate cancer—differences even greater than some of those found in the China Study.

The researchers in this study, highlighted in my video Back to Our Roots: Curry and Cancer, conclude: “Because Indians account for one-sixth of the world’s population, and have some of the highest spice consumption in the world, epidemiological studies in this country have great potential for improving our understanding of the relationship between diet and cancer. The lower rates of cancer may, of course, not be due to higher spice intake. Several dietary factors may contribute to the low overall rate of cancer in India. Among them are a “relatively low intake of meat and a mostly plant-based diet, in addition to the high intake of spices.” Forty percent of Indians are vegetarians, and even the ones that do eat meat don’t eat a lot. And it’s not only what they don’t eat, but what they do. India is one of the largest producers and consumers of fresh fruits and vegetables, and Indians eat a lot of pulses (legumes), such as beans, chickpeas, and lentils. They also eat a wide variety of spices in addition to turmeric that constitute, by weight, the most antioxidant-packed class of foods in the world.

Population studies can’t prove a correlation between dietary turmeric and decreased cancer risk, but they can certainly inspire a bunch of research. So far, curcumin has been tested against a variety of human cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast, prostate, multiple myeloma, lung cancer, and head and neck cancer, for both prevention and treatment. For more information on turmeric and curcumin, check out Carcinogen Blocking Effects of Turmeric Curcumin and Turmeric Curcumin Reprogramming Cancer Cell Death.

I’m working on another dozen or so videos on this amazing spice. This is what I have so far:

Amla, dried Indian gooseberry powder, is another promising dietary addition:

I add amla to my Pink Juice with Green Foam recipe. Not all natural products from India are safe, though. See, for example, my video Some Ayurvedic Medicine Worse than Lead Paint Exposure.

More on the antioxidant concentration in spices in general in Antioxidants in a Pinch. Why do antioxidants matter? See Food Antioxidants and Cancer and Food Antioxidants, Stroke, and Heart Disease.

Which fruits and vegetables might be best? See #1 Anticancer Vegetable and Best Fruits for Cancer Prevention.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: peddhapati / Flickr

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Red Dye No. 3 and Thyroid Cancerhttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/30/coloring-to-dye-for-dangers-of-red-no-3/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=coloring-to-dye-for-dangers-of-red-no-3 http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/30/coloring-to-dye-for-dangers-of-red-no-3/#comments Thu, 30 Apr 2015 12:00:30 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=25879 Fifteen million pounds of food dyes are sold every year in the U.S. Why? Foods “are artificially colored to make unattractive mixtures of basic ingredients and food additives acceptable to consumers.” Food colorings are added to countless processed food products to “conceal the absence of fruits, vegetables, or other ingredients and to make the food […]]]>

Fifteen million pounds of food dyes are sold every year in the U.S. Why? Foods “are artificially colored to make unattractive mixtures of basic ingredients and food additives acceptable to consumers.” Food colorings are added to countless processed food products to “conceal the absence of fruits, vegetables, or other ingredients and to make the food appear better or of greater value than it is.” Otherwise cherry popsicles might actually look as if they had no cherries in them!

I’ve talked about the role of food dyes in causing ADHD symptoms in kids (See Food Dyes and ADHD), but what about their role in cancer?

Due to cancer concerns, Red dye #1 was banned in 1961. Red #2 was banned in 1976, and Red #4 was banned soon after. But what about Red No. 3, used today in everything from sausage to maraschino cherries? It was found to cause DNA damage in human liver cells in vitro, comparable to the damage caused by a chemotherapy drug whose whole purpose is to break down DNA, but Red No. 3 was also found to influence children’s behavior over 30 years ago and to interfere with thyroid function over 40 years ago. Why is it still legal?

By 1985, the FDA had already postponed action on banning the Red No. 3 twenty-six times, even though the Acting Commissioner of the FDA said Red No. 3 was “of greatest public health concern,” imploring his agency to not knowingly allow continued exposure (at high levels in the case of Red No. 3) of the public to “a provisionally listed color additive that has clearly been shown to induce cancer while questions of mechanism are explored. The credibility of the Department of Health and Human Services would suffer if decisions are not made soon on each of these color additives.” That was over 30 years ago. (To see the 1985 article published in the New York Times, check out my video, Red no. 3, Coloring to Dye for).

At the end of the day, industry pressure won out. While FDA scientists and FDA commissioners have recommended that the additive be banned, there has been tremendous pressure to delay the recommendations from being implemented.

In 1990, concerned about cancer risk, the FDA banned the use of Red No. 3 in anything going on our skin, but it remained legal to continue to put it in anything going in our mouths. The FDA also said they planned to end all other remaining uses of Red No. 3, lamenting that the cherries in 21st century fruit cocktail “could well be light brown.”

But over 20 years later it’s still in our food supply. After all, the agency estimated that the lifetime risk of thyroid tumors in humans from Red No. 3 in food was at most one in a hundred thousand. Based on the current U.S. population that’s 3,000.

This whole fiasco might become clearer once you watch my video Who Determines if Food Additives Are Safe?

I’ve touched on food coloring additives before:

Some other videos on popular food additives include:

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Kathleen Franklin / Flickr

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How to Reduce Exposure to Alkylphenols Through Your Diethttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/28/how-to-reduce-exposure-to-alkylphenols-through-your-diet/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=how-to-reduce-exposure-to-alkylphenols-through-your-diet http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/28/how-to-reduce-exposure-to-alkylphenols-through-your-diet/#comments Tue, 28 Apr 2015 12:00:55 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=25870 Alkylphenols are industrial chemicals that are found in hair products, spermicides, cleaning products and detergents. They are considered endocrine disruptors. For more information on alkylphenols, check out my video Alkylphenol Endocrine Disruptors and Allergies. Concern about alkylphenols first surfaced decades ago when a group at Tufts observed an excessive proliferation of human breast cancer cells in certain […]]]>

Alkylphenols are industrial chemicals that are found in hair products, spermicides, cleaning products and detergents. They are considered endocrine disruptors. For more information on alkylphenols, check out my video Alkylphenol Endocrine Disruptors and Allergies.

Concern about alkylphenols first surfaced decades ago when a group at Tufts observed an excessive proliferation of human breast cancer cells in certain types of plastic containers, something that would normally only be seen if the cells were exposed to some type of estrogen. They identified an alkylphenol leaching from the plastic as the culprit, having “estrogen-like properties when tested in the human breast tumor cells.” Excessive proliferation of human breast cancer cells is never good, so countries in Europe started banning and restricting the use of these chemicals. However, the U.S. EPA has been slow to respond.

A half million tons of alkylphenols continue to spew out into the environment every year, so much so that now that they come down in the rain and then accumulate up the food chain.

One study, highlighted in my video, Dietary Sources of Alkylphenol Endocrine Disruptors, examined the Japanese food supply to find out which foods had these potentially allergy-exacerbating endocrine disruptors. The researchers found that chicken and fish had the highest levels. Water animals and birds concentrate these compounds to levels several thousands of times greater than those in the environment because these are fat-soluble chemicals. “Therefore, they can easily contaminate foods of animal origin, which are thought to represent the most important source of human exposure to many organic pollutants,” not just the alkylphenols. Another research group also found that fish was the worst.

Which kind of fish? Anchovies, mackerel, salmon and cod seem to have the highest levels. In fact, salmon was the only food found contaminated with nonylphenol diethoxylate, which is even more potent than regular nonylphenol. The levels of contamination in fish were at the concentrations that start to make breast cancer cells go crazy in vitro.

These findings are consistent with the fact that seafood consumption has been associated with severe asthma, current and severe rhinoconjunctivitis, (seasonal pollen allergies), and current and severe eczema (an allergic-type disease of the skin) in adolescent populations around the globe.

If these synthetic xenoestrogens are playing a role, what about natural phytoestrogens, such as those found in soy foods? It turns out that in patients with asthma, consumption of a diet with moderate to high amounts of soy phytoestrogens is associated with better lung function and better asthma control. If anything then, it’s these chemical pollutants, which come down in the rain, contaminate the soil, the plants, and then concentrate up the food chain in the fat of animals. We’re now the animals at the top of the food chain, like the polar bear or bald eagle, building up higher levels of these synthetic xenoestrogens.

Thankfully, there aren’t many cannibals around anymore. However, there is one group that continues to feed off human tissues—babies (See The Wrong Way to Detox). Alkylphenols have been found to concentrate in human breast milk, particularly in women who eat fish. The highest levels of these endocrine-disrupting pollutants were recorded in milk samples from mothers who said they ate fish at least twice a week, consistent with the fact that seafood consumption represents an important source of alkylphenol intake. Even these “slightly elevated levels of endocrine disruptors in the milk of mothers with a seafood-rich diet may be associated with adverse effects on neurological development, fetal and postnatal growth, and memory functions on breastfed infants, because these contaminants may interfere with the endocrine [hormonal] system.”

Since these toxins concentrate in fat, the highest concentrations may be found in straight animal fat, such as chicken fat, lard, tallow, or fish oil. Consumption of fish oil capsules and processed fish products has been associated with alkylphenol concentration in mothers’ milk, again due to bioaccumulation up the food chain. And then we recycle the leftover remains of farm animals into farm animal feed, so the levels can get higher and higher in animal products.

As one commentator noted, while these pollutants do contaminate human milk, they also contaminate cow’s milk—humans and cows live in the same polluted world. In fact, infant formula was found to be over five times more contaminated, so breast is still best, absolutely. But these kinds of studies are important in order to provide good suggestions for food choices to nursing mothers to prevent excess exposure to these pollutants in their infants.

We can kind of cut out the middlefish and move lower down the food chain in hopes of decreasing our exposure to industrial toxins.

Endocrine disruptors have also been linked to conditions such as male infertility (Male Fertility and Diet and Xenoestrogens and Sperm Counts) and early onset of puberty (Protein, Puberty, and Pollutants and Xenoestrogens and Early Puberty).

What other industrial pollutants build up in the aquatic fish chain? See, for example:

Farmed Fish vs. Wild Caught. Which is worse?

How Long to Detox from Fish Before Pregnancy? If it’s too late, How Fast Can Children Detoxify from PCBs?

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Andrea Pokrzywinski / Flickr

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Alkylphenol Endocrine Disruptors and Allergieshttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/23/alkylphenol-endocrine-disruptors-and-allergies/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=alkylphenol-endocrine-disruptors-and-allergies http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/23/alkylphenol-endocrine-disruptors-and-allergies/#comments Thu, 23 Apr 2015 12:00:34 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=25866 In my video Preventing Childhood Allergies, I noted a study in Japan that found higher maternal intake of meat during pregnancy was significantly associated with about three times the odds of both suspected and physician-diagnosed eczema. The researchers suggest that certain components of meat may affect the fetal immune system. But what about the moms, […]]]>

In my video Preventing Childhood Allergies, I noted a study in Japan that found higher maternal intake of meat during pregnancy was significantly associated with about three times the odds of both suspected and physician-diagnosed eczema. The researchers suggest that certain components of meat may affect the fetal immune system. But what about the moms, themselves? A plant-based diet may also help alleviate allergies in adults. See Say No to Drugs by Saying Yes to More Plants and Preventing Allergies in Adulthood.

Seasonal allergies have exploded in Japan in the past few decades, starting with the first reported case in 1964 and now affecting millions every year. We’ve seen a rising prevalence of allergic diseases around the industrialized world in past decades, but perhaps nothing quite this dramatic.

Some have suggested that profound changes in the Japanese diet may have played a role. Over the latter half of the century total meat, fish, and milk intake rose hundreds of percent in Japan, so researchers decided to look into dietary meat and fat intake and the prevalence of these seasonal pollen allergies. No association with overall fat, but “higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence.”

Saturated fat wasn’t associated with increased prevalence either, so what other constituents in meat may be to blame? The researchers considered the cooked meat carcinogens, the heterocyclic amines, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the nitrosamines.

A new review, highlighted in my video, Alkylphenol Endocrine Disruptors and Allergies, however, raised an intriguing possibility. There’s a class of industrial pollutants called alkylphenols, recognized as common toxic endocrine disrupting chemicals that tend to accumulate in the human body and may be associated with allergic diseases. A variety of studies have shown how they may exacerbate allergen-induced inflammation, “suggesting that alkylphenol exposure may influence the onset, progression, and severity of allergic diseases.” These toxic xenoestrogens can be found in human breast milk, in our body fat, in our urine, in our bloodstream, and even in the umbilical cord blood going to our babies. How did it get there? Through contaminated food.

It all goes back to a famous study about the reduction of penis size and testosterone levels in alligators living in a contaminated environment. I don’t know what you do for a day job, but these researchers observed that a population of juvenile alligators living on one lake in Florida exhibited a “significantly smaller penis size” and lower blood concentrations of testosterone compared to animals on some different lake. The most important difference between the two lakes was that Lake Stubby was fed by relatively polluted waters. They attributed the “short penis phenomenon” to estrogen-mimicking (xenoestrogenic) environmental metabolites of DDT that still pollute our Earth. This seminal work introduced the concept of endocrine disruptors. Environmental xenoestrogens might result in feminization of exposed male animals. And that’s just the shriveled tip of the iceberg.

Since then, endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been implicated in the dramatic rise over the last 50 years of diseases like breast cancer, prostate cancer, testicular cancer, diabetes, obesity, and fertility (such as dropping normal sperm counts), genital birth defects such as penile malformations, preterm birth, neurobehavioral disorders in children linked to thyroid disruption, and earlier breast development in young girls. Because genes do not change fast enough to explain these increases, environmental causes must be involved. Since our greatest exposure to the environment is through our gut, it’s no surprise that our greatest exposure to these endocrine-disrupting chemicals is through diet.

To find out which foods may contain these alkylphenol endocrine disruptors, check out my video Dietary Sources of Alkylphenol Endocrine Disruptors.

More on endocrine disruptors in:

A different class of chemicals has been found to be associated with smaller penis size in humans. See Chicken Consumption and the Feminization of Male Genitalia.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videoshere and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Mark Freeth / Flickr

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Slowing Cognitive Decline with Berrieshttp://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/21/how-to-slow-brain-aging-by-two-years/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=how-to-slow-brain-aging-by-two-years http://nutritionfacts.org/2015/04/21/how-to-slow-brain-aging-by-two-years/#comments Tue, 21 Apr 2015 12:00:02 +0000 http://nutritionfacts.org/?p=25863 A plant-based diet is thought to have played a significant role in human evolution and the consumption of whole plant foods and even just extracts have repeatedly been associated with a decreased risk of aging related diseases. And by healthy aging I’m not talking preventing wrinkles, what about protecting our brain? “Two of the most […]]]>

A plant-based diet is thought to have played a significant role in human evolution and the consumption of whole plant foods and even just extracts have repeatedly been associated with a decreased risk of aging related diseases. And by healthy aging I’m not talking preventing wrinkles, what about protecting our brain? “Two of the most dreaded consequences of dementia with aging are problems moving around and difficulty remembering things. Dementia robs older adults of their independence, control, and identity.”

Fruits and vegetables help reduce the risk of other chronic diseases, so might they work for brain diseases as well?

There has been a proliferation of recent interest in plant polyphenols as agents in the treatment of dementia. There are 4,000 different kinds of polyphenols found ubiquitously in foods of plant origin, but berries are packed with them, possessing powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. There’s a subset of polyphenols called anthocyanidins, which are found in blue and purple pigmented fruits and berries. These polyphenols are uniquely and specifically capable of “both crossing the blood–brain barrier and localizing in brain regions involved in learning and memory.” And that’s precisely where we need them.

The brain takes up less than 2% of body weight but may burn up to 50% of the body’s fuel, creating a potential firestorm of free radicals. Maybe these brain-seeking phytonutrients in berries could fight oxidation and inflammation, and even increase blood flow? This raised a thought-provoking idea. Maybe a “nutritional intervention with blueberries may be effective in forestalling or even reversing the neurological changes associated with aging?” It would be a decade before the first human trial was conducted, but it worked! “Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults,” suggesting that “consistent supplementation with blueberries may offer an approach to forestall or mitigate brain degeneration with age.”

What other blue or purple foods can we try? Concord grape juice was also tested and had a similar benefit, suggesting that supplementation with purple grape juice may enhance cognitive function for older adults with early memory decline. Why use juice and not whole concord grapes? Because then you couldn’t design a placebo that looked and tasted exactly the same to rule out the very real and powerful placebo effect. And also because the study was funded by the Welch’s grape juice company.

This effect was confirmed in a follow-up study, showing for the first time an increase in neural activation in parts of the brain associated with memory using functional MRI scans. But this brain scan study was tiny: just four people in each group. And same problem in the blueberry study: it had only nine people in it.

Why haven’t large population-based studies been done? Because we haven’t had good databases on where these phytonutrients are found. We know how much vitamin C is in a blueberry, but not how much anthocyanidin—until now. The Harvard Nurses’ Health Study, highlighted in my video, How to Slow Brain Aging by Two Years, followed the cognitive function of more than 16,000 women for years, and found that “long-term consumption of berries was related to significantly slower rates of cognitive decline, even after careful consideration of confounding socioeconomic status” (that is, even after taking into account the fact that rich people eat more berries). The Harvard Nurses’ Health Study was the first population-based evidence that greater intakes of blueberries and strawberries were highly associated with slower rates of cognitive decline, and not just by a little bit. “The magnitude of associations were equivalent to the cognitive differences that one might observe in women up to two and a half years apart in age.” In other words, women with higher intake of berries appeared to have delayed cognitive aging by as much as two and a half years.

Why shouldn’t we just take some anthocyanidin supplement? Because there hasn’t been a single study that found any kind of cognitive benefit by just giving single phytonutrients. In fact, the opposite is true. “Whole blueberries appear to be more effective than individual components, showing that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” These findings have potentially substantial public health implications, as increasing berry intake represents a fairly simple dietary modification to test in older adults for maintaining our brain function.

What other ways could we improve our memory and cognitive function?

 What other near-miraculous properties of berries are there?

I add them to my morning smoothie: A Better Breakfast.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Angelo Desantis / Flickr

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