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  • Adam Rodriguez

    This is the most informative health video i have ever seen, thank you!

    • Michael Greger M.D.

      Don’t forget to check out part 1 of this video (kind of like the prequel :) just to put it in context.

  • Incredible as always

    • Michael Greger M.D.

      Definitely one of my favorites!

      • Gary O’Reilly

        My dear father (an obese non-vegan) has just found out he has PSA levels of 24 and now has to have a biopsy and bone scan to determine if its prostate cancer. He has always ignored my advice on nutrition before but I’m hoping I can persuade him to adopt healthier eating based on the articles here. There are lots of videos on prostate cancer here i will be researching again but i would appreciate the advice of the NF team and the learned and caring commentors here. Thanks in advance

      • Blair Rollin

        This is my all time favorite NutritionFacts video. But, as far as I know rutabaga are a cruciferous vegetable. If the rutabaga greens were included with the root, I bet it would be among the most effective. The greens are fabulous eating too.

  • amazing and life changing.

    • Michael Greger M.D.

      Definitely changed the way my family now eats!

      • guest

        dr. gregor, i tried to post this earlier but it didn’t post. How do you feel about all the people out there claiming that garlic harms brain cells, alters proper brain functioning, and other negative effects? There is no shortage of people who feel that garlic causes them a lack of mental clarity, and a disruption of what “feels” normal. A lot of the evidence is anecdotal, but do you really think nature wants us biting into a garlic bulb? It seems to me that our taste buds suggests we don’t do that. Any credible studies you are aware of in the negative consequences of garlic consumption? Much thanks.

        • Andrew Kosta

          Most people don’t like garlic. Even vampires don’t like it. You want studies to say otherwise and they are saying what is contrary to what most people don’t like. No surprise there. You can lead a horse to water

  • tom

    Which vegetables are best for fighting the spread of prostate cancer ,I can’t find the list.
    I think your website is terrific , good job with this and the friendly narrations are perfect .

    • Dr. Flora Mason Van Orden

      According to Dr. Campbell in “The China Study”, not eating dairy, which causes the cancer cells to grow, is a great start. Cooking the cruciferous veggies half an hour to get rid of the goitrogen, which prevents one from losing weight, is another.

  • tom

    I figured it out by stopping the video turning my head and copying the top 10 under the prostate chart .
    Garlic is #1 and cabbage is a about 10th.
    Once again ,great great website

    • Michael Greger M.D.

      Sorry about the neck strain! If there’s anything you can’t read let me know and I can post a larger image in the Supplementary Info section.

  • I’m guessing that 50 cents I spent on a bulb of garlic was money well spent!

  • ragingfestus

    Thanks for such a great resource!

  • Are these best consumed raw or cooked!?!

    • sf_jeff

      He replied elsewhere that if you cook garlic you should wait ten minutes first to allow the beneficial compounds to form.

  • The most helpful cancer preventive video I have ever seen. Thank you!

  • Anya

    Jennifer – great question! Dr Greger has a few videos on the topic of cooking methods and the effects on nutrients. In fact there’s one video that may be perfect for you: Best Cooking Method. You may also want to look at this article which does a nice overview of some of the other research on the topic.

  • yurple

    Great stuff. What about mushrooms? I understand they are great, AND they are usually on the salad bar menu. Any intel to share?

  • Awesome video, Dr. Greger! I am left with the question of the anticancer effects of raw vs. cooked garlic and onions. I know cooking reduces some of the nutrients but have raw and cooked alliums been tested in regard to the anti-cancer effects? In other words is it important to try to consume these raw notwithstanding their very strong flavors?

    • Michael Greger M.D.

      The secret to maintaining the anti-cancer effects of garlic is to either eat it raw (think salsa, homemade dressings, pesto, etc) or crush the garlic first, wait ten minutes, and then cook it. You know those chemical flares? You bend them, two chemicals mix and a light-emitting reaction takes place? The same kind of thing happens in garlic. Floating around in the cytoplasm of garlic cells is a compound called alliin and packed away in tiny intracellular storage compartments (called vacuoles) is an enzyme called alliinase. When the garlic tissues are crushed, the two mix and alliinase turns alliin into allicin, the phytonutrient thought to be responsible for many of garlic’s health benefits. Cooking destroys the enzyme, though, so even if you crush your garlic, if it’s thrown immediately into the pan, little allicin may be produced. Allicin is relatively heat stable, though, so if you chop your garlic and wait 10 minutes for the allicin to be formed, you can then cook it (the enzyme has already done its work) and presumably maintain many of the benefits.

      • LynnCS

        Hard to follow the chemical ways of the garlic, but thanks for posting that it is best eaten raw and if cooked to wait 10 mins. I get stomach discomfort when I eat garlic (I think) it is hard to tell what is doing it, because I get the same problem with other things.  I wish I could figure it out.  Anyone have any ideas about how to go about figuring out what is bothering your stomach?

        • Jacquie RN

          To really know what is bothering your stomach, I would suggest starting with a food diary or journal. Keep track of what you eat, how you feel, and the timing between the food and the feeling.You will begin to see a pattern. Keep in mind that if you are mixing foods you may not get a true picture of the culprit. But then take the foods one at a time, and journal. Its a puzzle to be solved!

      •  Woah! Will remember this.

      • MikeZP

        in this video

        Garlic is mentioned, it appears that the garlic oil is an important factor therefore the dried garlic (unless fried-oxidized) does not have these properties as RAW.

        • Luc

          Mike Thanks for sharing , this video is so interesting !!!

      • I remember learning about this in April 2011 while my mother was dying from pancreatic cancer at the Cleaveland Clinic . Thanks (whole heartedly ) for the great summary and info re the alliinase , allin , allicin and all the info I’ve gleaned elsewhere , including nitrites, nitritates, nitric oxide, nitrisamines (sp) etc

        Is it true that according to Japanese Research , bananas may be better for us as they ripen and the black spots appear on the skin ? ( some TLC factor or something to that effect ? :-)

  • PaulaPooh

    I Love this video so much, thank you! My question is should I consume the veggies/garlic, etc RAW or cooked? I like to do greensmoothies and juice, raw of course, are they veggies LESS anticancer if I cook them?? Also how much daily should I eat? Ex.- like 2 raw cloves of garlic in a savory smoothie?

    Any thoughts? Thanks, Paula

    • Michael Greger M.D.

      Thanks for your question PaulaPooh. Please see my answer to Michelle above.

      • PaulaPooh

        Thank you!

  • PaulaPooh

    I am surprised to learn that Carrots didn’t do much in this study to block cancer growth…as it is heavily used in the Gerson Therapy to fight/prevent cancer…very odd! Did anyone else notice that? Thanks.

    • Michael Greger M.D.

      I actually have a video coming our about Gerson Therapy–stay tuned! Unfortunately the data does not look good :(

      • PaulaPooh

        Wow, oh no, I’m looking fwd to seeing that video! Thanks for all your hard work and research!

  • Leszek

    That is a great video and sort of an eye opener. When it comes to garlic; how about the odorless or capsuled oils preparations? Are these any good?

    • Great question. I am curious about the prepared crushed garlic that comes in a jar too… is it any good? I am guessing these preparations can’t be as good as fresh garlic. However, are they better than not eating garlic at all?

  • ggnyc

    I have a question about garlic. From watching the video it is my understanding garlic targest cancer cells but does not hurt regular cells. My first question is does this apply to both raw and cooked garlic and if so is one more effective than the other.

    My second request is to ask your help in sorting out the conflicting advice on garlic from other authors and researchers who say raw garlic especially is toxic to the body with cooked garlic less so. They say raw garlic can burn tiny holes in the lining of the stomach of some people and it is especially dangerous for people with leaky gut syndrome as the garlic can get in the blood where it is especially dangerous. They also say it is bad for brain cells. Please review these two short videos on garlic to see my point on the difficult conflicts in the advice. Thank you in advance for your help with sorting this out.

    • DStack

      I am also curious about these claims. I know Dr. Greger is focused on evidence-based science. It seems there is far more evidence of the health benefits than there is to support the idea that allium vegetables are toxic. Sometimes the lack of studies or evidence can be motivated by industry funding, perhaps this is one of those situations? If someone could weigh in with some authority on the matter I would also appreciate it.

  • Vallis

    It is pronounced radeekio. :-)

    • Bat Marty

      finally :-) (Thank you from Italy ;-)

  • lonestarnot

    One of my favorite salads starts with wilted chard; but I didn’t see any of the traditional cooked greens — kale, mustard, red/green chard, turnip, collard, etc — in this video. Assuming a) they’re gently wilted for the salad, and b) diners appreciate their more robust texture … how would they compare in terms of cancer prevention?

  • gareyj

    Hey Doc, How does a petri dish experiment compare with the human body?


  • Nicolas

    Isn’t it true though that some of the beneficial compounds don’t last long enough inside the human body to reach the tumors? The study was for extracts applied directly onto cancer cells, no?

  • Ridley

    Dr. Greger:
    Where does swiss chard belong on the scale? I grow a lot of it and freeze it so that I can eat it all year. I use it the same way spinach is used. I much prefer it to spinach, and it is easier to grow in my climate. Does it have similar health benefits as spinach?


    Hi Ridley, Both the spinach and chard belong to the chenopod family, which also includes quinoa and beets. This is a phytonutrient-packed family of veggies. Here’s a link if you want to look into the detailed comparison between spinach and swiss chard: Also, here’s a very interesting study on more anti-cancer properties of plants

  • lena98765

    Do I understand correctly that according to this data bok choy is actually cancer promoting? I ask because on the charts where lower is better bok choy often scores over 100%. I also wonder why bok choy would be the odd one out. It is packed with micronutrients and does contain ITC’s that should be cancer blocking. Very strange!

  • angie

    This is a wonderful site I’m glad I found it! I so wish this study covered colon and ovarian cancer. I would love some trust worthy facts on it… I’ve been doing a little research and I came up with Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kale, and Chai Tea. I know its a shocker but you cant believe everything you read on the net… I’m still confused on the soy milk in Chai tea issue.

  • Adam Druett

    Good too know about the cancer blocking properties of Spinach but i have heard lots of accounts from different books etc on how much Spinach is safe to eat given the higher levels of oxilates compared to other leafy greens. Is there any current guidelines for safe oxilate consumption and how that equates to servings per week for example?

    • NickyC

      Hi Adam. While you are correct that spinach has a higher content of oxalates compared to other dark leafy greens, I would argue that unless you are an infant, or someone with a history of oxalate kidney stones, the benefits of spinach definitely outweigh the risks assocaited with its oxalate content. This other video, which discusses oxalate consumption from beets, may be of interest to you: That said, everything in moderation. Why not diversify your consumption of greens? Some spinach, some kale, some chard, some collards, etc. You can also check out another video that discusses the consumption (or overconsumption) of raw greens:

    • Robert Taylor

      does beets bell peppers with garlic combat prostate cancer

    • Bat Marty

      from what I read spinach, swiss chard, beets all have high oxalate levels, but if you eat them raw they do not crystalize therefore no problems there, but if you eat them cooked, on the contrary, you can have problems. Ciao.

  • John C

    I noticed cabbage always scores much higher than red cabbage.   I assume that’s plain green cabbage.
    That seems counter-intuitive and I think you recommended red cabbage in another video.

  • How much garlic per day should we be eating for these benefits?
    How much beet as well; I heard not to eat too much beet — but how to know how much of what to eat?!

  • 2RHealth

    I noticed that the last part of the video showing yellow for the allium family and green for the cruciferous (brassica) family, the rutabagas got left out! They would add even more green to the chart!

    • Ed Sanville

      He also forgot that radishes are part of the cruciferous family (Brassicaceae)!

  • Michael Greger M.D.

    For some context, please check out my associated blog post The Best Foods: Test Your Nutrition Knowledge!

  • Emilieunkrich

    Excellent information.

  • Paul Holden

    Great video presenting vital information.  Thanks, Dr. Greger!  May I offer two comments on language from an English and foreign language teacher… First, radicchio is from Italian and is pronounced “rah-deek-ee-o”… in other words “ch” is always pronounced like “k” in English in Italian.  “Ci” is always pronounced “chee” as in “arriverderci.” 
    I know I am fighting a losing battle on this second point but I simply must try…
    “Healthy” and “healthful” are both adjectives.  The former refers to the physical (and mental and so on) status of anything alive, man, beast, or plant.  If, for example, a basil plant is healthy, it is thriving.  However, if one is pondering whether basal as a food substance is nutritious, the proper adjective is clearly “healthful” or ‘full of health” for the eater thereof.  As a linguist, I know that the tendency is for all languages to become simpler as they evolve, but must we permit this at the cost of clarity

    • Wegan

      oops, misspelled basil. ( not a complete sentence)

  • Abarnswell

    Wow, this is an amazing video! Thanks, Dr. Greger!! I do try to focus my eating around the healthiest spectrum of the greens, veggies, and fruits. Bok Choy and Red Cabbage were lower on the spectrum than I expected. But that’s okay. I’ll just eat more leeks, garlic, and onions. I already eat tons of spinach, kale, cauliflower, and broccoli. Thanks for this really useful and practical information. I had breast cancer (stage 0, surgically removed) in 2009, so now I eat (vegan) to fight cancer. I make cancer-fighting nutritional smoothies that contain the best cancer fighting nutrients and drink them (about 20 oz.) with every meal. And I’ve lost 40 pounds doing it… not a bad thing. :) ~ April

  • Guest

    1)  This study was in cell lines, not humans.  Are there studies out there that corroborate this effect in real life?
    2)  How much and in what form is necessary?  Raw garlic/onions are hard to take in large quantities.  Does cooking destroy the antiproliferative effect?  3) Does a daily, well-rounded vegetarian/vegan diet give sufficient quantities to do the job, or are “super-quantities” needed?

    Thanks for an amazing array of practical health topics

  • Lxw202

    Very informative. Just shared with my friends!

  • Very interesting. I’ve been taking the NEWCHAPTER Organic Garlic Force pills for some time. Are those kind of supplements any good?

  • Michael Greger M.D.

    Please also check out my associated blog post Fighting Inflammation with Food Synergy

  • guest

    what about kale? 

  • Teresa

    Your site is amazing. Thank you so much. I just posted a link to this video on a private Facebook site for a particular cancer. 

  • It’s worth checking out Chinese Nutrition Therapy, one of the few decent books in English on a Chinese medicinal diet. Only recently did I notice there was a decent correlation between the vegetables, herbs, oils, nuts, grains & other foods that act on certain organ networks and the data from those studies.

  • Jasmin

    excellent pacing and summarizing. Good stuff!

  • Charlotte Genetta

    Wow! Where have you been all my adult professional life? As an Outpatient Dietitian
    you and will be a provided link to everyone I educate. I am preparing for a class on Nutrition and cancer prevention  to give to our many Rehab department professionals in a few months ( We usually get about 100 participants). It is a non-profit effort to get referrals for patients for nutrition education. I have uncovered these studies and am loving the fact you also review them in an easy to understand fashion! I haven’t been this inspired since I first read David Servan- Schreiber, MD. Ph.D :Anti-Cancer: A New Way of Life in 2009. My patients always express amazement that this info isn’t freely shared by their physicians.

    Thank you ever so much!

    Charlotte Genetta, RD, CDE
    Virtua Health Outpatient Dietitian
    Voorhees, N.J. 

  • Mconniecarney

    Both interesting and informative.  I love the fact that the presentation is completely based on experiments presented in a peer reviewed medical journal, but in layman terms.

  • Valnaples

    @Charlotte, this particular video by Dr. Greger is powerful indeed; hope you can also spend an hour of time and watch his “Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death” dvd that he has so compassionately shared FREE here on his website, on FB, and on youtube. It is remarkable and wo@27e16bfde4827c69112fccc8dafde66b:disqus nderful!

  • LynnCS

    I was with you talking about the salad bar.  Raw onions and greens are high on my salad ingredients.  Then you mentioned starting a cooked dish with cooking up the garlic and onions followed by the greens.  Doesn’t cooking remove the very good substances we need?

  • Awesome info….thanks for sharing!

  • superfoodsbook

    I will make a green smoothie recipe out of the main ones you listed for my brother who has a brain tumor. Hopefully he will get into the habit of having one daily.

    •  Be careful with that.  I got into trouble with Mom when she was dying of pancreatic cancer by raising vitamin K levels and perhaps causing blood clots.  Was giving her a green soup with most of those ingredients.  It may or may not have caused the blood clots but I sincerely doubt it did her any good.

  • Dechillo

    Radicchio is not pronounced with the “ch”sound as in chair, but as a “k” sound.
    Pronounce like radikio. Thought you might want to know. :)

  • Sofia

    This is fascinating.

  • Krkreece

    sure happy to find this guy’s videos,  I am pasting the address to a lot of prople ,  and to my website,  Nutraspace,com           Greger MD  has a very good voice, delivery , methodology, It is somewhat captivating,  I will bring a lot of people to this site,,,

  • Magdaleno81

    Does this have to be organic??

    • Toxins

      No it does not, as you should eat vegetables in whichever way entices you to eat them the most.

  • Danny Boy

    If red cabbage has more antioxidants than green cabbage, why does green cabbage out-perform red cabbage in cancer fighting?

    • WTF99

      This is a serious question

  • Jason Evans

    what is the difference between red and green cabbage?

  • stop the celebrating tell if im wrong.., but doesnt garlic attack probiotics in the gut?? i understood the cancerous benefits but isnt there other factors u should account for before u tell people to fill themselves with garlic?!

    • Turmeric Lover

      No, garlic does not ‘attack probiotics in the gut’. garlic is a PREbiotic, Or in other words; fuel for, and very helpful to the probiotics that help us so much.

  • Is there a place where I can access those graphs you used in the video? It’s wonderful information and I would love to have them saved to my computer!

    • I’m silly. I followed your sources cited and found exactly what I was looking for.


    thank you for this article, i find it very informative, i would like to know if the beetroot you mentioned, should be raw or could it be boiled. thanks

  • DrFarrowMD

    Dr. McGregor, This information seems very important, but I would like actual copies of these graphs. For instance, I have an uncle with metastatic prostate cancer. I would like to look at the entire graph and each vegetable, and give him a copy, so he can increase all the top ones whereever possible. You need to create handouts of this if you really want to help people the most.

  • albert

    so far this is the only video on radishes – this is so unfair :) BTW they hold up well in those rankings!

  • Romaine lettuce infused with passion fruit and green tea dressing


    1 small head of romaine lettuce

    ½ cup of pineapple chunks

    3/4 cup of passion fruit juice

    ½ cup matcha green tea (made out from 2 bags)

    1 teaspoon olive oil

    Salt to taste


    1. Cut romaine lettuce into small pieces.

    2. Add the pineapple chunks on top of the romaine.

    3. In a small bowl mix the passion fruit juice, green tea, olive oil and salt.

    4. Toss romaine lettuce with the dressing (step 3).

  • john fuhrman

    Does the minced garlic one finds in a gar at the grocery store have the same anti-cancer properties as fresh garlic?

  • Is there any scientific study on anticancer fruits?

  • Allen Khorasani

    Oh no… I HATE garlic, I can’t stand the taste or the smell.. I always said if I had it my way I would legalize pot and criminalize garlic :) I think I am just going to take my chances on this one, but an amazing video, as always, thank you

  • Ronald Chavin

    Petri dish studies like this one should not be taken too seriously, especially when epidemiological studies contradict them. For example, tomatoes and carrots did not prevent cancer too well in this petri dish study but tomatoes and carrots worked very well at preventing cancer for real populations of real people:

  • Eddie Schultz

    My Mother is stage IV Lung cancer, and it is pushing into her ribs. She also has a blood clot in her upper left chest, just below her shoulder. Will the vegetables you mention that fight lung cancer help prolong her life? She’s coming home today from the hospital, and we are trying to find anything that might stop the mass from growing so it doesn’t continue to push on her ribs. The Doctor’s also said the cancer has most likely started in her bones because of the cancer pushing on her ribs. Please email me.

  • Lollie

    I grew up eating spinach and love it! I love all my greens, but it didn’t prevent me getting breast cancer!

  • Josy G.

    What a wonderful video Dr. Greger! I visit your site constantly and I’ve learned so much from it! My husband has stomach cancer and its wonderful to know we can come here for reliable information! Thank you so much for your hard work! God bless!

  • lovestobevegan

    Road Trip Winnebago Soup

    – 3 lbs organic* potatoes, peeled
    – 4 large rutabagas, cubed
    – 1 bulb garlic, peeled and crushed
    – 1 large red onion, chopped
    – 1 large yellow onion, chopped
    – 1 leek, sliced
    – 6 cups water/homemade vegetable broth
    – 2 tbsp dill weed
    – 1 tbsp cilantro
    – 1 tbsp parsley
    – 2 tsp paprika

    Peel and crush garlic, then set aside while preparing the other vegetables. Add all ingredients to a large soup pot and bring to a boil. Simmer over low heat until potatoes are soft and mashable. Thicken the soup to your desired consistency by mashing the potatoes against the side of the pot with a fork. Season to taste with sea salt.

    *Potatoes rank 10th (up from 12th last year) in the “dirty dozen: 12 foods to eat organic” so choose organic.

    Bookmark my new Plant-Based Emporium Facebook page for all my latest recipes.

    ~Complements of lovestobevegan

  • katerinap

    radicchio: it’s pronounced [ruddikyo]

  • Brijesh Devadatha

    great one, really loved it

  • Lynn Maas

    Whew. Great Information. However, what about the juicing of raw veggies in the cabbage family for those of us who have Hypothroid Disorder?

  • Or Tal

    Unbelievable. I love you Dr.

  • Crazysexyfuntraveler

    I so loved this video, very informative and now I know better what to choose :)

  • lovestobevegan

    For even more cancer-fighting power serve this soup with some cruciferous vegetables such as steamed Brussels sprouts or kale.

    Potleek Soup

    – 4 cups water/homemade vegetable broth
    – 9 potatoes, peeled and cubed
    – 1 leek, thinly sliced
    – 1-2 tbsp fresh rosemary
    – Sea salt

    Place all ingredients, except sea salt, in a large soup pot and bring to a boil. Turn off heat but leave pot on hot burner. Once potatoes are soft, mash some against the side of the pot with a fork until soup thickens to desired consistency. Season to taste with sea salt.

    ~Complements of lovestobevegan

  • Denis Spasyuk

    garlic is a perfect remedies against cancer and people :)

  • william doubleday

    great video dr g.

  • Rosemary Guy

    since i dislike garlic and so does buddha, I’m glad there are other options outside the allium family……….above the 50% mark sounds good and i’ve always had a preference for those veges as well………..Is radish related to beetroot in someway? They seem to be up there as well?

  • What about Kale?

  • Luc

    The above webpage suggests that it might even be more benefical (in terms of getting cancer) to add fish tou a vegan diet compaired to eating pure vegan. So this is not a black and white story between vegetarian and meat. How little do we know about what is really going on in our body ? I have also seen reports where vegans show to have less lymphosites. My understanding is that those are the white bloodcels that are supposed to recognise and kill cancer in an early stage. I am a vegan now for 2 years (except on christmas and newyears day), but still wondering if the optimal line for our health is really between animal and plant kingdom.

  • Carl Borja Nelson

    We live on Guam and my wife has stage 4 breast cancer. I’m doing what I can nutritionally to help manage the illness the best we can (in addition to the unfortunate toxic chemo routine). Can you tell me if there are any studies providing evidence for or against the rampant recommendations I hear for soursop fruit (and a tea using the leaves) in treating cancer. I’ve had it recommended many, many times. One phrase I’ve heard over and over is that it’s “10,000 times more powerful than chemo” in dealing with cancer. Just wondering if where there’s so much smoke there might be a little fire.

  • Jim

    Doctor Great information.

    I understand from the comments below that raw garlic is the best way to eat garlic. How much garlic would you recommend we eat per day and how do we eat this amount of garlic without loosing our friends due to halitosis (my spelling maybe wrong but I think you get the point). Thanks again.

    Jim D

  • Rob

    Best video ever!
    Thank you, thank you, thank you Dr. Greger M.D..

  • Thank you for the is informative video.I am a heavy kale and onion eater. Adding garlic to my diet is something I need to think about.

  • jackycck

    Hello ! I have a question about cancer diet.My father had stage four liver cancer and the chemocheraphy doesn’t seem to be very effective. I am now looking for a diet for him to fight against it. Is there any food or diet that can strongly fight live cancer ? Thanks~

  • jackycck

    Hello ! I have a question about cancer diet.My father has stage four
    liver cancer and the chemopherapy doesn’t seem to be very effective. I
    am now looking for a diet for him to fight against it. Is there any food
    or diet that can strongly fight live cancer ? Thanks~

  • Noam

    Hi Dr. Greger, I wander about the relevance of this paper for our health, as what we eat goes through our digestive system before it gets to the cancer cells. therefore we must ask how do these veggies effect cancer cells after they were goen through the digestive system.

  • Sasha

    Hello DR. Michael …… how many garlic should one consume per day ( raw and cooked ) if cancer is already detected in body?

    And last question …. by squashing garlic and cooking it ….. how much of the cancer fighting power do we lose?

    Thank you in advance.

  • VC

    Great video
    I Nutribullet every morning for breakfast and Lunch this combo:
    Handful of Raw Kale, Spinach then raw ginger, 1/2 avocado, raw beet, 5 strawberrys, 1/2 banana, cinnamon, teaspoon vanilla extract, 1 cup of sun warrior plant protein(no soy) and Almond milk….It tastes great…

  • Megan F

    Not sure if everyone knows this but you should only be buying garlic from the us or canada. The ones from China and other countries have been found to have been grown in, and it’s unbelievably gross, human feces. Or just grow it yourself.

  • Southlander

    While I’ve slowly; but surely been going vegitarian, this puts my Stage 4 lung cancer in a new light. With “thanks” and “appreciation”. Don and WE CAN! :-))

  • lovestobevegan

    Allium vs. Predator

    -2 cups red lentils
    -4 cups water/homemade vegetable broth
    -1 red onion, chopped
    -6 cloves garlic, minced
    -1 large leek, sliced
    -3 shallots, chopped
    -½ cup purple cabbage, diced

    Mince garlic and set aside. Bring water and lentils to a boil while chopping vegetables. Turn heat to low and add vegetables. Simmer over low until lentils tender. Serve with toasted corn tortillas and steamed beets or kale.

    ~complements of plant-based emporium

  • Sasha

    DR. Michael ….. is garlic good only for prevention or its good for fighting cancer as well?

    Thanks in advance.

  • Arjan den Hollander.

    Seems leeks are the big winners here not the garlic.

    Who can manage more then 2 cloves a day, every single day?
    Even that is stretching it.
    While having a fixed 100-150 gr of leeks in a diet plan is extremely doable.
    Even possibly tripled if confronted with ailments, would still be manageable.

    I’ll add a fixed 100 gr of them to the daily veggy intake.

    Still regularly amazed over the sheer bulk a person can consume eating a plant based diet. My veggies alone is about 1 – 1,2 kg a day. The fruit brings it easily to 2 kg. Thats not even counting the starchy carbs, nuts and seeds.

    Feel like a silverback gorilla eating all day long :). Only bulk I gain is muscle mass. Its trully amazing.

  • donmatesz

    I noticed that rutabaga and radish also had strong anti-cancer properties against several cancers, but you did not correctly mark them as cruciferous vegetables. These are crucifers (Brassica fm.) as well and would in several of the charts increase the green shading representation of that family at the right side of the graphs.

  • LiLi K. Bright

    Brain tumour, just beet it. LOVE IT!

  • Nicki

    Awsome! Keep up the good work :)

  • tina stamatakis

    YES! Dr. Greger, you rock!!!

  • Joyce

    my father always had cereal with milk for breakfast-he was 64 when he died-if only we had seen your article sooner…

  • Rich

    I have a friend who has stage 4 melanoma. He has several brain tumors. Any studies on melanoma??

  • sf_jeff

    Does garlic powder hold some of the health benefits of fresh garlic?

  • Josh VanBuskirk

    Dr. Greger, THANK YOU FOR YOUR AMAZING WORK! Cannot say how much I love this information.

  • Giovanna

    Fantastic info thanks a lot. Love your videos.

  • Dr. Flora Mason Van Orden

    What about spinach being involved with gall stones because of it’s being a member of the oxalic acid family? And spinach being involved with anemia?

  • jhoselin

    wow ….I was browsing the web for some health information and came across this website …. This is amazing information. I am in love.

  • Daniel K Morris

    As well as being on of the best family of vegetables to slow the proliferation of stomach cancer cell growth in a petri dish, cruciferous vegetables have many other great health benefits and you can check out more videos here


  • Claudia

    Based on EEG studies, Dr. Robert Beck says that garlic is toxic to the brain, also kills off gut flora. A Stanford study confirmed his assessment. For this reason, it should not be eaten on a regular basis. He does say, however, that it is an excellent cancer fighter. It can also be used topically to good advantage on a number of skin conditions including cancerous lesions.


    an excellent website – many thanks ..i scan approx 40 e-mails from allopathic and intergrative web sites each day – tjis one gives absorbing and informative discussion without fail . i am a med.lab.scientist with exprience over a wide range of technology disciplines .i also have bi-lateral lymphodema [ legs ] giving cellulitis / sepsis often . pseudomonas now is not a bystander but the main pathogen resistant to everything except cephalosporins and the dreaded cipro .in re-bandaging , i have tried many topical products without success , until greenmed info.suggested that black tea and garlic might help . it does , the tannins and allicin work .

  • Autumnia

    Thank you so much for these videos!

    My husband became vegan several years ago because of your work. He unfortunately, around the same time, started to suffer from accute pancreatitis. He had to suffer six of them before they could find any cause for them, since he had no risk factors or biliary conducts problems. Last year they diagnosed him with type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis and he afterwards had to be treated with high dosage of corticosteroids for several months. Since then, he had no other accute pancreatitis, but it is not rare he feels remnants of pain from his last one, as though a shadow of chronic pancreatitis was formed because of these too many episodes (or the last horrific one).

    I was wondering if you knew about any diet recommendation to prevent such patients from developing pancreatic cancer. I of course already implemented in our kitchen the findings of this video on what vegetables fight best this type of cancer in a petri dish and the one about reducing inflammation in the body with the 4 potent spices to that effect. We also eat a lot of aragula, legumes and (only) whole grains. But I hoped there was more. Would you happen to have read about anything in diet that could trigger such a condition as Type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis or that could prevent it to lead to chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer (even after standard medical treatment)?

    I also wanted to be sure: by reducing inflammation in the body with spices and the like, wouldn’t it be possible that the body adapts to produce more of these compounds, so as to maintain an homeostatic level in the body?

    Thank you for any information you can provide!

  • I was poking around this classic NF video and it was so interesting I got the source article. There are two additional facts about the study (which dripped vegetable juices on cancer cells) that might modify our understanding. 1) A surprising but very important point was, as a result of the method used to extract the juice from the fresh, raw vegetables, “The vegetable juices used in this study … do not contain water-insoluble molecules such as lycopene found in tomatoes or beta-carotene found in yellow, orange and green leafy fruits and vegetables, including carrots, spinach and broccoli. It is thus possible that our results underestimate the whole antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of specific vegetables containing water-insoluble bioactive phytochemicals,” such as carrots and tomatoes which the video pretty much discounted as useful for purposes of anti-cancer promotion.

    2) Since the vegetables in the study were delivered in the form of fresh juice, it is not clear to what degree cooking might affect the results. Actually it is clear, as reported in NutritionFacts, that in some bioactive substances are damaged by heating and others are enhanced.

    Yes, healthy eating is not simply about “more fruit and veggies,” since which fruits and veggies and how we prepare them also matters. At the same time, we need to find a balance between 1) choosing foods and prep methods wisely, and 2) not over-thinking it such that eating becomes a over-managed burden.

  • Christian Clausen

    One of the best in NutritionFacts !!

  • Omar Guerrero

    So tomatoes promote cancer?


    My husband have abdomen non Hodgkin
    limphoma 3rd stag Enlarge cells & I
    don’t know go for chemo Therapy or go
    for RawVegetable+Fruits/Uncooked Diet,
    please help me as soon as possible
    My husband name Bharat Bodalia

  • hyperloke

    As a highschool kid I did some research on the anti-bacterial effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) and found that it kicked bacteria’s butt! Great to know that it’s as effective for cancers as well. I knew this was coming!! :)

  • Ann

    I LOVE THIS VIDEO! Thank you! Clears up a lot.

  • Ana


    My mom of 54 years old was diagnosed with stage 4 breast cancer and is told by the doctors that statistically she has 2 years. The three of us, her children, are doing the impossible to keep her alive and provide her a good lifestyle. The doctors have put her in hormonal therapy and we have done a lot of research on our own and have put her in an alkaline, almost vegan, gluten-free diet (occasionally eats goat cheese and goat yogourt, salmon and sardines). She also jucies three times a day and twice does coffee enemas.
    I am really interested in the study that was done on consumption of garlic and the reduction of cancer cells, the Part 2 video you posted. Could you please give me more information on the quantity of garlic she should consume? She loves eating raw garlic and kimchi, however she is a teacher and the smell may be a problem, would you recommend the garlic pill supplements?

    If you have any other suggestions, i would really appreciate it!
    Thank you!

  • Bat Marty

    cannot hear pronounce “radicchio” like you do, Doctor, please it’s “radikkio” c+ h =k (in italian) – ps I am italian, like the word radicchio :-)

  • Bat Marty

    great video, thank you! I was wondering, though, how did they prove the anticancer properties of this veggies? did they pour those veggies, pureed, on a cancer cell? would that be the same than eating those specific vegetables?

  • im like this i heard potato and cabbage with honey and carrot in a fresh juice helps peptic ulcer i havent tried it but i was wondering if cancer or parsites attack the body when they dont have a better food source so maybe testing this witth a piece of meat might yield truer results.

  • 4Baccurate

    Question: An alternative doctor has recommended DIM (Diindolylmethane) supplements— which “are produced when the body digests cruciferous vegetables.” Is it the body that produces the DIM, or the cruciferous vegetables that produce the DIM?

  • dec

    I see the bar chart at 7:00 says that onion leek broccoli and cabbage all had noticeably under 100% normal cell proliferation, does this mean that they actually stunted the normal cell growth?

  • Linda

    Thanks! For this super informative video, and all the other info you relate via your emails and blog. Your book is going to the top of my holiday gift giving list.

  • Rodrigo Cardoso
  • tina stamatakis


  • Andrew

    What happened with good ole tomatoes? I thought the lycopene was supposed to be cancer fighting?

  • Bruce Spence

    Why weren’t radishes highlighted as cruciferous vegetables?

  • Bruce Spence

    Why aren’t radishes highlighted as cruciferous vegetables?

  • bduboff

    Here’s a question. What about those of us who abstain from onions and garlic? My wife is from Taiwan and has followed “Buddhist vegetarianism” her whole life – basically abstaining from onions, garlic and leeks. I had been vegetarian for 10 years (since 1996) when we met and agreed to have an onion free house. 6 years ago we went vegan and generally eat a healthy plant-based diet including lots of cruciferous veggies. Neither of us smoke nor have a particular line of cancer in our families – I drink 1 or 2 drinks a month and she do not drink at all. We do get some onions/garlic in our diets when eating out. So the question is, given our vegan diet and healthy lifestyles, how much more advantage is there to adding onions and garlic into our diet? Are we doing ourselves harm by missing these veggies or is it just a tiny incremental difference when taking into consideration all other factors? Have there been any studies on Buddhist vegetarian/vegan populations? THANKS

  • Maurice Buddin-North

    Thankyou very much we have found this site amazing in our journey with cancer, first 4 years ago wife st 4 colorectal that cleared end of 2015 and now cancer appeared in wifes right lung 3mm to 11mm from early 2015. I was wondering purely from a statistic curiosity point of view regarding the garlic and onions we now eat a lot but not a traditional food in in vedic culture. being forbidden by priests. Is their diet compensated by the sheer amount of greens and spices, herbs etc, were aliums are lacking. Thanks great work. Your name lands in everyones ears I meet. And recomend you as health chief of UK or WHO. Thanks again.Maurice & Maryam

  • Joel

    Hello Dr. Greger and Friends,
    I really value the video on the benefits of raw garlic and onions. Now I find myself eating 8-10 raw cloves of garlic with my dinner salads along with 1/4 raw onion. (I do this at night to prevent having to deal with talking to colleagues at work with garlic/onion breath.) I have acid reflux and I heard that garlic and onions (and cooked tomatoes which I eat) only exacerbate this acid reflux condition. I have been told that uncontrolled acid reflux can lead to Barrett’s Esophagus. My continued diet of garlic and onions and cooked tomatoes is so that I can prevent cancer, even if my acid reflux continues. I can endure the mild acid feeling and want to continue with my present diet to strengthen my body systems to prevent Barrett’s Esophagus and other cancer. Does this strategy make sense? (FYI: I have tried many natural protocols for GERD over the past 5 years with limited results even the advice given on this website. I do not take proton pump inhibitors for GERD as my GI doctor recommends.)
    Thank you.

  • poop patrol

    I’ve been eating this way since I went to college (now 40-ish). Every meal other than breakfast (and then sometimes even breakfast, if I’m having fava beans – traditional Egyptian breakfast staple) starts with onions and garlic and includes a starch, a bean or lentil, at least one other non-green vegetable (sweet peppers, mushrooms, eggplant, zucchini are the go-tos) and a green. There are only a limited number of greens I enjoy, but they include broccoli and collards from the cruciferous veggies and spinach and dandelion from the weed greens. According to this, my chances of getting cancer should be less than zero – perhaps my mere presence will cure others of cancer ;)

    Thanks, Dr. G, for this entertaining and informative video

  • Mick

    This is such an excellent video. But because it is old it doesn’t probably generate enough traffic so that I could get my answer from someone. So moderators PLEEEASE answer it… anyone and everyone is encouraged too…

    And the question is:
    1) Is boiled spinach as good as raw spinach or maybe even better (phytonutritient-wise) as some sites claim. But these sites may only consider vitamins, minerals or something like that and not cancer-preventing phytonutritients which may be damaged during boiling. They claim that boiling makes some of these nutrients more available.
    The problem is: raw spinach is unpallatable. Boiled… much better.

    2) Is it true that as wikipedia says:

    spinach contains high levels of pesticides and cadmium? Bear in mind that I live in the EU and probably will be eating spinach from Spain (just checked at the local grocery) so maybe just maybe this research considered the plants cultivated somewhere else (that is the US) or maybe now less pesticides are used (probably more).

    3) What are other benefits beside cancer prevention? As I read somewhere, spinach can make your body more eficient, heal wounds faster. This is supposedly because of high iron content but I suppose it is because of high phytonutrient content.

    All in all, looks like there are so many problems with spinach, that finding solutions to these problems would require a video…

  • buttonhut

    Is dry powdered garlic as good as fresh?

  • These were tested in petri dishes. Can the petri-dish test always be a completely reliable indicator of what happens in the human body?

  • Joanne

    Thank you Dr. Gregor for this wonderful resource. I do have a couple of questions though. First, how much do we need to eat of these foods to get the benefit? For example, if we know that garlic stops cancer cell proliferation entirely in 7 cancer lines, how much garlic does one have to see the result?
    Also, based on my reading of the charts, certain foods (e.g. tomatoes) actually seemed to show a higher than 100% cancer cell proliferation rate (e.g. tomatoes showed a 125% cell proliferations in the case of lung cancer). Does that mean someone who has a high risk of lung cancer should stay away from tomatoes entirely? Or would the cell proliferation be even higher than 125% without the tomatoes such that there is still a benefit to eating the tomatoes for purposes of minimizing cancer risk?

  • dandrew

    @Michael_Greger_MD:disqus Great video, really easy to understand and interesting to know you can make mistakes within your vegetable choices. But what about vs skin cancer; melanoma? I didn’t see that mentioned for any of these vegetables. Just lung, stomach, kidney etc

  • Clint Sevilla

    What about collard greens, mustard greens, and turnip greens? The nutrition of these vegetables appear remarkable.

  • Alice Eubanks

    I have a 3rd recurrence of a oligodendroglioma brain tumor, stage 2. I have no other health issues. Can you suggest reading and/or nutrition ideas specific for brain tumors? I have never had symptoms and will be 10 years from starting this in November. I’m 52 years old normal BMI, never smoked. Thank you for any advice.