Image Credit: Giuliano Griffante / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Who Should Avoid Coffee?

Do coffee drinkers live longer than non-coffee drinkers? Is it “wake up and smell the coffee” or don’t wake up at all? I discuss these questions in my video, Coffee and Mortality.

The largest study ever conducted on diet and health put that question to the test, examining the association between coffee drinking and subsequent mortality among hundreds of thousands of older men and women in the United States. Coffee drinkers won, though the effect was modest, a 10-15% lower risk of death for those drinking six or more cups a day. This was due specifically to lower risk of dying from heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections.

However, in another study that amount of coffee was found to increase the death rate of younger people under age 55. It may be appropriate, then, to recommend that you avoid drinking more than four cups a day. But if you review all the studies, the bottom line is that coffee consumption is associated with no change or a small reduction in mortality starting around one or two cups a day, for both men and women. The risk of dying was 3% lower for each cup of coffee consumed daily, which provides reassurance for the concern that coffee drinking might adversely affect health, or at least longevity.

A recent population study found no link between coffee consumption and symptoms of GERD, reflux diseases such as heartburn and regurgitation. If you actually stick a tube down people’s throats and measure pH, though, coffee induces significant acid reflux, whereas tea does not. Is this just because tea has less caffeine? No. If you reduce the caffeine content of the coffee down to that of tea, coffee still causes significantly more acid reflux. Decaf causes even less, so GERD patients might want to choose decaffeinated coffee or, even better, opt for tea.

Coffee intake is also associated with urinary incontinence; so, a decrease in caffeine intake should be discussed with patients who have the condition. About two cups of coffee a day worth of caffeine may worsen urinary leakage.

A 2014 meta-analysis suggested that daily coffee consumption was associated with a slightly increased risk of bone fractures in women, but a decreased risk of fractures in men. However, no significant association was found between coffee consumption and the risk of hip fracture specifically. Tea consumption may actually protect against hip fracture, though it appears to have no apparent relationship with fracture risk in general.

Certain populations, in particular, may want to stay away from caffeine, including those with glaucoma or a family history of glaucoma, individuals with epilepsy, and, not surprisingly, people who have trouble sleeping. Even a single cup at night can cause a significant deterioration in sleep quality.

We used to think caffeine might increase the risk of an irregular heart rhythm, called atrial fibrillation, but that was based on anecdotal case reports like one of a young woman who suffered atrial fibrillation after “chocolate intake abuse.” These cases invariably involved the acute ingestion of very large quantities of caffeine. As a result, the notion that caffeine ingestion may trigger abnormal heart rhythms had become “common knowledge,” and this assumption led to changes in medical practice.

We now have evidence that caffeine does not increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. Low-dose caffeine—defined as less than about five cups of coffee a day—may even have a protective effect. Tea consumption also appears to lower cardiovascular disease risk, especially when it comes to stroke. But given the proliferation of energy drinks that contain massive quantities of caffeine, one might temper any message that suggests that caffeine is beneficial. Indeed, 12 highly caffeinated energy drinks within a few hours could be lethal.

To learn more about various health aspects of coffee, see my videos Coffee and Cancer, What About the Caffeine?, Preventing Liver Cancer with Coffee?, and Coffee and Artery Function.

What else can we consume to live longer? Check out Nuts May Help Prevent Death, Increased Lifespan from Beans, Fruits and Longevity: How Many Minutes per Mouthful?, and Finger on the Pulse of Longevity.

And, for more on controlling acid reflux, see Diet and GERD Acid Reflux Heartburn and Diet and Hiatal Hernia.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:


Michael Greger M.D., FACLM

Michael Greger, M.D. FACLM, is a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues. Dr. Greger has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, and the International Bird Flu Summit, testified before Congress, appeared on The Dr. Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous "meat defamation" trial.

129 responses to “Who Should Avoid Coffee?

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  1. Thank you NutritionFacts.

    I have recently been diagnosed with normal tension glaucoma. My father also had glaucoma. So this blog is really relevant to me. While I don’t have primary open angle glaucoma (the subject of one of the relevant source documents), I have also found a study which shows caffeine elevates ocular pressure in people like me with normotensive glaucoma. Unfortunately, it also shows that decaffeinated coffee raises intraocular pressure. This is not welcome news!

    If it weren’t for NutritionFacts, though, I wouldn’t know this. Certainly, my opthalmologist has never mentioned it. Since I am a big coffee and tea drinker, this is an important and pertinent new fact for me. It will mean some big changes.

    Thanks again, NutritionFacts.

    1. When evidence is conflicted-as it seems to be with the coffee article- and the issue involves a powerful industry with great potential to “manufacture” science or influence public policy and perception, isn’t caution the most sensible approach. Science can be tainted as Dr. Greger has pointed out numerous times. Powerful industries can go much further and engage in actual attacks in the press and in academia of views that run counter to industry. Careers can be destroyed. The Industry even appears to engage in astro-turfing and in attacking reputations of those that don’t support an industry. Hence, with eggs, butter, meat (red and processed especially), dairy and perhaps coffee, it’s probably better to take the “negative” research more seriously than the positive research. Minor benefits of coffee should be ignored even if it appears that the science is good. If, for example, coffee roasting might THEORETICALLY introduce a toxic compound, then why take the risk? If roasting nuts MIGHT degrade the oils in some way-shouldn’t we err on the side of caution until safety is established more clearly? Raw nuts is a much safer solution, perhaps. Tea instead of coffee is a safe alternative. Checking tea/coffee for freshness might be important. I

      1. You are correct, tea is better than coffee, at least for antioxidant. Myself, I only drink one cup of Joe in the morning but I drink tea throughout the day and it’s my water. I have friends who get problems drinking coffee but not tea. Apparently the caffeine in tea is not the same as caffeine in coffee.

        In term of antioxidant then it’s not in the caffeine and you will get the same whether you drink caffeine or decaf coffee. So if your problem is with the caffeine only then drink decaf coffee and you still get the same effect. But if your problem is with coffee in general, you may want to try tea to see what will happen.

        1. You are correct Jerry, the caffeine in tea and coffee are different. Same with chocolate. All three have similar chemistry, but not the same. Caffeine, in coffee, stimulates the central nervous system more, even when given at the same dose as the caffine (theophylline) in tea.
          But, also, coffee has 3-4 times the amount as tea.

    2. I recently was scheduled to give blood and was rejected due to moderately low blood iron or hemoglobin. After an exhaustive review of factors it was discovered the anemia was caused by an excessive consumption of tea. I had added the contents of two tea bags a day in my smoothie. Apparently the Tea’s tannates, combine with the iron in my stomach make it less bioavailable.

      It was an interesting and unexpected finding.

    3. TG, sorry to hear about your recent diagnosis. My mother has wet AMD, which also has a hereditary component. So I’m also eating lots of greens & berries.

      Thank goodness for NutritionFacts!

      1. Thanks Nancy. Just to add to my joy, the opthalmologist also casually mentioned that I have signs of early stage AMD and early signs of cataracts as well but did not suggest medications for those at this point.

        You can therefore imagine that eye health is something I am very interested in now. Being in the Philippines at the moment, though, I can’t easily obtain berries but I have bought Goji berries from the US and am taking blackcurrant supplements, as per the Japanese studies, and eat grapes every day. Ginkgo biloba extract is probably worth a shot. I have seen two randomised placebo controlled trials that showed a benefit but there was a third which found no benefit. The evidence for these approaches is consequently not strong but it is there and the downside risk appears low so I’ll give them a shot.

        1. TG, a couple of things my retina specialist (& my mother’s) suggested was to always wear wraparound sunglasses in bright sunlight & keep my computers & phone on low, warm settings since I spend a lot of time in front of a computer screen. He said the jury is still out on the subject of blue light filtering lenses. But I guess it’s always good to err on the side of caution, especially if there doesn’t seem to be a downside. So I might be considering blue light filtering lenses for my next pair of glasses.

          1. My opthomology acupuncturist told me that blue light harms the retina. So as I am always on the computer, I am wearing my blue glasses from Amazon.

        2. TG, of course you never believe me and will trash me but I say it anyway. The following are among the remedies for glaucoma and you can google search in pubmed to verify it.

          – CoQ10: you need to use the right brand or it won’t work.

          – Fish oil: same as above, the brand is important. Studies have been made using fish oil to treat glaucoma but algae oil was not used and so I cannot tell if it is the same.

          – Resveratrol: you need to take a supplement to get the sufficient dosage because eating grape won’t get you the right dosage.

          – Essential amino acids and certain conditional amino acids (such as L-Arginine): unfortunately for you, it is present in abundance in a forbidden food I don’t need to mention the name.

          If you need more help then I am glad to help.

          1. The above remedies also apply to the treatment of AMD.

            Vitamins B6 and B12, and real vitamin A (not carotenoid) also help and they are present in natural form in yet another forbidden food.

            1. TG, I just want to add that sometimes surgery is necessary although of course we generally want to avoid surgery and FDA drug as much as possible. Surgery for glaucoma is a minor surgery that last 15 minutes in the Doctor’s office. Basically it’s a laser surgery to change the eye’s drainage system so that aqueous fluid is able to pass more easily out of the drain, thus lowering IOP (eye pressure). For the AMD then it will be more complicated but it is also a minor surgery. Sure you can use nutrition to cure but if it takes too long then the damage will be irreversible.

              My personal example is with my Dad when he was 70 years old. He had vision problem and his lousy eye doctor diagnosed him as cataract which is not something urgent to have surgery and it is not a permanent damage. So he postponed the (false) cataract surgery and when his vision got worse, he then saw a different eye doctor who diagnosed him as having AMD and this Doctor scheduled him a surgery on time before it’s too late and then the damage will be permanent. My Dad then have to have a cataract surgery afterward because the retina surgery caused it. Anyway, my Dad is now 96 years old and although his vision is not 20/20 as expected, he does not have to use glasses unless he reads something.

              So nutrition is preferable for the prevention of diseases but when a disease already happens then sometimes FDA drug and/or surgery are necessary, which is very minor in this case.

              1. Thanks Jerry.

                I have started doing some reading around this and understand that cataract surgery (ie replacement lens) is associated with a three-fold increased risk for AMD so there is a lot to be considered.

                Also, because I have normal pressure glaucoma, the surgery isn’t probably appropriate since it is primarily designed to target uncontrolled intraocular pressure.

                But thanks for the ideas, I appreciate the help.

                1. Actually it was the other way around, at least for my father. He had AMD and not cataract, but was misdiagnosed as cataract by his first lousy eye doctor. His second doctor diagnosed AMD correctly and he had surgery for it. Afterward, he developed cataract, and that is expected according to his doctor. He had a second surgery for the cataract issue. Now his vision is OK, as good for a 96 year old.



                  1. My point is that AMD is irreversible at an advanced stage. Either you treat early with alternate medicine or surgery, you have to do it early or it will be irreversible and you will go blind. Same goes with glaucoma, I think.

                    1. Thanks Jerry. Most people (about 85% I think) have the dry form of AMD and surgery isn’t much use there.

                      So, in my case (because it is normal tension glaucoma and dry AMD), surgery is not really an option and I will have to rely on nutrition, supplements and massage/acu techniques.

                2. TG, my Dad has dry AMD. The minor surgery involves removing the drusen and dead nerve cells. If you don’t do it then it will grow into a scar and no amount of nutrition can fix AMD afterward. Of course after the minor surgery, you need to use nutrition to prevent AMD from coming back.

                  Wet AMD is the other way, it is almost permanent and you can only slow it down by doing injection into the retina for the rest of your life.

                  You may want to get a second opinion from another doctor but don’t count on the advice of one doctor and then it will be too late to fix anything. Same thing goes with glaucoma. You cannot cure it through surgery or pill but you can slow it down so that you have time to fix it through nutrition. I consider anything that slows down the progression of a disease past one’s lifetime a cure because nobody can expect to live forever.

                  And last, speaking about nutrition, you may want to ignore veganism for the sake of your health, i.e. consuming the proper amount of amino acids (essential and conditional), DHA + EPA, and vitamin A (real one and not beta carotene), minerals (Zinc for instance), vitamin B6 + B12.

                  Human are cruel no matter what we do. Just because we don’t directly harm animals do not mean we don’t do it indirectly. We just want to minimize it as much as possible.

                  1. Thanks Jerry.

                    I hadn’t seen any mention before that surgery could be useful in dry AMD cases so I will have to check that out. Also, since I am flying back to Australia in just under a month, I can get a second opinion there.

                    I am inclined to add an AREDS2 supplement to my regime plus the blackcurrant extract and Goji berries mentioned in the Dr G videos on glaucoma and mexula degeneration. Plus the ginkgo biloba extract and possibly resveratrol. I already With ll those pills, I will be rattling when I walk.

                    As for amino acids, the body makes its own eg taurine from the basic building blocks found in vegetable proteins such as soybean etc etc. So I might sit on that idea and do some further reading.

                    I was already taking a multivitamin plus algal DHA/EPA, d3/k2, vitamin C and b12 supplements before the glaucoma diagnosis so those and the new supplements together constitute a pretty heavy lod of pills. I am keen to avoid taking too many especially since there is some overlap between them,

                    1. TG, I just found out from my Dad that he had retinopathy and not AMD that can be fixed through surgery in the short term and nutrition in the long term. Back when my Dad ate lousy, he had onset of diabetes and retinopathy came from there. We have now fixed everything through nutrition and supplements.

                      I took AREDS2 supplement a few years ago but have now discontinued because I eat plenty of real foods that have plenty of nutrients that make up AREDS2.

                      Without getting into the details because you already know what I am talking about, I eat foods and supplements that have plenty of DHA/EPA, DHEA, amino acids, real Vitamin A, C, D, K2, B12, B6, Lutein & Zeaxanthin, Zinc, Copper, CoQ10, etc. You have to eat the real foods or supplements that do not require any conversion inside the body.

                      Some herbs or leaves such as Ginkgo biloba or even turmeric are like drugs, because they will reduce inflammation or improve blood flow for instance but they are not foods because you cannot eat them to live on. And so you still need nutrition to fix the body so that it can fight against diseases and not cause problems in the first place.

                    2. And for conditional amino acids, look up where you get arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, ornithine, proline, and serine.

                      They are called conditional because you only need them when you are sick.

                      For minerals, Zinc for instance is often overlooked because you don’t need it until your immune system is weak, which is when you get older.

                    3. Thanks Jerry. The AREDS and ARDS2 formulae both include zinc. Beta carotene (vitamin A) didn’t help and was associated with increased lung cancer risk in former smokers.

                      I agree that glutathione is important too although I already eat a fair amount of cabbage, kale, onion, spinach, broccoli, garlic etc. Apparently vitamin C supplementation increases cell glutathion levels (although the study was of people who were vitamin C deficient)


          Does everyone over 60 have cataracts? Here’s how to avoid them…

          If you are over 60 years old, you have cataracts. At least that’s what my ophthalmologist told me at my last eye examination. “If I look hard enough, I will see cataracts in everyone over 60,” he told me. “Even if the cataracts have not gotten large enough to cause symptoms, they are still there. There’s no way to get around it.” But is that true?

          The published statistics say that the percentage of people over the age of 60 who have cataracts is somewhere between 70-80%. But here’s the thing. No matter who’s right, the chances of getting cataracts are pretty high. So, is there anything we can do to prevent cataracts? A new study published just this last year says yes.

          Researchers followed 3,115 men and women between the ages of 55 to 80 years of age for an average of 9.6 years. At the beginning of the study, they examined them for evidence of cataracts. As expected, some of them had cataracts and some did not. They also assessed their intake of different B-vitamins. Then, they examined their eyes every year to see who developed cataracts and how the cataracts progressed in those who already had them. Here’s what happened.

          At the beginning of the study, the people with the highest intake of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and cobalamin (vitamin B12) were significantly less likely to have cataracts.

          And when they compared those who had cataracts with those who didn’t, the men and women with the highest riboflavin intake were 22% less likely to have mild cataracts and 38% less likely to have moderate cataracts. Those with the highest intakes of B12 and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) had a similar reduction of risk.

          And what may be surprising to some is that there was no reduced risk of cataracts from having a higher intake of the nutrients lutein or zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin definitely reduce the risk of macular degeneration, but they don’t seem to have any effect on cataract prevention. According to the authors,

          “These findings are consistent with earlier studies suggesting that dietary intake of B vitamins may affect the occurrence of age-related lens opacities [cataracts].”

          So, do you have cataracts? If you’re over 60, the odds are good that you do. Common symptoms of cataracts include cloudy, blurred or dim vision; increasing difficulty with vision at night; sensitivity to light and glare; need for brighter light for reading and other activities; seeing “halos” around lights; frequent changes in eyeglass or contact lens prescription; fading or yellowing of colors; or double vision in a single eye.

          I’m making my own carnosine eye drops…use them several times a day.

          I have a stage 1 cataract issue on one eye…so far.

      2. I go to an opthalmology acupuncturist every 2 weeks for macula symptoms. He also is a Doctor of Chinese Medicine. He has helped me immensely with other symptoms and with these new ones also.

        I was NOT dx’d with this though. But I am being aggressive so I will never be dx’d. I try to eat celery and carrots every day. Celery is good for macula problems. I also am very careful with my eye supplements. Exercise helps with getting oxygen to the eye which is important too.

    4. TG, So sorry to hear that. If you are going with the ginkgo, I would suggest the Ginkgold, which is a standardized form made in Germany. Here in the states it is available by Natures Way. I am not pleased by the other ingredients in it, but I have found that 60mg. of it works better than 120mg. of other brands.
      I am in no way associated with this company, I just trust the German manufacturing process more.
      Best wishes to you, and thank you for your enlightening posts.

      1. Thank you Marilyn.

        I haven’t bought any yet but usually buy my supplements from iherb in the US since it is often cheaper than buying locally and the range of products is pretty good. They usually stock Nature’s Way products if I remember correctly.

    5. Here TG, green tea may fix your eyes problems. You may want to use a (good) extract though because 1) you may have a problem with caffeine, 2) you need a high concentration of phytoutrients in the extract, and 3) the extract process makes it more bioavailable.

      I found this brand on Amazon that has a lot of positive reviews.

      1. Thanks Jerry. I am a bit wary of green tea/ECGC extracts because of the reports of liver damage following their consumption.

        I had liver damage following statin use some 20 years ago, and similar symptoms when I tried niacin supplements. Consequently I am not keen to tempt fate again even if liver damage following ECGC consumption is rare. Liver damage following statin use is also rare but it happened to me.

        1. TG without getting an argument :) but the faked cholesterol theory did so much damage to the world health by making people taking statin drug.

          And yesterday I saw a Youtube video from the CBC people in Canada that makes me mad. While I agree that the word Superfoods is abused, now we cannot say that Quinoa, oatmeal, etc. can reduce the chance of cancer or heart disease. Except for FDA drugs of course.

          1. Well, Jerry, you know that I think that you are absolutely mistaken about cholesterol. The evidence – experimental, observational and genetic – shows tht high choleterol is a risk factor heart disease.

            And there is also evidence that high cholesterol may increase dementia risk as well as evidence that taking statins leads to a 29% decrease in the risk of dementia

            As for the video, well the food Industry will say anything to boost sales. However, the claim was that it prevents cancer etc. That was obviously false. “Reducing risk of ” and “preventing” are not the same thing. You;d have to present good solid evidnce that certain foods reduce risk of whatever before that claim could be made. If he evidence isn’t there the clim can’t be made. Seems reasonable to me.

            1. TG, I think you misunderstand me completely. I never said that high cholesterol is a good thing, or it has no relation with CHD.

              What I am trying to say is that cholesterol is a reaction of the body due to inflammation. It’s only an indication, albeit a very lousy one. Somebody can have very low cholesterol and yet has inflammation all over the body and will have CHD, while another person has a higher cholesterol reading and yet has no inflammation and no CHD.

              Yes cholesterol is an important indication to look, especially the triglycerides number. HDL needs to be generally high and LDL generally low but there are no absolute numbers.

              So you eat the nutrients that you need to eat including healthy fats and whatever cholesterol number you get then so be it. But you don’t want to eat unhealthy or take statin drug just to keep “cholesterol below 150 or even 100”. You will be sick if you do that. At the high end, you want to keep your cholesterol to be generally below 250.

              So different people will react to foods differently. In general, a moderate amount of fats is good for most people. But if someone cannot handle fat and their “cholesterol” shoots up when eating fats then they need to not eat fats. Just like some people cannot handle grain, lectin, gluten, etc.

              Myself, I eat moderate amount of fats including the so called saturated fat, but I also eat plenty of amino acids and plenty of plant foods among a number of other things, and my inflammation is near zero as indicated by my CRP measurement, and my “cholesterol” is close to 200, and I am skinny with no belly fat, and I am extremely healthy with not a single minor illness including cold. I observe my friends and kids and their friends and those who eat a very balanced diet are very healthy. I travelled and worked for long periods of time overseas and saw that people there eat a very balanced diet including “saturated fat” and they are all healthy. I read that you are now in the Philippines. Do you see people there eating only vegetables like the western myth says or do they eat a very diverse diet?

              1. Jerry, I think the evidence is pretty strong that the lower the cholesterol.the lower the mortality.

                There’s no real evidence that cholesterol can be too low especially since the body makes all we need.
                ” lowering LDL-cholesterol levels to very low levels results in a significant reduction in cardiovascular events. Individuals with LDL-cholesterol levels <50 mg/dL had a significantly lower risk of major cardiovascular events compared with individuals who had higher LDL-cholesterol levels, including those with LDL levels 50 to <75 mg/dL and 75 to <100 mg/dL."

                This and a gazillion other studies proves that LDL is not just a biomarker as HDL and CRP appear to be. Lowering cholesterol significantly reduces risk;

                The crackpots and sellers of trashy "health" books can shout and stamp their feet but that is what the evidence shows. Why you won;t accept evidence and prefer to believe cranks instead, completely eludes me.

                As for the Philippines, they might well have ate mainly rice and vegetables and the occasional piece of fish or pork every now and then 100 years ago but that hasn't been the case for a very long time.

                Most people eat junk food regularly including lots of pork/chicken/fish. The vegetabes are usually fried in cheap oil It's white rice, white spaghetti and packaged noodles all the way. The diet is appalling. And cheap packaged snacks loaded with trans fats are sold everywhere. People prefer cola to water and everything has added sugar. The coffee is the dreadful 3in1 – coffee, sugar and non-dairy creamer. Bottled/iced tea is common too – I shudder to think how much sugar is in every 100ml. Even the whole meal bread – when you can find it – is full of added sugar, salt, dairy and egg. Lord knows why.

                That's another thing, trans fats are everywhere – hydrogenated palm oil or coconut oil are widely used for cooking because they are cheapest. They are also in the noodles often eaten here – Chinese influence is strong since there has been a big Chinese community here since before 1,000 AD

                And of course, food companies can make all sorts of health claims for their products. Nestle is one of the worst.

                Consequently obesity and diabetes are widespread

                1. The “studies” can be completely biased and skewed to fit a result that they want.

                  For instance, they compare vegans with super low cholesterol because they eat only plant foods against people who eat processed foods and have higher cholesterol. Of course the vegans are healthier.

                  Have they compared people with semi high cholesterol who eat a diverse diet with some fat against vegans with low cholesterol? Of course not.

                  Or they force feed the poor lab rat with coconut oil or saturated fat and the rat is not allowed to eat anything else. Of course the rat will get sick.

                  People in the world who are not too poor and have to eat reused cooking oil or put sugar in everything to make the food taste better, all live longer and healthier because they eat a diverse diet. In the U.S. unless the youth that I observe don’t represent the general population, I see that they eat saturated fat such as coconut, butter, cheese, eggs, bacon, etc. along with a lot of fruits and vegetables, and they are all healthy. The fake fat theory is debunked by them without any fanfare.

                  1. This is cloud cuckoo land.

                    Young people tend to be slimmer and healthier because they are young. Things like heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, obewsity arthritis etc all usually take decades to develop. Your imaginative stories and claims don’t debunk anuthing nor do they prove anything.

                    Not always of course. According to the CDC “In 2015–2016, the prevalence of obesity was 39.8% in adults and 18.5% in youth.”

                    If you think 18.5% obesity and “all heallthy” are compatible statements, I have to disagree again. And that is just obesity. You probably need to double that if you add in “overweight” kids.

                    The fact is yes kids probably are increasingly eating more “saturated fat such as coconut, butter, cheese, eggs, bacon, etc.” …. that might explain why rates of obesity and overweight in young people in the US have skyrocketed since 1971

                    1. TG, of course you are wrong comparing people in the 70s with people in 2017 and beyond. The problem back then was that people in the USA ate processed foods and they don’t eat any diverse vegetables diet along, or when they ate real animal foods, they ate the wrong kind such as muscle meat, processed milk, etc. and therefore they got no nutrition from eating animal foods plus they got inflammation everywhere. Then the “researchers” looked at what the world eat and they discovered Mediterranean diet, Okinawan diet and Chinese Diet study, etc. and they pigeonholed and out of this were born the saturated fat and cholesterol theories, and people in the world don’t eat saturated fat and only eat plant foods, etc. etc. Out of that, a whole industry was born, from Big Pharma with statin drug to lower cholesterol, to Big Foods with vegetable oil and transfat and sugar, to weight loss guru with calorie counting, to University “researchers” with their biases researches to prove a wrong theory, etc. As a result, the whole world was sick.

                      Fast forward to 2017 and beyond, young people are more informed. They don’t buy this obsolete saturated fat theory anymore and they eat a diverse diet composed of animal foods, saturated fat and plant foods. When they eat animal foods they eat the right kind such as bone broth, joint meat, raw dairy, etc.

                      Anyway I am not naive to say that I look at their health to derive anything because they are still young. But the silver lining is that I see that they don’t repeat the mistakes that their parents made and I hope to live long enough to see how healthy they are when they will turn to 50, 60.

                      My main conviction is not from listening to those “internet gurus” as you called, but from reading rare researches that show the need of eating fat, and saturated fat is harmless, and by seeing what billions of people in other countries actually eat and stay healthy, and I see from my own eyes and live and work with them and not reading books from guys like Campbell who fantasized about what Chinese eat.

                      And last, you probably imagine in your head that people like me or the “Internet doctors” are just loading on fat. That’s a completely twisted picture. Just watch the following video by Dr Hyman to see what he eats and he is the champion of “eat fat get thin” theory and so naturally you would think that he will eat nothing but fat, and that is completely untrue. I eat a similar diet like him except that mine is much more complete, such as I eat bone broth, special meat such as joint and organ meat plus tons of plant foods much more than Dr G Daily Dozen, but at least the video will give you a glimpse of what he is talking about when he says to eat fat.


                2. At the health food store near my house, bone and organ meat fly off the shelves very quickly. If I don’t go there on Wednesday when they resupply their foods then it will be gone. They also have pre made bone broth but I have never tried because I can make my own. There is also a big aisle of butter and cheese, both domestic and imported, and there are a lot of raw cheese or raw butter because they don’t need to be pasteurized.

                  Of course there are also several aisles of vegetables, fruits, various beans and seeds.

      1. Hello Dr. Geger,

        I am a 74 year old, who after over 60 years of drinking coffee suffered tachycardia, palpitations and elevated blood pressure when I drank as much as 1/4 cup of dark roast. A visit to the emergency room, PCP, an endo, and numerous EKGs, X-rays and MRIs didn’t discover anything. From my research it appears I have an under performing CYP 1A2 gene/enzyme. Know anything about this? Also, get the symptoms from tumeric and certain herbs. Thanks.

          1. My CYP1A2 genetic result indicated I had XX, which means I am a fast caffeine processor. Could it also be that those of us ( a minority) with this genetic marker metabolize caffeine quickly while those with the mixed Xx or slow xx combos are affected in ways that are not as useful or comfortable in experiencing the lift?

            1. Thomas,

              Absolutely……. keep in mind that your CYP1A2 is but one, a major pathway, of the many genes involved in both the degradation of the caffeine and the other components of the coffee, many of which are considered the key to their activity .

              Dr. Alan Kadish moderator for Dr. Greger

    1. Thank you for contacting NutritionFacts. I have reviewed the information that Dr. Greger has available. I did not find any studies suggesting a link between ovarian cysts or endometriosis. You might find this video Dr. Greger made about endometriosis and PCOS interesting:

      NutritionFacts Moderator.

  2. In the case study of the woman and High Chocolate intake. was it the caffeine or the sugar? also the High energy drinks is it the caffeine or the high sugar?

  3. Hi Dr Greger, I have been approached by several people trying to sell me OG coffee, teas and green tea because of its amazing benefits because it has reishi/ganoderma mushroom in it. Have you come across this products and does it stand up to the bold health benefit claims it makes?

    1. I’m surprised by no mention of the effects of coffee on people who are hypertensive or are prone to acute hypertention (labcoat syndrome or social anxiety). Are there no studies on this topic?

      1. I have no apparent health issue but I can only drink one cup of coffee per day. If I drink more then my heart starts racing and my blood pressure shoots up but I can drink as much tea as I want. The general recommendation to get the benefits is to drink 4 cups of coffee a day, but I don’t see how I can do this. My coffee is very concentrated and it is made from fresh bean. So my take is that coffee is not for everybody. Some people are more sensitive than others. The good news is that there are other antioxidants from other foods and coffee is just one, but it is not a must have.

      2. Hey Lee,

        I did some research on UpToDate for you. Unfortunately, it isn’t accessible to the public so I can’t like the sources, but this information is all peer-reviewed and considered to be the current standard of evidence.

        Coffee can raise BP acutely (short term) by as much as 10 points in individuals who are infrequently exposed, but there is little or no acute effect on BP in habitual coffee drinkers.

        “The effects of chronic caffeine ingestion on BP are less clear, but the possibility of a slight increase in BP exists. One systematic review and meta-analysis of available 10 randomized controlled trials and five cohort studies, found no effect of chronic coffee consumption on BP and the risk of development of hypertension. However, two other meta-analyses found that coffee ingestion increased BP slightly.”

        Hope this helps.


      3. Hey Lee,

        I did some research on UpToDate for you. Unfortunately, it isn’t accessible to the public so I can’t like the sources, but this information is all peer-reviewed and considered to be the current standard of evidence.

        Coffee can raise BP acutely (short term) by as much as 10 points in individuals who are infrequently exposed, but there is little or no acute effect on BP in habitual coffee drinkers.

        “The effects of chronic caffeine ingestion on BP are less clear, but the possibility of a slight increase in BP exists. One systematic review and meta-analysis of available 10 randomized controlled trials and five cohort studies, found no effect of chronic coffee consumption on BP and the risk of development of hypertension. However, two other meta-analyses found that coffee ingestion increased BP slightly.”

        Hope this helps.


    2. hi Suzy, after just a quick bit of research I came to the conclusion that this is a company to be avoided. Multi-level marketer making ubnsubstantiated claims and garnering many complaints from customers and sales people alike.
      For coffee, I choose a well-known organic brand, or one of the small local coffee roasting companies that sell organic fair trade coffee and teas.

    3. Hey Suzy, any time you are approached by ‘several people trying to sell you something’ there is a good chance that someone has come up with a potentially good product…and then murdered its potential by making it into a multilevel marketing scheme.

      Looking at their website, it’s obvious that they took the idea of a medicinal mushroom and tried to make a panacea out of it. If you’re a fan of this website, you know there is no such thing…that good health comes from eating a COMBINATION of a wide variety of plant foods, including herbs and spices, and not from any one food or food group. I would pass on this one until they have very firm evidence that it’s worth the money.

  4. Dr. Greger;

    What about the harmanes you mentioned in a recent video? They’re present in cooked meats and some cooked plant products, especially coffee. There are more harmanes in coffee than in anything else, according to scholarly articles, and harmanes have been associated with Essential Tremor. Perhaps the “shakes” that many people get from coffee aren’t just from the caffeine, but also from the harmanes? Patients with Essential Tremor—there are lots—show evidence of long-term damage to the brain.

    Thanks, John

    1. JL, I agree it would be nice if Dr G or a qualified moderator could shed some light on this question about the neurotoxins beta-carbolines norharman and harman in coffee. From the below PubMed research paper, coffee contains a substantial amount of this neurotoxin.

      Quote: “The highest amounts of norharman and harman were found in brewed coffee (29-207 microg l(-1)), sauces (soy sauce and Tabasco, among others; 4-252 microg l(-1)), ‘well done’ cooked meat and fish (57-160 ng g(-1)), toasted bread (42-160 ng g(-1)), and fermented alcoholic beverages (n.d.-41 mug l(-1)). beta-Carbolines also occurred in a high amount in the mainstream of cigarette smoke (207-2780 ng/cigarette), which is an important contributor to daily exposure to these compounds.”

      Evidently, both animal and plant foods contain this compound when heated to very high temperatures (roasted coffee beans, well-done meat, even toasted bread!) The big question is: should we be concerned about this if we drink a few cups of coffee per day, but otherwise eat a WFPB diet?

  5. I had to stop coffee because it caused breast lumps. Every time I had a mammogram I had to get ultrasound and/or biopsies that were always benign. A friend advised me to avoid coffee. When I did, the lumps magically stopped! Why aren’t doctors aware of this?? Why didn’t all those doctors tell me about coffee? Later when I went to a hormone specialist, she knew about it. When I told her that tea did not cause the lumps but coffee did, she said she wasn’t at all surprised because “tea caffeine is a different molecule than coffee caffeine.” That begs the question, why do doctors refer to caffeine as the same in tea and coffee? Dr Greger, will you please address this?

    1. Your doctor is mistqken,the caffeine molecule is the same in tea and coffee. Dr. Greger has done many videos on tea and its numerous benefits. Coffee and tea each have a different set of phytochemicals beyond caffeine which cause them to have different effects in the body. Not surprising in that one is a leaf and the other a roasted bean.

      1. Robert, I beg to differ. Tea, coffee and chocolate all have chemicals called methylxanthines. But they are chemically different. The one in coffee is usually called caffeine, tea has theophylline, and chocolate, theobromine. The one in coffee affects the central nervous system more even when taken at the same dose.

        1. Thanks, Marilyn Kay. Getting back to Jenny’s original question of why doctors refer to the stimulant in both coffee & tea as caffeine, I pointed out below that the French are the only ones I know of who use a different term than we do in common language usage (although I suspect other Europeans might do the same). The average Frenchman on the street will refer to it as theine for tea & caffeine for coffee, & they’ll correct you if you mix them up. Even though the word theine was long ago determined to be the same molecule as caffeine, it’s still used in everyday language.

          In the US it all gets lumped under the term caffeine, even among healthcare professionals. They’ll talk about the caffeine in chocolate or tea instead of using the term theobromine or theophylline. Do you know or does anyone else know the reason for this? Or was Robert correct when he said, “Coffee and tea each have a different set of phytochemicals beyond caffeine which cause them to have different effects in the body.”

          1. Nancy, Robert was right about the fact that coffee and tea have a different set of photochemicals. But when isolated in studies, caffeine and theophylline have different outcomes. Caffeine affects the CNS more at the same dose. Theophylline is used as a drug for asthma, caffeine is not as effective for that, they are different molecules.

        2. I stand by my comment that the caffeine molecule is the same in coffee, tea and cocoa, however the amounts of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine vary greatly. The presence ot theanine and reduced amounts of caffeine in tea plays a big part in its effects as compared with coffee.

          This isn’t a link, but you can search for this paper which comes up on a site called QUANTIFICATION OF METHYLXANTHINES (THEOBROMINE,

          This link provides a nice presentation of tea chemistry:

          1. Robert, yes the amounts of the methylxanthines in coffee, tea and cocoa are different.
            But, if you really want to know if they are chemically alike, put “molecule caffeine molecule theophylline picture” in your search engine. There you can see for yourself they are indeed different.
            I’m a chemist Robert.

        3. These are the sources:

          “Around sixty plant species are known to contain caffeine

          Theophylline is naturally found in cocoa beans. Amounts as high as 3.7 mg/g have been reported in Criollo cocoa beans.[16]

          Trace amounts of theophylline are also found in brewed tea”

          Theobromine is the primary alkaloid found in cocoa and chocolate.”

    2. Jenny, the French refer to caffeine in tea as it as théine, pronounced TAY-een. Two German scientists proved in 1827 that they are indeed the same molecule.

      1. Pubchem lists the various names for caffeine, and theine is among them.

        This from the wiki:
        “In 1827, M. Oudry isolated “théine” from tea,[204] but it was later proved by Mulder[205] and by Carl Jobst[206] that theine was actually caffeine.”

        Not the best source, I know, but the actual papers are in German, & my German is not so hot these days.

          1. Jerry, we were talking about caffeine as a molecule, not coffee or tea. But we already know that understanding basic discussion, let alone science, is not your strength :)

            1. That’s exactly what I am talking about. I talk about coffee and tea as a whole food while Nancy talks about the caffeine molecule. It is similar if I talk about the turmeric whole food while Nancy talks about curcumin. Pretty soon, Nancy will take supplements and become a fan of Dr Mercola. Actually it will be better for her because she will learn new things rather than getting stuck in half a century old theory.

      2. Thank you both. Now would someone please address the first question, that coffee can cause breast lumps? I’ve heard from others who have had the same experience. All those years, all those medical procedures, and not one doctor informed me that coffee could have been causing this.

        1. Jenny, all I can tell you about that is my own personal experience, which included some physical pain, fear & anxiety. I was put through multiple mammograms at the age of 24, a lot of poking, prodding & injections, all of which I found out later were inappropriate & useless. I finally saw the #1 specialist in the US at the time & was relieved when he finally told me that I did not have breast cancer. But he never mentioned that it might have been my caffeine consumption. I was a big coffee drinker, & the lumps dissipated on their own a few years after giving up coffee. I drink tea, but not coffee. So was it the caffeine? Was it something else? I don’t know.

        2. Jenny,

          I think this sums it all:

          “According to Mayo Clinic internist Sandhya Pruthi, M.D., there does not appear to be a clear-cut connection between caffeine — or coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine — and breast cysts. However, in very large doses, the caffeine in coffee may indirectly influence reproductive hormones, which, according to, are thought to affect the development of fibroadenomas. Moreover, some women report relief from fibrocystic breast changes when they reduce caffeine intake, according to Pruthi. So if you drink a lot of coffee and suffer from uncomfortable fibrocystic breast changes, you may want to try going caffeine-free, says Pruthi. MedlinePlus also reports that while there is no evidence that caffeine causes fibrocystic breast changes, some women believe reducing their consumption of caffeine — as well as chocolate and fat — helps.”


          You can also take a look at this study:

          Hope it helps,

          Moderator Adam P.

    3. Many, many years ago I had breast lumps that turned out to be cysts, not tumors. I had been drinking Sanka. It’s hard for me to believe now that I drank that stuff, but I did, wanting to avoid the caffeine. I stopped the Sanka and the lumps resolved. So, it has to be more than the caffeine in coffee that caused those cysts. Of course, who knows what chemicals were in that stuff?

      More recently I decided to drink a cup of coffee each morning for the antioxidants. I drank one mug a day for about three months. In September I noticed I was having arthritic pains in my fingers randomly, that is, not associated with any activity. When I asked myself what had changed recently, I realized it could possibly be the coffee. I stopped drinking it and the pains gradually faded away over the last three or so weeks.

      It is important to pay attention to messages our bodies send us, and to ask the question, “What has changed that could be causing this?”

      1. Very interesting, Rebecca. BTW, when I was in my 20s I used to drink those Iternational Coffees (by Maxwell House?). Pure chemicals & probably worse than Sanka. I can’t believe I drank that stuff, either. I also had benign lumps in my breasts that dissipated soon after I finally stopped drinking that stuff.

  6. Considering that, according to a report by the US Dept. of Labor, half the population of the USA have no more than $400 extra on hand, does that mean regular coffee drinkers have more money, and consequently are able to afford higher quality nutrition, medical care, living environment, etc?

  7. While it may well be true that there is no statistical evidence (indeed that there is counter-evidence) of a correlation between caffeine and atrial-fib, it certainly seems to be present in my personal case.

    For several years now I have noticed (on over a dozen occasions) that if I drink a cup of coffee (or a glass of wine or beer) the next day my heart rhythms get all out of whack (racing and/or irregularly spaced) for 7 or 8 hours (verified by EKG). Then it goes away until the next time I am so bold (or in a risk-taking mood). And decaf does not have this effect — I drink that every day.

    This was not true five years ago — for some reason my heart-rhythm reaction to caffeine (and alcohol) started somewhat recently. Could be mere “aging” — I am now 72 — or could be due to some ill-suited meds I was put on a few years back but have since stopped. Am hoping it is the latter, and that a few years hence I might again be able to tolerate the occasional cup of coffee or glass of wine.

    So: there is such a thing as rare-case effects, that do not apply to the vast majority, but may do so to us unlucky few.

  8. Nice article, very informative thank you team!

    Found after twenty years on acid reflux medicine that the cause for me is coffee. My lower esophageal valve relaxes and stays open for 3 days. Tea is no problem.

    We all are unique!

    1. If you really want to drink coffee, try a low-acid one and check what kind of roast it is. I’ve found some types of coffee cause much more acid in my stomach than others. I can’t be very specific since it’s some years since I checked into this and I don’t remember all the details now, but I have certainly experienced a difference from various types.

  9. Hello
    I’m glad to have watched the video on coffee and artery function. It explains a lot. I’ve recently learned that caffeinated coffee is not advised on Dr. Esselstyn’s website if you have heart disease ( I had an MI and stent placed a year ago and want to be kind to my endothelial cells as I follow the whole food/plant based diet). Thanks

    1. Yes he is very strict. There are two schools in a WFPB diet. One is for desease prevention and one like Esselstyn is more for desease reversal.

      Actually, there is a certain gene type that controls the rate of digestion of the caffein. People with the gene have fast digestion and can drink coffee without problems. People without the gene have slow digestion and they should limit coffee intake.

      Coffee consumption had increased longetivity in people with the gene but those without had increased mortality.

  10. Please stop with the personal and anecdotal coffee stories in the comments, they are all hypochondric in nature and add nothing to the science.

    1. I don’t agree with your above comment. We need to look at how different people handles each food and not throw everything in one size fit all bucket. That goes with grain and nut and fruit too, not just coffee.

    2. Well, here is my anecdotal and hyperchondrical comment:
      in my late twenties my Dr was about to postpone long-planned surgery due to irregular heart beat and raised BP.
      I suggested a recheck in 1 week whereby I reduced my 6 cup habit down to 1.

      If I consistantly go over 2 cup day, some problem emerges. One winter it brought on mild anemia from post-prandial consumption. At 54, I know my limits.

  11. Hi, I am 60 and have been diagnosed with osteoporosis (after being vegan for a year – my doc says the bone loss would have started years ago, so veganism is not responsible.) I am baffled – I exercise a lot and before going vegan consumed so much dairy (milk and cheese) I worried about getting kidney stones! On a whim, I googled osteoporosis and antidepressants – and found that there are questions of a link, which I wouldn’t have known from my doctor. He had his nurse call with tests results and ask if I wanted a prescription for Actonel! I wonder how many patients taking antidepressants end up with osteoporosis and there is no record of it at all! My question about coffee is that I’ve read it affects calcium absorption – what about coffee and osteoporosis? Also, what about sodium? Any thoughts or suggestions on dietary strategies from anyone would be much appreciated.

    1. Hey Corinne,
      This page has a helpful summary of osteoporosis and all of our videos on the topic:

      This video explains why consumption of dairy products can actually lead to weaker bones:

      Prunes, whole grains, beans, and nuts are all evidence-based foods that you can increase in your diet to help support your bone health.

      The research on coffee and osteoporosis is somewhat inconclusive, but the results of this large epidemiological study suggests that drinking coffee does not increase your risk of fracture.

      Hope this helps!


    2. This goes a bit off-topic, but high dairy/protein consumption has been linked to osteoporosis. Countries with the highest per-capita dairy intake are the ones with the highest rate of osteoporosis, and those with the lowest tend to have the lowest rates. People (like elephants and cows and chimps) can get all the calcium they need from plants. Chances are your osteoporosis will go away if you stick to the WFPB diet. I learned this too late, only after being given fosamax for 15 years, which seems to have brought on a bunch of other problems.

      1. thanks – I’ve read all the information about the dairy/protein consumption link with osteoporosis, but then Dr. Greger posted a recent video about the new research showing protein doesn’t cause bone loss. So now I’m wondering if that link is correlation or causation? I am making more of an effort to make sure my WFPB diet is calcium rich, but it requires a lot more effort – not complaining, just saying I have to watch it or I won’t get enough calcium, which is why I was asking for advice – I know some foods work against calcium absorption. For instance, I was wondering if I should drink coffee at a different time rather than with food, etc.

        1. Dr Klaper has an excellent video on osteoporosis on his website. Like other plant promoting physicians, he explains how countries with little or no osteoporosis don’t get nearly as much calcium in their diets as women in this country are advised to consume. There seems to be considerable overconsumption of calcium in the US because of this advice, leading to calcium buildup in the arteries (what we used to call hardening of the arteries).

 will take you to his site. This video is available to rent or buy, but I found it, or a similar one by him, on Youtube for free at one time. Even without renting the video you will find at this site a timeline showing when each subject is discussed in the film. It is quite comprehensive.

        2. High protein diets are — I believe — fully recognized (including by Dr Greger) as causing excretion of calcium in the urine. What is not known is the mechanism. It is not clear that the protein directly impacts bone calcium — the excreted calcium may just be from what is circulating in the blood from the diet. But even so, if calcium is being excreted, then there is less calcium for the body to use in building/remodeling bone. So either way, it would seem that excessive protein, in leading (somehow) to calcium excretion (whether from blood or bones), isn’t good for the bones.

          You might not need more calcium at all, perhaps just de-emphasize protein?
          (All whole plant foods already have more than enough protein, as another recent Dr-Greger post argues.)

          At least this is the impression I have gotten from a variety of sources (including Nutrition Facts). Please let me know if you have indications that I misread anything.

        3. Osteoporosis is not just about calcium. You need magnesium too. Well raised green plants have both. Also depends on your water source. Hard water has more minerals, so better for you.
          In addition need vitamin D, and probably boron,
          Weight bearing exercise is very important also.

        4. More on protein and osteoporosis — I tried to send this earlier but it doesn’t seem to have gotten posted:

          High protein diets are — I believe — fully recognized (including by Dr Greger) as causing excretion of calcium in the urine. What is not known is the mechanism. It is not clear that the protein directly impacts bone calcium — the excreted calcium may just be from what is circulating in the blood from the diet. But even so, if calcium is being excreted, then there is less calcium for the body to use in building/remodeling bone. So either way, it would seem that excessive protein, in leading (somehow) to calcium excretion (whether from blood or bones), isn’t good for the bones.

          You might not need more calcium at all, perhaps just de-emphasize protein? (All whole plant foods already have more than enough protein, as another recent Dr-Greger post argues.)

          At least this is the impression I have gotten from a variety of sources (including Nutrition Facts). Please let me know if you have indications that I misread anything.

        5. You are looking in the wrong place? Magnesium is best for bone health. Women who take extra calcium are probably causing an increase in heart disease?

    3. Corrine, Dr. Klaper has a great video on his site on bone issues. One of his recommendations besides eating WFPB is to get a weight vest to put more stress on your bones while walking or doing some other activity,

  12. My only real concern with coffee is possible inhibit Iron absorption. I usually drink my coffee on an empty stomach during the week so this could possible help
    Drinking coffee one hour before a meal had no effect on iron absorption –

    Tea can influence Iron absorption too –

    The stronger the coffee or tea, the less iron absorbed –

    One study found that drinking instant coffee with a bread meal reduced iron absorption by over 60% –

  13. Hi Michael,

    You said you went to an endocronologist. Did they screen you for a Pheochromocytoma? Its very rare, but it might possibly explain your symptoms. I also have a mysteriously rapid heart rate that is managed with beta blockers. Caffeine doesn’t affect my HR all that much unless I over-do it. My cardiologist says my heart actually runs very regular strong and regular otherwise.

  14. Does the amount of sugar and/or cream in the individuals coffee, affect the outcome of the study….or when they say Coffee, they mean black, no sugar/milk/cream?


  15. Glaucoma runs in my family, my father was legally blind from it. I was dx’d with glaucoma around 2010. At this point, I decided to seek help from my chiropractor. I went for treatments 3 X a week for 4 weeks. He massaged my optic nerve primarily. They learn this when they go to medical school. When I went back to the opthamologist to see what would happen, he he was confused as to why I didn’t have any shredding of the optic nerve anymore and no more glaucoma. It is now 2017 and I still am glaucoma free.

  16. I wonder if it could depend on your genetics, since different genes are related to coffee metabolism. I love a good cup of coffee but I can’t handle it very well. 1 cup can already get me very shaky and sweaty which feels horrible. So I’d think that maybe for people who can handle coffee well it could reduce mortality but for people like me the effect might be different.. I’d love to do a study on this!

    1. Hi Connie, you bring up an interesting point! As the studies seem to be largely observational, it does not seem that they were controlled for any additions to the coffee. Hopefully in the future there will be more research on the effects of black coffee versus coffee with cream/sugar.

  17. Great article! I always enjoy the unbiased and neutral presentation of your information. I would like to see your take on the affects of Ochratoxins/Mycotoxins, where coffee drinkers health and mortality rates are concerned.

    I think in general, it would be an eye opener to the general public/consumer, just how much of these toxins are OKed by the FDA, for consumption by consumers…especially in one of the most consumed daily foods…Coffee. Several countries and the EU have strict parameters and require testing of the coffees sold in within their borders.

    Thanks again for the good work.

  18. Why consume something that has no nutritional benefit to the body? I chose to give up coffee after getting really sick with IBS over 5 years ago and found that coffee was not helping me get better. Once I gave up I realized how much of an addiction it was and now feel free from it. I save money, I don;t get the anxiety you get when you can’t get a coffee, or the withdrawals from it either. I now only consume herbal tea, no black, green or white tea and no chocolate or cacao. I sleep better, am happier and don’t worry much anymore. Most positive benefits are spins by the coffee industry, after all I bet they are behind the research.

  19. Let’s not forget that a significant percentage of us have methylation pathway mutations, and excessive polyphenols from both coffee and tea can jam these pathways when consumed in excess… potentially increasing cardiovascular and cancer risk.

  20. Happy to hear that you now have a cookbook. I suffer from both IBS and Sjogren’s Syndrome which are not really addressed. I am unable to eat broccoli and cauliflower which are recommended for daily consumption. Will there be recipes that take these diseases into account? Thanks.

  21. Hi michael! I’m not sure I would advise adding coffee grounds to a smoothie, but let us know if you try adding some loose tea to your smoothies!

  22. Very interesting, when I was 16 I used to drink those International Coffees. Pure chemicals & probably worse. I can’t believe I drank that stuff, either. I also had benign lumps in my breasts that dissipated soon after I finally stopped drinking that stuff. Though my roommate is taking it nowadays, preventing her as much I can.

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