Infant Seizures Linked to Mother's Spirulina Use

Image Credit: SurFeRGirl30 / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Toxin Contamination of Spirulina Supplements

On his first day of life, an infant was hospitalized with seizures. Researchers concluded that his mother’s daily spirulina use starting in the fourth month of pregnancy was likely to blame. I’ve talked previously about the liver and nerve toxins present in many spirulina supplements, but the supplement companies swear up and down that spirulina doesn’t produce those toxins, and they may be right (See my video Infant Seizures Linked to Mother’s Spirulina Use).

But if spirulina doesn’t produce toxins, how is it that toxins are found in spirulina supplements on store shelves? It appears to be contamination of spirulina with toxin-producing blue-green algae.

For example, if we look at the new U.S. Pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina, researchers conclude that “the available evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concern when spirulina is properly identified, formulated, and used.” Ah, but that’s the catch. Spirulina is often grown and collected in open lakes and we have no idea what other algae are going to crop up.

The researchers reported a range of adverse reactions of people taking spirulina products, ­­but they attribute these issues to non-spirulina algae toxin contaminants within spirulina supplements. So unless there’s third-party testing of each batch (which no company could presumably afford to do), I continue to encourage people to avoid spirulina (and blue-green algae) products.

If one still wants something green to sprinkle on their popcorn, I’d recommend chlorella instead (Is Chlorella Good for You?).

I’ve previously addressed green powders in:

Pregnancy is a very vulnerable time and requires an even higher level of dietary vigilance:

Some supplements may be risky for everyone though. See, for example Safety of Noni and Mangosteen Juice.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here and watch my full 2012 – 2015 presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.


Michael Greger M.D., FACLM

Michael Greger, M.D. FACLM, is a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues. Dr. Greger has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, and the International Bird Flu Summit, testified before Congress, appeared on The Dr. Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous "meat defamation" trial.

41 responses to “Toxin Contamination of Spirulina Supplements

Comment Etiquette

On, you'll find a vibrant community of nutrition enthusiasts, health professionals, and many knowledgeable users seeking to discover the healthiest diet to eat for themselves and their families. As always, our goal is to foster conversations that are insightful, engaging, and most of all, helpful – from the nutrition beginners to the experts in our community.

To do this we need your help, so here are some basic guidelines to get you started.

The Short List

To help maintain and foster a welcoming atmosphere in our comments, please refrain from rude comments, name-calling, and responding to posts that break the rules (see our full Community Guidelines for more details). We will remove any posts in violation of our rules when we see it, which will, unfortunately, include any nicer comments that may have been made in response.

Be respectful and help out our staff and volunteer health supporters by actively not replying to comments that are breaking the rules. Instead, please flag or report them by submitting a ticket to our help desk. is made up of an incredible staff and many dedicated volunteers that work hard to ensure that the comments section runs smoothly and we spend a great deal of time reading comments from our community members.

Have a correction or suggestion for video or blog? Please contact us to let us know. Submitting a correction this way will result in a quicker fix than commenting on a thread with a suggestion or correction.

View the Full Community Guidelines

  1. Dr. Greger, I really appreciate you taking on this topic for a blog post. I have spoken to several people who swear by their spirulina usage. I have tried to refer them to the videos, but I doubt anyone clicked the link. They say, “But my brand says that it is pure…” This blog post is a really nice summary that I can now use to e-mail to someone. I think this will be more effective and the recipient of the info can follow the video links if they want more info. Thanks!!!

        1. One serving of NOW pea protein contains 24g of 100% pure non-gmo pea protein. I tried VegLife Peaceful Planet Pea Protein and had a severe allergic reaction to the gm maltodextrin in it. Lips and back of throat swelled up. Scary!

    1. Thea, please do your research…. Dr. Greger doesn’t know the difference between Klamath Blue Green Algae and Spirulina. Spirulina has been on the planet for 3.6 Billion years…. it is (culturally) eaten for thousands of years be African people living near/around Lake Chad & in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia…. there are hundreds of medical and scientific articles published and available on line that speak to it’s nutritional value and health benefits. Having now taken it myself for 30+ years & enjoyed near perfect health I would have to respectfully disagree with the doctor on what he writes and the disservice he does for people seeking good health.

      1. Lyndia Storey: I’m very glad to hear you haven’t been harmed by contaminated spirulina.
        But note that none of your arguments are logical. How long a substance has been on the planet is irrelevant to whether or not it is harmful to humans. Neither is it relevant to whether or not contaminated products get sold by modern suppliers. How longs humans have consumed a product is equally meaningless. As Tom Goff recently pointed out so aptly to another poster, some human cultures have also long practiced drinking urine and eating other humans. Obviously, just because a human society has copied a practice generation after generation does not make that practice healthy. Neither does one anecdote (yourself or anyone else) of someone being fine taking a product. After all, how many times have you heard of someone who smoked heavily for decades and never gotten cancer? But the science tells us that smoking is definitely a risk factor for cancer. Finally, your point about there being studies showing that spirulina is healthy is not in dispute. Thus, your point there is what is known as a strawman’s argument.
        I have no problem with someone saying that they are happy to take the personal risk of consuming a product (as long as doing so doesn’t affect other people). But I do feel that everyone has the right to be properly informed of the science and potential risks. That’s what I would say this article is about. Informing us of the risks. And I think a responsible approach from anyone (such as yourself) sharing with others about the benefits of spriulina would also including sharing about the risks now that you know about them. Seems the ethical route to me…

  2. But in your study of chlorella you said that it was unsafe so why would you recommend it instead of spirulena ? It sounds like both are unsafe…

    1. My heart almost stopped beating after taking chlorella. If you have autoimmune issues – and even if you don’t! – I’d be wary of using chlorella. And I used arguably the most reputable brand out there.

  3. Just wanted to share my experience with chlorella; I have eaten chlorella on and off now for about two years and it has really helped me with my menstrual pain. As soon as I stop taking it the pms returns so I always make sure I have some chlorella in my cupboard now :-)

  4. I have been taking Hawaiian Spirulina from Nutrex for the past few years and I have every confidence that it is a clean product, free of toxins. I sent them Dr. G’s post and here is their response:

    Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica® is not collected from natural blooms in open lakes. Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica is grown under carefully controlled culture conditions that are monitored daily. Each lot of Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica passes 15 different quality assurance
    tests, including complete microbiological testing, before being released for sale. In addition, Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica is regularly tested for toxins by independent third party laboratories. In over 30 years of testing no toxins have ever been found present in Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica. Quite to the contrary, many health benefits have been and continue to be reported as a result of
    consumption of Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica.

    Cyanotech Corporation produces Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica® at its facility in Kona, Hawaii, USA under US Food and Drug Administration laws as certified by the Natural Products
    Association. Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica is certified as Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) by US-Food and Drug Administration and may be used in any food, beverage, or supplement.


    1. What percent of the B12 in this product is a false/analogue version of B12, and what percent is real B12? They put “B12” on the label, but spirulina might not contain much absorbable/usable B12 for humans.

      1. From Nutrex:

        In regards to Vitamin B-12,
        the nutritional analysis is more complicated than with other nutrients. There are two different kinds of Vitamin B-12: Human-active B-12 that the body can absorb and utilize, as well as analogue B-12 that is not absorbed by the human body. Both human active and analogue B-12 are found in Spirulina, but the relative amount of human active and analogue B-12 is currently in dispute The
        remarkably high quantity of human active plus analogue B-12 found in a 3 gram
        suggested daily serving of Hawaiian Spirulina totals 9 mcg. This figure can be
        broken down as a minimum of 36% human active (or 3.24 mcg per 3 gram serving), and 64% analogue (or 5.76 mcg per 3 gram serving). The analogue B-12 in Spirulina in no way interferes with absorption of human active B-12 and has no other known side effect or contraindication. It is not, however, absorbed by the human body. Thus, the absorbable fraction of Vitamin B-12 in a 3 gram daily serving of Hawaiian Spirulina represents 54% of the Daily Value as recommended by the US FDA.

          1. I always try to go directly to the source of origin when I have a question about a product. There is simply too much misinformation on the net.

        1. Did nutrex provide a study and or proof that the analogue B12 in no way interferes with the absorption of human active B12? Maybe the active form is “absorbed”, but can it then actually be utilized by the human body? I think the burden of proof is on nutrex to show this.

            1. What did Julia provide to you as far as an answer on this question? I think it would serve the viewership here to have knowledge of the question you were previously asked. You posted other stuff from Nutrex, hopefully you can do the same on this front, as this issue I have raised is vital to the integrity of the B12 status of vegans (as well as some non-vegans) who use spirulina.

    2. Help I hope yr still there…I’ve been taking the Hawaiian Pacifica Spirulina for years no problem. Unit tonight I bought the Mountain Organic Spirulina – same brand – but apparently grown of the mountains in Taiwan. I took 1 teaspoon in cup water and within 10-15 minutes I felt like I was icy cold like a serious panic attack, I felt weak and frightened…as I’m typing this I have to force myself to calm down. This really worries me What The Heck is Happening? Why is this happening – it’s been 20 mins and my body still feels icy-hot – same sensation as a panic attack but I stopped having panic attacks 20 yrs ago. It’s like i’ve been poisoned?. It’s nearly 11pm on my own tonight so am very worried. I’ll never buy this again. But I have leaky gut syndrome/lupus and the pacifica spirulina never ever did this to me before. I’m scared. Can someone please tell me anything they know about this Mountain Organic Spirulina is it a dif species? Also I was told this one is organic so it’s not fertilised with chillian nitrate as pacifica is and was told it’s bird poop so I want to avoid parasites if that’s possible? Thanks anybody.

  5. I think Dr. G’s raising awareness of the potential problems with Spirulina or BGA sources is good. I am very careful to avoid lake sourced BGA for the points mentioned. Like Mindy, I consume a product with Spirulina Pacifica in it which is manufactured by Nutrex and am confident it doesn’t present the contamination risk of Spirulina sourced from lakes. I don’t believe a general statement that all Spirulina is bad or potentially dangerous because we don’t know the source is the answer. If one is using a reputable manufacturer and they aren’t involved in making or selling open lake sourced Spirulina I feel confident enough it is doesn’t present the same concerns.

  6. Spirulina is healthful, and quite safe. Just make sure you purchase it from the better brand names, or grow it yourself. This particular infant just had an allergy to it. Infants show up in the E.R. all the time with reactions to all kinds of foods. This is an example of cherry picking to discredit Spirulina.

    1. Read the previous threads on Spirulina .

      Dr Greger negative comments on Spirulina are not backed up by any scientific evidence.

  7. How can i trust this guy when he is the director of animal agriculture of united states? Obviously spirulina could replace his animal products.

  8. I use Earthrise Spirulina, I took Hawaiin Nutrex about 5 to 6 years ago. I had no side effects or noticeable benefits. I have not had any issues with it.

    After seeing Gregor’s video I stopped taking all spirulina. I did further research. The biggest issue is contaminated non-tested Spirulina has a risk of BMAA. I reached out to Earthrise about this and they test for this through a different independent company. They also don’t do open lake or pond water. They have controlled ponds and how they dry the spirulina is also critical. Don’t by any open water Spirulina if you are trying to buy some. Also, make sure your Spirulina has been tested extensively.

    1. Do you feel the Hawaiian grown spirulina by nutrex is safe as far as BMAA?
      And, are there any noticeable benefits you experience with the earth wise that
      you did not experience with the nutrex? If so I’d love to hear about them. Thanks.

      1. I don’t think there is a difference. More difference with my allergies from not taking it to taking it. I live in Austin where people complain about allergies and since I take spirulina i have had no issues. I think EarthRise is better though . I think I saw some extra ingredients in Nutrex.

  9. Spirulina is a healthy supplement. However if it was cultured in uncontrolled ponds and contaminated with toxic blue-green algae, e.g. anabeana, occilatorius, etc., then its harvested biomass is surely harmful for human health

  10. Hello,

    Do you have any opinion on Dr. Spencer’s Miracle Algae with Zeolite? It says it contains Dr. Spencer’s unique Spirulina algae and micronized Zeolite powder in vegetarian capsules. 100% Pure and Natural. No insecticides, herbicides, or preservatives used in growing or processing.

    Thank you for your response!

  11. Good morning,

    As i’m working in spirulina field (Arthrospira) in France and Canary island, I’m wondering if you plan to do a new update on Spirulina studies concerning the problem of cyanotoxins; especially BMAA and Anatoxins (microcystins are regularly tested).

    Is there a maximum established threshold (tolerable upper intake) for specifics cyanotoxins in actual common foods (fish, seafood and others) to make a comparison between them?

    Thank you for your great works.

    Best regards

    Technical Consultant, Microgreen Spirulina Innovation
    +33 603 93 09 64| |

  12. How is the algae DHA supplements recommended any different from spirulina? If the spirulina is from a tested controlled source that is .

  13. To say that “Spirulina is often grown and collected in open lakes” is just not true. There might be some producers for the international market who still uses this age-old method, but it is not standard by any means.

    I really like that you take time to report on these awful cases, but it all comes down to a poorly regulated and poorly checked market. And an industry that is sometimes hostile to proper food safety control measures. This is the culprit of so many poisoning cases around the world.

    If I could choose, take the tax money I am paying to the bloated military sector (against my will), and channel them to the food safety sector instead. Lives will be saved!

  14. Why isn’t the great doctor chiming in??? Come on Dr. G people are asking questions here. It is frustrating that many of you post questions that have been ignored. What’s the point if were only talking to ourselves?

    Thanks goes out to Mindy for her work regarding Nutrex Spirulina products! I appreciate you going the extra mile to get information.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This