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We Have Specific Fruit and Vegetable Receptors

According to a recent survey, the number of Americans adults who say they are eating ‘pretty much whatever they want’ is at an all-time high,” which unfortunately includes “too few fruits and vegetables,” as well as “too little variety.” Half of all fruit servings are taken up by just six foods: orange juice, bananas, apple juice, apples, grapes, and watermelons. Only five foods—iceberg lettuce, frozen potatoes, fresh potatoes, potato chips, and canned tomatoes—make up half of all vegetable servings. We’re not only eating too few fruits and veggies. We’re also missing out on the healthiest fruits, which are berries, and the healthiest vegetables, which are dark green leafies. The fruit and vegetable palette for our palate is sadly lacking.

Why does dietary diversity matter? As I discuss in my video Specific Receptors for Specific Fruits and Vegetables, different foods may affect different problems. Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts are associated with lower risk of colon cancer in the middle and right side of our body, whereas risk of colon cancer further down on the left side of our body appears to be better lowered by carrots, pumpkins, and apples. So, “different F/V [fruits and vegetables] may confer different risks for cancer” of different parts of even the same organ.

Variety is the spice of life—and may prolong it. “Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease lung cancer risk,” meaning if two people eat the same number of fruits and vegetables, the one eating a greater variety may be at lower risk.

It’s not just cancer risk. In a study of thousands of men and women, a greater quantity of vegetables and a greater variety may independently be beneficial for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Even after removing the effects of quantity, “each different additional two item per week increase in variety of F&V [fruit and vegetable] intake was associated with an 8% reduction in the incidence of T2D [type 2 diabetes].” Why? Well, it “may be attributable to individual or combined effects of the many different bioactive phytochemicals contained in F&V. Thus, consumption of a wide variety of F&V will increase the likelihood of consuming” more of them.

“All the vegetables may offer protection…against chronic diseases,” but “[e]ach vegetable group contains a unique combination and amount of these [phytonutrients], which distinguishes them from other groups and vegetables within their own group.” Indeed, because “each vegetable contains a unique combination of phytonutriceuticals (vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and phytochemicals), a great diversity of vegetables should be eaten…to get all the health benefits.”

Does it matter, though, if we get alpha-carotene or beta-carotene? Isn’t an antioxidant an antioxidant? No. “It has been shown that phytochemicals bind to specific receptors and proteins” in our bodies. For example, our body appears to have a green tea receptor—that is, a receptor for EGCG, which is a key component of green tea. There are binding proteins for the phytonutrients in grapes, onions, and capers. In my video The Broccoli Receptor: Our First Line of Defense, I talk about the broccoli receptor, for instance. Recently, a cell surface receptor was identified for a nutrient concentrated in apple peels. Importantly, these target proteins are considered indispensable for these plants foods to do what they do, but they can only do it if we actually eat them.

Just like it’s better to eat a whole orange than simply take a vitamin C pill, because, otherwise, we’d miss out on all the other wonderful things in oranges that aren’t in the pill, by just eating an apple, we’re also missing out on all the wonderful things in oranges. When it comes to the unique phytonutrient profile of each fruit and vegetable, it truly is like comparing apples to oranges.


This is one of the reasons I developed my Daily Dozen checklist of foods to incorporate into one’s routine. Download the free iPhone and Android apps, and be sure to watch my video Dr. Greger’s Daily Dozen Checklist.

I discuss how produce variety—not just quality and quantity—may be important in Apples and Oranges: Dietary Diversity and Garden Variety Anti-Inflammation, so I hope you’ll check them out. You can also learn more about why combining certain foods together may be more beneficial than eating them separately in Food Synergy.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Discuss

Michael Greger M.D., FACLM

Michael Greger, M.D. FACLM, is a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues. Dr. Greger has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, and the International Bird Flu Summit, testified before Congress, appeared on The Dr. Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous "meat defamation" trial.


68 responses to “We Have Specific Fruit and Vegetable Receptors

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  1. Dr. G.:

    How long ago was your serene, kind-looking mugshot taken? Ten years ago….a dozen or more? Any wrinkles or other changes since then?

    1. “How long ago was your serene, kind-looking mugshot taken? Ten years ago….a dozen or more?”

      He did have a beard until a few years ago. It doesn’t go back even close to ten years.

      1. Yeah, I’ve seen his huffing/talking on the treadmill thingies, so I know what he looks like these days. (A bit of chronic 5 o’clock shadow, maybe?)

        Just wondered when the earlier pic was taken. And whether it was airbrushed. (Hey, I’m kidding….I’m kidding! :-)

        1. I don’t know how they do the whole celebrity thing and stay healthy and happily married. It has to be even harder with millions of beautiful vegans. People get so emotionally attached to one doctor or another and it has to be odd having whole groups of people almost worshiping you and other groups with targets in your back trying to destroy your manhood and reputation as a doctor. I am protective of him and this movement and know that I will most likely never meet him, but he has people standing in line for 4 hours to say hello and it has to be hyper-exciting then a year of writing. Too many people all flying everywhere to maintain close friendships and spouses getting jealous of the supermodel females and males flirting with their husbands followed by geeky video interviews. Just my perceptions.

  2. YR, I saw Dr. G in a conference 2-ish years ago and he’s still looking great. The picture doesn’t quite convey all of the energy this guy brings with him. WFPB plus a walking treadmill for the win!

    1. Yes, conference photos show a much higher energy version of Dr. G.

      He looks good and healthy and handsome in almost every version except the chronic 5 o’clock shadow version. (He had one mis-shaven moment in Eating You Alive, and the chronic 5 o’clock shadow in the beans, beans video, both of which I blame on the directors.)

  3. A useful adjunct to today’s blog is a book by Dr T Colin Campbell called “Whole”, which explains how plant foods contain nutrients that haven’t even been named yet that work together synergistically to keep us healthy. The book proposes a new paradigm for studying nutrition as opposed to the old reductionist approach, which focuses on one single nutrient at a time. .Excellent book.

  4. Thanks Darwin, sounds like something I would enjoy reading. While my grocery list is good, ( I have never bought frozen potatoes, iceberg lettuce or fruit juice of any kind) it is repetitive. Some of that is due to eating local and seasonal, but budget constraints limit choices further. My husband enjoys the thick vegie/greens packed minestroni soups I make weekly, but I also try to have a non-tomatoe based soup going as well like “cream” of cauliflower and leek for example. I will make more of an effort to try new things. Thanks Dr G.

      1. That’s a great idea Rebecca! wfpb sos-free population is a little thin in my neighbourhood. It’s such a treat to try someone else’s cooking. Recipes are the next best thing.

  5. So many of these nutritious and disease thwarting vegetables and fruits can wreak havoc on some of us with digestive issues. Time and gradual adaptation haven’t seemed to help me get over issues with onions, garlic, beans and cruciferous vegetables. Does Dr. Greger ever address this problem?

    1. So many of these nutritious and disease thwarting vegetables and fruits can wreak havoc on some of us with digestive issues.
      ——————————————————————————————-
      I’m not a big fresh fruit and veggie eater either… but I do get some via powdered or dried (like prunes for instance.) Digestion-wise, these seem to be no problem. My stools, while normally not large, seem to be well-formed.

      I did stumble upon something that has increased the size of my stool (as we have learned, stool is mostly made up of the bacteria within our gut.) That is, I saw a kefir water at my bargain store and bought up a half dozen. I also saw some cans of coconut water.

      Long story short, I tried the kefir, hard to drink, added some coconut water, easier to drink. Next morning, larger stool.

      1. “Next morning, larger stool.”
        – – – – – – – –

        Lonie,

        Dr. Oz would be thrilled to have you on his show so that you can discuss your ….poop.

        1. I’m more knowledgeably about cat poop as I shut them in the garage during cold weather and scoop it out of the litter box daily.

          YR U now Cool Kitty?

          Mood swings? ‘-)

          1. Yes, moody when ’tis my wont. For some reason, Deb had bestowed me with the “fierce” adjective, which I decided to shake. From now on I hope to be gaggingly sweet.

            Although, true, there’s nothing very sweet about the moving of your daily bowels. Serious business, that.

              1. And tomorrow we’ll be full of it again. :-( And the next day, and the next. Garbage in, garbage out. It’s just one of the many (pathetic) things we have in common with everyone else.

                Alas….the design of animals and their various orifices! :-(

      1. Second what Katey is saying…..when it comes to gut issues, Gojiman youtuber is a great source. It is through him I gained lots of insight in my own gut issues and got the right tests done.

    2. i believe he only mentioned to look into the underlying issues but hasnt gone deeper into them.
      For example, loads of gut issues come from SIBO ( up to 84% of IBS sufferers have Sibo according to one study).

      Introducing sensitive foods slowly when one has sibo, like lets say legumes, wont ever fix the underlying issue, unless you get rid of sibo first. So the food will always give you problems in one way or another. Gut issues like sibo are vastly underestimated.
      Lots of keto dieters and now more recently ex-vegans turned carnivores, eliminated most plant foods, (especially starches) and feel better because they get rid of a lot of symptoms they had.

      Some bacteria involved in sibo or dysbiose like Klebsiella pneumonea (pathogenic in case of overgrowth), feeds off mostly starch and contributes to discomfort. Of course people feel better then if they leave out grains and legumes.

      I can speak from personal experience, cause I tested positive for Sibo, and a whole bunch of other things. So advice to slowly introduce stuff has never worked for me. No doctor has told me to do a sibo test either.

      It would be great if Dr. Greger looked into this more, cause its a real issue for many and its a major reason plant based diets get villified.

      Sorry for the lack of sources. Im using my phone and takes more time to navigate through everything. Can easily find stuff on google though.

      1. These reports always make me wonder about how our ancestors coped. The bulk of the human population throughout recorded history lived in cultures where the vast mass of ordinary people lived primarily on starchy tubers (potatoes, yams, cassava etc) or grains (rice, wheat, millet, barley etc) together with vegetables and some occasional animal foods.

        How did they cope if these intolerances to starchy foods, grains, nightshades etc are so widespread? Were IBS, SIBO etc common before the modern day? I have seen figures that suggest that up to 30% of some populations might have IBS to some degree.

        I mean, there is even an hypothesis that people of white European descent evolved specifically as a result of a cereal rich diet yet oodles of white people are claiming to be intolerant of cereals etc.
        http://sciencevibe.com/2016/11/06/white-skin-for-most-modern-europeans-did-not-evolve-in-europe-at-all/

        It could be something like the nocebo effect I suppose. I remember that at one time RSI was all the rage and 50% of the adult population seemed to be reporting that they had symptoms of RSI. Now you never hear about it. Is this the same type of phenomenon?

        Or could it be that the modern diet full of processed food and fats has so altered our gut biomes that we are no longer able to cope effectively with traditional foods? This might explain why reports of reintroducing vegetable foods back in the diet in small amounts allows people to rejig their gut microbiome over time so that it is eventually restored to its ‘normal’ healthy state and can tolerate and even thrive on these foods. I’ve never had any problems but then I did transition to a WFPB det over a number of years …. first giving fried foods, then sugar, then meat, eggs,fish and dairy etc and gradually increasing whole plant foods along the way.

        1. Starch itself is thankfully not the issue, but gets blamed unfairly unfortunatelt as the cause due to gut issues. it doesnt get the attention it deserves, and gets ignored too often. But they do cause real issues in people like me.

          My test results showed among others that I have relatively few lactobacillus and bifido wasnt detected in two different samples. Huge imbalance, since klepsiella is present in huge numbers.
          Symptoms started 10+ years ago after a course of antibiotics and have gotten progressively worse after each subsequent course (total seven of which the last ones were 6 years ago).

          You’d imagine 6 years would have been enough time to get used to foods. Without underlying issues, I have no doubt, that there would not have been any issue.
          wfpb for quite a few years and the years before that already minimised processed foods.

          Gut issues are more common now, because we have so many things affecting our gut flora: antibiotics, processed food, chlorinated water, medicine, etc.

          Lots of lactobaccilus strains create an environment where pathogens and gram negative strains for example arent able to cause problems. But what if they arent there to protect because they got killed off? Im sure this imbalance was extremely rare in the far past since there good flora werent killed off by all these different things.

        2. You mentioned that the vast majority of people in civilizations going way back lived primarily on starches tubers rice…
          What I find interesting is that you make no mention of fruit. Maybe the absence of sugary fruits is what allowed these civilizations to thrive without getting SIBO and other gut issues. Food combining of fruits with starchy food might be a cause of current day gut issues? Any thoughts, Tom?

          1. Well, it seems a bit improbable because fruit has long been part of our evolutionary history and was I believe eaten seasonally in all those civilisations.

            Yes, fruit has never been a universal staple food to my knowledge but that I think is largely because it is necessarily a seasonal food in all but tropical regions. However, in some regions fruits such as olives, breadfruit and plantains were staples and were available all year round. So I think that fruit has been a part of the diet for very long time, which is why I think that it is unlikely to be behind the apparently recent rise in things like IBS, SIBO etc. Perhaps though these things were common in past eras but just never made it into the history books.

            So, I’d suspect the cause is what’s now common in North American societies, ie very low vegetable and fruit consumption and high processed food, animal fat and protein consumption. That would include high sugar consumption of course but I suspect that very little of that sugar consumption comes from actual fruit (excluding juice).

            That’s why I’m inclined to blame modern dysbiosis on modern processed foods both plant and animal. However, as I wrote before that is just speculation on my part. There may well be other causes. As Jorgie has mentioned, antibiotic use might be one possible cause of altered gut bacteria. Not just as a consequence of medical prescribing but also from its presence in livestock (where it’s widely used to promote growth) and therefore in animal foods. Antibiotics are also in the water supply.
            https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/antibiotics-in-drinking-water.htm

    3. Hi I’m a RN health support volunteer. I don’t know what specific digestive issues you have, dyspepsia, gas/bloating . . . But Dr. Greger has information on digestive issues.
      Dyspepsia:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-best-diet-for-upset-stomach/
      Gas:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/2011/12/05/beans-and-gas-clearing-the-air/
      Heartburn:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/video/diet-and-gerd-acid-reflux-heartburn/
      Diarrhea:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/diarrhea/
      Constipation:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/constipation/

      Sipping herbal peppermint tea throughout the day (its good for you anyway) can be really helpful for gas and bloating too.

      NurseKelly

  6. I’ve read Campbell’s “Whole” and can strongly endorse it. It is fantastic food for thought.

    On another note, I have many food allergies (onions, mushrooms, peppers, squashes and citrus fruits among them). How do I get what these F/V offer, if I can’t eat them?

    1. You can appoint with an allergist. There are new protocols to deal with allergies. i.e. there are many people that are now eating peanuts even though they demonstrated previous severe allergies to peanuts. Dangerous to attempt without a trained doctor’s supervision though.

      Dr. Ben

  7. Interesting to learn that there are specific receptors for things found in different fruits. Begs the question whether or not a no-sugar-added fruit juice can satisfy these receptors.

    1. Lonie- researchers have found that there are a large number of great phytochemicals that are attached to the fiber in plants that are only released with digestion. Fruit juices are definitely better than sodas and will hit some of those receptors but you would definitely be missing out compared to a smoothie which Incorporates the whole plant food

      1. Add-on for Lonie- which is why fiber is has been shown repeatedly to have many benefits. It’s not just “fiber” that you’re getting but all the phytonutrients that come attached to it.

        1. Ryan, all good observations and they pretty much follow the “company line” of Dr.’s recommendations.

          But as I commented above to Tree of Life, there may be other ways to create “fiber” in our stool by adding probiotics.

          Of course there has to be some solids in our gut for the biotics to use as feed stock, but since our stool is probably mostly gut bacteria (or so I’ve read) I’m of the minority (I’m sure) of one that fiber isn’t so all important if certain intestinal conditions are met.

            1. Lonie,

              Are you saying that you would drink fruit juice, but won’t eat the fruit?

              If so, I think people who have done juicing have benefited better than not getting any.

              It matters though that you make your own versus buying the bottled stuff.

              I am someone who drinks my fruit better than eating it.

              I eat some during the Summer when fruit is really fresh, but then don’t eat any and juicing does bring me back to fruit again.

              1. Are you saying that you would drink fruit juice, but won’t eat the fruit?
                ————————————————————–
                Actually I will eat fruit if it is off one of my own trees, and maybe some cherries or blueberries or even strawberries from the supermarket on the occasion of an affordable price.

                But I probably trust the unsweetened juice like the Just Blueberry, Just Pomegranate, or Just Tart Cherry brands of juice more than I do the ones shipped in from South America as whole fruits.

                And honestly I do fine with the Biotta 32 ounce bottles of beet juice and V-8 bottles (wish they were glass though) of veggie juice and two or more of the fruit juices mentioned above, all taken daily. Also mango, guava, whatever I find at the grocery store but not daily.

                I’m not trying to discourage anyone who eats for the fiber of the whole fruit or veggie… just sayin’ that off the shelf products like those mentioned above save me a lot of time and seem to be working well in keeping me healthy.

            1. Tom, working off an old memory here, but I swear I remember reading that most of the bulk of our stool consists of bacteria… reason I recall this is I was very surprised to read that.

              So, it is possible I misunderstood the statement.

              Would welcome anyone either discounting that notion or backing it up.

              1. Hi Lonie. Yes, I remember reading the same thing too.

                So you are saying that probiotics may perform the same function as fibre in promoting a healthy microbiome?

                1. So you are saying that probiotics may perform the same function as fibre in promoting a healthy microbiome?
                  ———————————————————————
                  I don’t know… but I assume a well-stocked microbiome works on any carb, protein, or fat? (Just my guess)

                  I’m sure the organisms in our gut prefer fiber, and some of the hard to digest fiber goes to our small intestine to be broken down as food for that grouping… but as far as I know lacking fiber doesn’t deplete our microbiome. At least not to the point of wiping it out.

                  So, it just seems to me if we continually feed our gut probiotics it will perform its function of digestion

  8. To take the concept to the next step, that is, guidance for achieving variety. There are three approaches I recommend to consider:
    1) food family: that is, among vegetables, include cruciferous veggies (cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli), green leafy veggies (some crossover with crucifers), the onion family (garlic, leeks, etc.), starchy vegetables, the root family (carrots, potatoes, turnips), etc.
    Among fruit, that includes citrus, tree fruit with pits, tree fruit with seeds, tropical fruit, etc.
    Among grains, that’s oats, wheat, barley, rice, quinoa, rye, etc.
    Among legumes, that’s beans, lentils and peas. And within beans, that’s red kidney, black, lima, garbanzo, etc.
    Among nuts/seeds, that’s … you get the idea.
    2) colors: eat green, red, orange/yellow, blue/purple
    3) plant part: that’s leaves, roots, stalks, fruit
    I think Food Families is the most effective, but use what ever works for you.

    The guidance is:
    1) You should include all veg food groups (grains, fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts/seeds, mushrooms) in your diet every day.
    2) You should include variety within food groups over the course of the week.

    I recall a Nutritionfacts video from probably 15 years ago that pitted more F&V against greater variety. I don’t remember what the health outcome being measured was, but variety won. That has informed by eating and teaching ever since.

  9. Hello friends,

    Does anyone have any solid research on introducing raw veggies to a 1 yr old baby (specifically raw onions and peppers)? I mince them, so my concern is not about choking…

    What age could my baby’s stomach and intestinal tract effectively break down these without causing more harm than good? Is the only negative side effect ‘possible gas’?

    I’ve found no legitimate research on this. Generally, most “baby” sites make vague suggestions like “introduce your 10+mo baby to soft foods, small pieces, etc.” and “cook onions and veggies”…. but these are the same people suggesting “chicken pieces, and pureed beef, etc.” so I can’t trust them.

    Thanks!
    Ana

    1. I didn’t find what you were looking for on PubMed.

      Parents.com recommends to feed onions to babies before age 1 because the more variety they have by age 1 the more likely they are going to eat variety later in life.

      Homemade baby food recipes site said after 6 months and to start small and look for digestive issues problems.

      https://homemade-baby-food-recipes.com/when-can-babies-eat-onions-using-onions-in-your-baby-food-recipes/
      Onions unsurprisingly – not ideal served as one of baby’s first foods, but can be introduced at some point after 6 months of age, when baby is already enjoying a range of fruits and vegetables (with your doctor’s consent, of course).

      The chief concern about introducing onion to baby is NOT the risk of allergy – allergy to onions is, thankfully, relatively rare – but is mainly the affect that they may have on baby’s digestive system. In some babies (and adults, too), onions may cause gas!

      As with adults, the extent to which onions cause gas varies from child to child. The effect is less pronounced when onions are cooked rather than raw, so we definitely recommend giving raw onions a miss until your baby is at least 1 year of age.

      But a small amount of cooked onion can be mixed with foods your baby is already enjoying once he’s comfortably digesting the more typical ‘first foods’. This tends to be at around 7 to 8 months of age.

      By introducing just a little at first, you will be able to gauge if the onion has any adverse affect on your little one – if all is well, then you can begin including onion in larger quantities.

      1. Thank you so much Deb, for your thorough response. I’ve come across a few of those types of sites as well. In general they recommend cooking the onions, but it’s mainly for “gas” like you said.

        I was hoping to eventually come across a scientific paper regarding raw veggies and infant GI responses, etc. but I doubt it’s going to happen any time soon. Seems there’s a lack of nutritional research targeting infants.

        I did come across a Raw vegan couple discussing what to feed an infant, but then when they said don’t introduce allergy foods until 3 years old, I realized I couldn’t continue with anything else they recommend.

        I’m not worried about the gas aspect, since that’s not a reason for children or adults (and hopefully babies) to avoid onions, since many legumes also have the same effect on people, and we know they’re some of the healthiest foods on the planet. My main concern is when people say “raw veg is tough on babies stomachs” if there is actual truth and concern behind it (meaning the 1 year olds intestines are not developed enough and will get injured by components of allium foods) or if it’s just the gas thing.

        My baby hasn’t had any irregular bowel movements or adverse emotional response since feeding him Quinoa with minced onions & bell peppers, and fresh-squeezed lemon juice. I’m not trying to turn the kid into an adult overnight, but just want him to get a spectrum of flavors and states of food early on. I’ve come across several people over they years who cannot stand raw onions, and sadly have no clue the cancer-fighting power they contain.

        Thanks again! Ana

      1. Thanks a lot Barb for the response!
        I love Dr. B too. And his PDF is a great ref guide.

        The thing about raw onions, garlic, and peppers for infants over 9 months is that there seems to be no specific research on it. So, as healthy raw foods may be, it’s not clear as to how harmless (or healthy) they may be for infants.

        So, do I roll the dice? I mean, I can’t imagine how bad they could possibly be in terms of causing damage of some sort. But, the other side of me is saying to play it safe, do cooked veg for now, and start with raw at around 2-3 years of age.

        It’s funny though how tuned in we are these days to the point of absurdity (worrying about phytochemicals and all). It’s a gift and a curse.

        1. Ana, your question is an interesting one, and the weird thing was, I couldnt find any trials about baby digestion of fruits, vegies etc. They were some about breastfeeding and formulas, but nothing on your question. I did find some interesting sites though by exploring various cultures. Looking at what moms have to say in india for example . I didnt save the page because it wasnt scientific – but it had suggestions for what vegies, spices etc to try at various ages, like 9 mos , and menu plans. They had onion and garlic and peppers too. Foods to be finely minced or cooked and mashed. Looking at the lists of foods I’d say the kids are ahead of the game eating all these antioxidant rich foods!

          1. Definitely, Barb.
            Countries like India, Thailand, Mexico think nothing of introducing spices less than a year old. And in NA, your average person would probably say “oh no, it’s too much for the kid to handle”.

            That’s why my gut is telling me that raw onions are just fine at 1 yr and most likely very beneficial.

            But we can’t go by our guts, and that’s why I may hold off until I see the research (or if Dr G offers a response)

  10. So we don’t get any points for intellectual assent? ;-P

    I am pondering that they are saying that potato chips count.

    I did buy the air-dried beets last night, wondering if the receptor will recognize it.

  11. Not sure if people will find this helpful but there are a couple of guides and checklists for healthful vegetarian eating that have solid scientific foundations. I don’t like the terminology they use since, as far as I am concerned, a vegetarian diet is a diet comprised of vegetables (ie any edible plant or fungus) and a diet that excludes meat is simply a diet that excludes meat. However, they do contain helpful well-researched information:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/5/542/htm
    https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/appendix-5/

    In fact, it is good to see more and more mainstream medical and nutritional research bodies recognising the fact that well-planned vegetarina diets are healthful. This Italian guide is also very useful

    https://www.nmcd-journal.com/article/S0939-4753(17)30260-0/fulltext

    These are the response to opinionated idiots on YouTube with their claims about vegetarian diets being unhealthful.

      1. I got a little confused by some of the categories.

        I got to them having whole grain, followed by refined grain and my brain started rejecting it and started crossing categories out.

    1. I think it is ‘That’s right, and swears” not squid – it must be the Australian accent.

      This is from a ‘Current Affairs’ programme of course – so it’s the uasual shock,horror nonsense.

      Dr Greger has a video on how much fruit is too much
      https://nutritionfacts.org/video/how-much-fruit-is-too-much/

      I would imagine that, long term, the lack of B12, iodine etc might be a problem. However, no long term studies of mortality/morbidity in fruitarains has ever been conducted

      1. “This is from a ‘Current Affairs’ programme of course – so it’s the uasual shock,horror nonsense.”
        – – – – – –

        “Nonsense”? Does it being on CA make it any less true? Are we to suppose this dame is lying thru her teeth? It could also be that she does take supplements, but isn’t admitting it.

  12. Pondering Cachexia tonight. I have fasted my dog and he has lost weight and I am re-feeding him, but I read that Cachexia is permanent even after remission the metabolism is permanently changed.

    I found they did a study of quercetin in the therapeutic treatment of cachexia and reversion of tumor growth in rats.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21362404

    Not sure that he has Cachexia, but they say that he would. He didn’t seem to lose weight until I fasted him, but he is thin now. I am slowly increasing the baby food and adding Tempeh back in, but I am trying to understand Cachexia whether my dog has it or not. Are there other WFPB things which help with it? It is why they say to stay away from things like grains and I want to introduce more grains to him, but don’t want to do it out of a head-in-the-sand rebelliousness. I want to know what is safe and what isn’t.

  13. Here is what they said:

    From Greg Ogilvie, DVM, Dip. ACVIM, and his colleagues at Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

    “… the most dramatic metabolic disturbance occurs in carbohydrate metabolism. Cancer cells metabolize glucose from carbohydrates through a process called anaerobic glycolysis, which forms lactate as a byproduct. The dog’s body must then expend energy to convert that lactate into a usable form. The end result? The tumor gains energy from carbohydrates, while the dog suffers a dramatic energy loss…….. The dog does not benefit from the increase in carbohydrate-laden food, but his cancer does……… Another metabolic alteration seen in dogs with cancer cachexia is that protein degradation exceeds protein synthesis, resulting in a net loss of protein in the dog’s body, contributing significantly to his weight loss as his muscle mass is stripped away. This net protein loss results in decreased cell-mediated and humoral immunity, gastrointestinal function, and wound healing…….. One interesting consequence of the metabolic change: it appears to be permanent. Once a dog has cancer, the metabolic processes remain altered even if he goes into remission.”

  14. We are not just eating excessively few foods grown from the ground, we are additionally passing up the most beneficial natural products, which are berries and the most beneficial vegetables…

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