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Concerns About Bone Broth

There are toxicological issues associated with production and processing of meat, such as the presence of various toxic contaminants—from dioxins and PCBs to cooked meat carcinogens. Carcinogenesis, the development of cancer, may be the main concern, but there are a number of other toxic responses connected with the consumption of meat products. Lead, for example, can be toxic to the nerves, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and kidneys.

Where is lead found in the food supply? In general terms, the highest levels of lead, as well as arsenic and mercury, are found in fish. Sardines have the most arsenic, but tuna may have sardines beat when it comes to mercury and lead.

The problem is that “fish-consumption advisories related to human health protection do not consider the fish by-products fed to farmed animals,” like farmed fish. If some tilapia are fed tuna by-products, they could bioaccumulate heavy metals and pass them onto us when we eat them. Researchers found the highest levels in frozen sole fillets, averaging above the legal limit for lead.

Lead exposure has been shown to have adverse effects on nearly every organ system in the body. Symptoms of chronic exposure range from memory loss and constipation to impotence and depression. These symptoms present after pretty hefty exposure, though. However, we now know that “[b]lood lead levels in the range currently considered acceptable are associated with increased prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia” (elevated levels of uric acid in the blood). According to the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization, a blood lead level needs to be less than 25 micrograms per deciliter to be “non-elevated.” You’d assume that at values under 25, there’d be no relationship with health outcomes, but even throughout this “acceptable” range, lower lead means lower uric acid levels and lower gout risk. So, even blood lead levels 20 times below the acceptable level can be associated with increased prevalence of gout. “These data suggest that there is no such thing as a ‘safe’ level of exposure to lead.” 

Once lead gets into the body, it tends to stay in the body. It builds up in the bones such that it may take 30 years just to get rid of half. The best strategy? Don’t get exposed in the first place.

If lead builds up in bones, though, what about boiling bones for broth? As I discuss in my video Lead Contamination in Bone Broth, we know bones sequester lead, which can then leach from the bones. So, researchers suggested that “the bones of farmyard animals will sequester lead, some of which will then be released into broth during its preparation.” Who eats bone broth? Bone broth consumption is encouraged by many advocates of the paleo diet. Online, you can learn all about purported “benefits” of bone broth, but what they don’t tend to mention is the theoretical risk of lead contamination—or at least it was theoretical until now. Broth made from chicken bones was found to have markedly high lead concentrations, up to a ten-fold increase in lead. Researchers concluded, “In view of the dangers of lead consumption to the human body, we recommend that doctors and nutritionists take the risk of lead contamination into consideration when advising patients about bone broth diets.”

But what if you only use bones from organic, free-range chickens? They did use only bones from organic, free-range chickens.

For more on the paleo diet, see:

Other products contaminated with lead include Ayurvedic supplements, protein powders, wild animals shot with lead ammunition, dairy products, and tea from China:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:


Michael Greger M.D., FACLM

Michael Greger, M.D. FACLM, is a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues. Dr. Greger has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, and the International Bird Flu Summit, testified before Congress, appeared on The Dr. Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous "meat defamation" trial.

62 responses to “Concerns About Bone Broth

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    1. The “ten-fold increase” is in comparison to water. But this is the problem. I drink a 1/4 cup of bone broth a day, vs 8 cups of water. So I’m consuming 32 fold as much water as bone broth and the total amount of lead consumed may be well with the safe zone. As there is no analysis comparing the safe level and how much broth would be needed to exceed the TOTAL safe level. Yet that is what needed, not just another article overstating the risks to get attention.

  1. I eat whole food plant based and have for several years. Yesterday I found out that I have osteoporosis! My doctor wants me to take 1200 mg of calcium supplements a day and also start with fosamax or other similar drug. What do I do now? I have read up about calcium in foods and I see that I don’t get enough calcium. Even the 525mg suggested for vegans. I would appreciate any help you can give me. I am in my 70s and I exercise too, every day at least 30 minutes on a treadmill.

    1. you don’t need more calcium, you need other things, such as magnesium, vitamin C, and others. docs push calcium, but fail to tell you to take k2. without k2, calcium will not get to your bones but rather into your arteries and joints where you surely don’t want it.

      1. This is true about the calcium getting into the arteries and that’s why i stopped taking it a few yrs ago. I use weights to keep my bones strong. I am 70.

      2. True Elyn, and there is no vitamin K2 in plants. It’s not the same thing as the vitamin K1 in greens. K2 keeps calcium out of the arteries where it’s harmful, and directs it to the bones. Dutch scientists were even able to reverse some arterial damage using K2.
        Natto is the only plant food that contains it. Natto is a very good source, but many people don’t like the taste and smell of it.
        If- it’s necessary to take calcium and magnesium, take them in a 1 to 1 ratio.
        The oxides are useless, not absorbed. Citrate, malate forms are what you need. Have vitamin D level tested.
        Also, some carotenoids are necessary to balance the K2 and D.
        Keep in mind the studies did show that about 500 mg. of calcium a day is needed.

        1. Hi. I tried to reply to people here on the email, but it wouldn’t work for some reason so i had to get back on here. I am 70. I take natto pills every single day. I just take one. One is enough. It will tend to thin the blood just a tiny bit, but my holistic doc says it’s safe once a day. I get it from Doctors Best on Amazon for $13 cheap and i think it’s a good brand. I have the K2 and i sometimes forget to take it so i will go and do it in a few minutes. Glad you reminded me. So if you don’t like natto just take the pill. I LOVE Natto. I’m Polish/Italian. There is an oriental store near me i get it real cheap. For $3 i get 3 small paks you keep in the freezer. Then thaw. Comes with hot mustard and soy, but i like to doctor it up with hot/sweet salad dressing or honey mustard. Yum! Store is far away so i can’t get it in winter. I miss it now.

        2. Found this about absorption of various calcium forms. Copied/pasted whole article because I had to do some shenanigans to get around their “international firewall”.

          Advanced Orthomolecular Research

          UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENT TYPES OF CALCIUM: PART 2 Published on March 22, 2015 by Justine Florence

          Understanding Different Types of Calcium: Part 2 Last time we looked at determining elemental calcium content in Part 1 of Understanding Different Types of Calcium, what the solubility/bioavailability of various forms of calcium means for us, and factors that affect calcium absorption in our bodies. Now let’s attempt to dissect the various types of calcium so you can understand your choices better.

          4. Choosing the Right Form of Calcium for You

          There are other forms of calcium on the market than those listed below, but these are some of the most common forms found in supplements.

          Calcium Carbonate: This is a common form of calcium which is an alkaline-based compound found in rocks, limestone, marine animal shells, pearls, eggshells and snails. It is found in many calcium supplements and is even found in antacids like Tums, Rolaids, etc. because of its alkaline nature. It is also the type of calcium found in coral calcium, which has received much attention for exaggerated health claims. There is no research to confirm that coral calcium is in fact a better form of calcium than other forms. Calcium carbonate provides one of the highest concentrations of elemental calcium (35-40%). For example, a calcium carbonate supplement contains 40% elemental calcium; this means that 1,250 milligrams (mg) of calcium carbonate will provide 500 mg of elemental calcium. This is the reason why many supplements use calcium carbonate: it gives the appearance of a high elemental calcium content and doesn’t take up much space in the capsule or tablet. Yet it has poor solubility in water and requires extra stomach acid production to be absorbed. Calcium carbonate’s bioavailability in humans has been measured as high as 40%, but also as low as 15%. Because of its low solubility, and perhaps because of its inconsistent absorption rate, it is generally considered to be one of the least bioavailable forms of calcium.
          Key Takeaway: This form is great for people with excess stomach acid (although note that just because you have heartburn or ulcers doesn’t mean you have excess stomach acid!), and it is okay if you are not very concerned with how much calcium you are actually absorbing, since it can vary among individuals. Be aware that just because the label calcium content looks high doesn’t mean that’s what you’re absorbing.

          Calcium Citrate: Unlike the alkaline qualities that calcium carbonate offers, calcium citrate has a base that is acidic in terms of pH value. Due to its acidity, it requires less natural stomach acids to be produced in order for it to be absorbed. An analysis of 15 randomized trials concluded that calcium citrate was absorbed 22% to 27% better than calcium carbonate, whether taken on an empty stomach or with food. Calcium citrate is about 20% calcium, and is thought to have a bioavailability of about 40%.
          Key Takeaway: This is a better form than carbonate for people with low stomach acid or people over the age of 50.

          Oyster Shell Calcium/Bone Meal/Dolomite: Although it may seem to be a natural form of calcium, and therefore higher in absorbable calcium, the calcium in the oyster shells as well as in bone meal and dolomite, are more susceptible to have toxic levels of lead due to difficulty in maintaining quality control. It is better to avoid these natural forms of calcium. The main form of calcium in these products is calcium carbonate.
          Key Takeaway: Similar to calcium carbonate. While it may provide some extra trace minerals, do not use these forms if heavy metal toxicity is a concern for you.

          Calcium Gluconate: It would be necessary to take large amounts of calcium gluconate to obtain calcium requirements as it is only 9-13% elemental calcium, meaning you would need to take several tablets or capsules to get a good amount of calcium. It is not certain how bioavailable this form of calcium really is. One human study showed that calcium gluconate increased blood levels of calcium only slightly more than calcium carbonate.
          Key Takeaway: If calcium carbonate works well for you, this form may work even better, although you may need to take more capsules or tablets to get an adequate amount.

          Calcium Lactate is present in foods such as aged cheese and baking powder.
          It is common for this form of calcium to be used as an antacid and is added to fruits to maintain their firmness and extend their shelf life. The bioavailability of this form of calcium is acceptable because it can be absorbed at various pH’s in the body; one study found that it is as bioavailable as calcium from milk. However, it has a relatively low amount of elemental calcium of 9-13%.
          Key Takeaway: Calcium carbonate may be more favourable, given the numbers.
          Best not used by those with lactose intolerance.

          Calcium Phosphate also has an absorption level similar to that of calcium carbonate and has an elemental calcium amount of 31-38%.
          Key Takeaway: Comparable to calcium carbonate.

          Calcium Lactobionate: Originally found in the yogurt from Bulgaria and regions nearby, the Japanese were able to identify this unique form of calcium and its ability to help absorb additional calcium and increase bone mineral density. It also increases the production of equol, a compound that has beneficial bone health effects. This form of calcium is also referred to as lactobionic acid and is not considered to be a useful source of calcium since it contains only 5% calcium. Rather, it is known for its unique ability to help the body absorb more calcium from the diet and from supplements without necessarily increasing calcium intake above 1000 mg per day, therefore preventing calcium from accumulating in the blood vessels.
          It does this by binding to calcium ions from food in the stomach, intestines and the blood and helping to take them to the site where they are needed most, in the bone. The solubility of this form of calcium is sixty five times higher than other forms of calcium like citrate, which is considered one of the most bioavailable forms.
          Key Takeaway: Use this form if you are concerned with the adverse cardiovascular effects of excess calcium, or if you are trying to maximize your calcium absorption from food or supplements without taking the full 1000 mg/day recommended for bone health.

          Calcium Citrate-Malate is formed from the calcium salt of citric acid and malic acid consisting of variable composition. Although calcium citrate-malate contains only about 26% elemental calcium, its bioavailability has been measured as high as 42%, and it also has the most consistently high bioavailability (consistently over 35%) across human studies. Because of this, it is one of the most heavily studied forms of calcium in the area of bone health and considered the most effective vegetarian form of calcium. Calcium citrate-malate’s bioavailability is possible due to its water-solubility and its method of dissolution. Upon being dissolved, it releases calcium ions and a calcium-citrate complex.
          Calcium ions are directly absorbed into intestinal cells. The special structure of calcium citrate-malate makes it 6 to 9 times more easily dissolved in the stomach than plain calcium citrate, with an absorption rate of 36-37% in tablets and capsules, or higher if dissolved in orange juice. Calcium citrate-malate is well-absorbed taken with or without food.
          Key Takeaway: If calcium citrate works well for you, this form may be even better. This form is recommended for individuals who have low levels of stomach acid, for those who are older, who are taking stomach acid blockers, or who have absorption or inflammatory bowel disorders.
          Considered the best vegetarian calcium source.

          Calcium Hydroxyapatite and Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite Complex Although many foods provide various calcium salts, human and animal bones are the only natural source of calcium hydroxyapatite. Be aware that there is a synthetic form of calcium hydroxyapatite called calcium orthophosphate: this is not the same as microcrystalline hydroxyapatite complex (MCHC). The calcium found in MCHC from bone is actually not a salt or a chelate form; it is elemental calcium woven into the complex of other minerals and proteins that make up bone, such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, zinc, trace minerals, collagen, osteocalcin and other proteins that function as bone growth factors. To preserve its full spectrum of nutrients and minerals, the bone extract needs to be processed at very low temperatures.
          The calcium content of MCHC varies but is around 22%, and although a couple studies showed lower bioavailability of this form of calcium compared to some calcium salts, multiple recent and older studies have shown that supplementing with MCHC has superior bone-preserving and bone-building effects over years of use compared to calcium carbonate or other calcium salts. It actually inhibits bone loss and increases bone density. The benefits of MCHC are due not only to its calcium content, but also to the growth factors, peptides, mucopolysaccharides and other minerals and micronutrients that work together to target bone-maintaining and building processes. Therefore, MCHC is not just a calcium source but an almost-complete bone-building supplement in itself. And isn’t bone health the main reason most of us are concerned with calcium in the first place?
          However, it is not suitable for vegetarians or vegans as it is sourced from animal bones. The highest quality MCHC is sourced from New Zealand since they have best farming practices and have never had an incidence of BSE (mad cow disease).
          Key Takeaway: Given that this form of calcium also contains other minerals and growth factors that stimulate bone growth, this may be the best source of calcium for those concerned with increasing their bone density. However, it may not be suitable for vegetarians or vegans, or for those who have difficulty with taking a large number of capsules.

          Putting It All Together When considering the best method to get your calcium, keep in mind the calcium type, amount, and quality as well as other lifestyle factors that could affect your calcium absorption. In addition, remember that it’s not always just about the calcium, but other important nutrients that enhance its effectiveness within the body that matter too. You might also try combining various forms of calcium (ie. calcium lactobionate with calcium hydroxyapatite or calcium citrate-malate) or rotating forms to get a specific desired effect, depending on your goals.


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          Castelo-Branco C et al. Efficacy of ossein-hydroxyapatite complex compared with calcium carbonate to prevent bone loss: a meta-analysis. Menopause.
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          Dawson-Hughes B and Harris SS. Calcium intake influences the association of protein intake with rates of bone loss in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Apr;75(4):773-9.

          Fernandez-Pareja A et al. Prevention of Osteoporosis: Four-Year Follow-Up of a Cohort of Postmenopausal Women Treated with an Ossein-Hydroxyapatite Compound. Clinical Drug Investigation. 2007; 27(4):227-232.
          Garriguet D. Component of Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 82-003-X Health Reports. Bone health: Osteoporosis, calcium and vitamin D. July 2011 Johnston CC et al. Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327(2):82-7.

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    2. Wear a weighted vest when you walk, per Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn’s comments at an Engine2 retreat. You can find them on Amazon. You need to stress your weight-bearing bones when you exercise.

    3. Nancy,

      Look under the topics here and you will find osteoporosis and you will find calcium. There were a lot of comments in the discussions on those topics.

    4. Make sure, too, that when you eat a calcium-rich food you are not also eating or drinking something that can interfere with calcium absorption. Dr. Greger has some advice on that; drink tea only between and not with meals, or make sure that you have a good source of vitamin C along with the tea to counteract the inhibitory effects, for example.

    5. Nancy Nowak, fermented foods, such as natto and sauerkraut help produce K2 in the gut. You should also eat a large variety of cooked greens, which are high in calcium, as well as…

      … Prunes:
      (Great northern beans are my favorite, and they seem to be the highest in calcium.)

      As far as I know, amaranth is the grain with the highest calcium content.

      I would also check out these 2 videos on calcium supplements:

      Personally, I take a plant-based, raw food calcium supplement (Garden of Life) that has other minerals, some Vit. D a bit of MK7. I only take half the daily recommended dose because I’d rather get vitamins & minerals from eating real food.

      1. WFPB Nancy, the 2 Videos on calcium supplementation you posted show the dangers of just adding calcium pills. Plus the type of calcium they added was carbonate, not a good form. Also they didn’t include the necessary magnesium and K2.
        In the studies where women took both calcium and K2 bone density did improve.
        I like the formula you take because it also includes Boron that has been shown to help arthritis, and is probably necessary also for bone health.
        Boron is in the water in many places, but where it isn’t the rate of arthritis is very high.

        1. Marilyn, that formula also contains a little strontium.

          Exercising is important as well. My GP said that you can take all the mineral supplements you want, but if you’re not moving, it won’t go to your bones. He said it’s like building a house. You can buy all the materials you want but if you don’t have a carpenter, it won’t get built. Exercise is like your carpenter.

          1. Not just movement. You need to “stress” your bones by adding compression along the long axis. That means weight bearing exercise.

            1. Geoffrey, just about anything except swimming & cycling are considered weight bearing exercise. Water & motion tend to eliminate the effects of gravity.

              Marilyn & Nancy, I forgot to mention that dried figs have a lot calcium. I believe they are the fruit with the highest calcium levels. I had an accident earlier this year & broke a few bones, so I learned all this stuff.

              1. More weight more better though. Lifting iron, that sort of thing. Best actually is supposed to be jumping on solid but padded surface. The padding so you don’t hurt yourself but the sudden jolt down the bones stimulates mineralization. Dr Fuhrman sells an osteoporosis specific, exercise DVD which I have not seen, that is guided exercises with a lot of jumping but other things as well.

          2. WFPB Nancy, I noted the strontium, good formula. Will have to see where they get the calcium.
            I really like your Doc’s word picture about building the house.
            I’ll have to borrow that when I deal with a patient who just won’t get moving, thanks!

      1. Thank you everyone for your helpful comments. I think that the various whole food plant based diet websites should mention getting enough calcium in your diet by paying attention to what you eat. Even if you are following the WFPB diet perfectly, things can still go wrong. Especially as we age. I did have the bone density test done in the hospital and got the osteoporosis diagnosis. I see my doctor next Tuesday, but I am going to tell him, no drugs. But I will emphasize more foods with calcium and take small amounts of calcium as a tablet. He can’t force me to take the drugs. I can still make my own decision. I won’t know how I am doing though for probably 2 years. That is the wait prescribed between bone tests

        1. Calcium supplementation has been studied many times. There is no evidence that taking calcium supplements will reduce fracture risk. There are studies that show an INCREASE in fracture risk in those taking calcium supplements and INCREASE in premature DEATH. Not getting enough sun to create natural vitamin D could have been your problem, but this can take decades before it’s a problem and there is not much evidence that it can be reversed with supplements of any type.

          Dr. Ben

          1. I personally had some rather amazing health improvements when I started supplementing vitamin D3 to mid-“normal” blood level. Yes, anecdotal, n=1 and all that but strong enough effect, that reversed the one time I stopped supplementing, that I am pretty much sold.

      2. Marie, yes, these drugs don’t build good bone. They just prevent bone breaking down. So the numbers on the X-ray look better.
        That sounds like a good idea till you realize that old, damaged bone needs to be replaced. When you don’t do that, eventually the bone you have isn’t healthy, and easily breaks.
        These drugs prevent osteoclasts, (break down), but don’t cause you to form more osteoBlasts (B for build).

        1. Your response about what happens with the drugs is really helpful, Marie. I wonder what my doctor will say when I tell him I don’t plan to take any drugs for my osteoporosis. I also refused statins.

    6. Be very wary of this diagnosis of a non condition, promoted on the back of a chance discovery that a drug being researched for a purpose it failed to deliver, had the by product of interfering with the natural replacement of bone tissue.

      Hey, big Pharma thought, maybe we can promote this as ‘bone strengthening’! In fact it leads to increasingly brittle bone as the natural process of repair is blocked.

      Go big on tahini and do weight bearing exercise, and especially walking. I cannot advise anyone what to do with their own health but I would shrug off this medical hex. The drugs will certainly do you harm to possibly no good end at all.

      Finally, Vitamin D is important to the metabolism of calcium so it might be worth taking a supplement if you do not get sufficient exposure to sunshine, although the value of even doing that is debatable.

  2. I think Bone Broth was called the top thing someone could eat by Dr Axe. I can’t remember if it was him. One of them has my friends drinking bone broth. It is so popular right now.

    1. Dr. John Mercola (who I really like despite him not being vegan) also extolls the virtues of bone broth. He always notes it is from grass-fed beef but how do you really know that is the case? Either way, It’s not for me!

      1. There is really only one way to know and that would be to buy from local small family farm that you go to a meet the farmer(s) and hopefully the animals. Find out the reality of how they are treated, what they are fed, etc.

  3. Not particularly a fan of bone broth but “organic free range” chickens really are not! Free range only means they have one little tiny door to a tiny dirt patch outside another same old horrific warehouse stuffed with birds. Since they are only allowed access after they have been locked up awhile, they are conditioned to the warehouse and never go out. And even if they did, not much there for them. I’d like to see a comparison to for real, “pasture raised, bug eating, tree perching, whole farm is and long has been completely organic” chicken broth

  4. I eat a vegan, whole food plant-based diet. For a few years, my prior physician tried to peddle bone broth powder supplements to me as part of healing my supposed, increased gastrointestinal permeability (“leaky gut” in the health food industry circles). I refused to take it. I did some research and discovered bone broth is possibly high in L-glutamine. I have been taking L-glutamine for 5.5 years and don’t really know if it’s helped me. This “gut healing” thing seems so abstract. I know there are tests that can be run, but often, some physicians use the results to sell, sell, sell more supplements. I found this highly unethical and appalling. I switched physicians recently. I prefer to have health care team members who are evidence-based.

    Meanwhile, I am eating probiotic-rich foods (and pre-biotic ones), along with taking L-glutamine, enzymes, an HCL supplement, and probiotic capsules, knowing full well that there is not a ton of research to back up these therapies and yet, I take them, spend money on them, despite no “proof” that I have “leaky gut.” A recent blood serum round of tests supposedly turned up that I have excess candida in my system. I know that this is addressed in past videos of Dr. Greger’s re: the yeast aspects. There seems to be a lot of myths and borderline fairytale-like things in integrative and even functional medicine. I’d love to spend less time each week scouring PubMed for things about how to use foods as a way to “heal the gut,” which is so important, in all fairness. Brain aspects, the immune system, and inflammatory aspects are all affected by the gut. I really would appreciate more videos or blogs and well, a book would be grand about this elusive Holy Grail of living with a totally healed gut, hahaha! But, I’m really serious when I request this, however. The health food and supplement industry is so unregulated and it seems like some practitioners are so quick to jump onto trends. It’s ridiculous. Bone broth powder and collagen are disgusting and I’m tired of them being marketed as a cure for various health ailments.

    1. In case it could be helpful, Dr. Klaper has a video, I believe, on leaky gut. Dr. Pam Popper talks a lot about digestive issues.

      1. Depends. If you have heartburn due to lack of stomach acid it then betain HCl is perfect remedy. But you can also have heartburn from too much acid in which case taking it would be a bit of a disaster. Start w/ very low dose so if wrong remedy, the rude surprise will be a small one.

        1. Yeah, that’s why i am confused cuz some say too much acid and some say not enough. Maybe it varies with the person. I am Type O blood and we have TOO much acid or so all the books say. I try ACV at times and sometimes it helps and sometimes it does not. Baking soda seems to help more, so maybe that means i have too much acid. Still , i might try a tiny bit of HCL to see if it helps. Fourteen yrs ago i had a peptic ulcer. I tried alternatives…everything…and nothing worked.So then i took all the drugs and did not help. I had the ulcer for almost a year. I went back on various alternatives and finally got better. I noticed that if i didn’t eat all day and then ate some pasta with sauce then my stomach would start aching. The lining was being irritated. Went to a holistic doc and told me to take HCL. I did, but i don’t remember if it helped as it was so long ago. He also said zinc carnosine is very good for the stomach lining. I keep it on hand.

          1. Forget blood type as a diagnostic. It is NOT reliable. Try either low dose HCl capsule or two or a tablespoon of vinegar with meals. If that helps, then acid is low. If it makes you feel worse, then you have too much acid.
            That is reliable because based on actual body response to input.

          2. I too am blood type O (positive). According to the (debunked) book re eating right for your blood type, I should be knocking off lots of animal flesh every day. Uh-uh.

            I’m so glad I don’t follow their “rules,” because I like peanut butter (and coffee) too much. And many of the other food items on the no-no-list.

            It’s true about type O’s needing exercise, though. I’d go stark raving mad if I had to be stuck at home all day with no walking, etc. Am dreading the cold snowy winter for that very reason. There’s bound to be a day or several when it’ll be impossible to get out. :-(

            (I’ve never tasted bone broth; am not really a broth/soup person. Would rather chow down on something; don’t do smoothies either.)

            1. “It’s true about type O’s needing exercise, though.”

              Of course it’s true! It’s true for everyone regardless of blood type!!!!

    2. Have you simply tried cutting out caffeine and al those supplements? and also MSG and its analogues and eliminating desserts. You might just find your problems go away.

  5. I just finished reading the blog about bone broth and lead. I do not currently use bone broth, however I like recommendations to be supported by studies and empirical data.
    The blog used “researchers suggested that” and “the theoretical risk”.
    We have already seen that even when there is solid, undeniable proof, it is still difficult to get doctors to change their ways.
    We need to do better, as I am sure that the beef industry suggests, that beef every day is good for you…grin

    1. JVanhengel, in the article above, studies/source materials are linked via the words in blue/green lettering. The video by the same title is also hyperlinked, and there you will find sources listed and hyperlinked under the Sources tab. You will find the same features for every article and video.

    “Broth made from chicken bones **was to have** markedly high lead concentrations, up to a ten-fold increase in lead.”

  7. Dr. Greger usually backs up every statement with a empirical study.

    In the blog on bone broth, he wrote; “Broth made from chicken bones was to have markedly high lead concentrations, up to a ten-fold increase in lead.” Based on what study?

    1. Is there any such thing as lead-free poultry and poultry bones? What questions should I ask poultry growers about food, land grazing, antibiotics, vaccinations, other, to assure no contaminants? Is that even possible? | Marilyn Kay commented on Concerns About Bone Broth

  8. I am so happy when you mention organic, free-range meat being included in studies. That’s the main argument I get in my small, agricultural, local-clean-food community. Then we know it’s the meat or bones, not how they were raised.

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