Sea vegetables such as nori, dulse, and alaria are excellent sources of iodine. Excessive intake of kelp (kombu), paddleweed, or thyroid-containing sausages, however, may lead to iodine toxicity. Hijiki is another poor choice as it may contain arsenic. Vegans, especially pregnant vegans, are at risk for iodine deficiency and should consider taking supplements or including iodine rich foods in their diets. Overconsumption of raw cruciferous vegetables may block the thyroid’s absorption of iodine.

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