Solving a Colon Cancer Mystery

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Fifty Times Lower Colon Cancer Risk

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, after lung cancer. The rates of lung cancer around the world vary by a factor of 10. If there was nothing we could do to prevent lung cancer—if it just happened at random—we’d assume that the rates everywhere would be about the same. But since there’s such a huge variation in rates, it seems like there’s probably some external cause. Indeed, we now know smoking is responsible for 90% of lung cancer cases. If we don’t want to die of the number-one cancer killer, we can throw 90% of our risk out the window just by not smoking.

There’s an even bigger variation around the world for colon cancer. As discussed in Solving a Colon Cancer Mystery, it appears colon cancer doesn’t just happen, something makes it happen. If our lungs can get filled with carcinogens from smoke, maybe our colons are getting filled with carcinogens from food? Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Limpopo sought to answer the question, “Why do African Americans get more colon cancer than native Africans?” Why study Africans? Because colon cancer is extremely rare in native African populations, more than 50 times lower than rates of Americans, white or black.

It’s the fiber, right? The first to describe the low rates of colon cancer in native Africans, Dr. Denis Burkitt ascribed it to their staple diet traditionally high in whole grains and, consequently, high in fiber content. We seem to get a 10% reduction in risk for every 10 grams of fiber we eat a day. If it’s a 1% drop for each gram, and native Africans are eating upwards of 100 grams a day, it could explain why colon cancer is so rare in sub-Saharan Africa.

Wait a second. The modern African diet is highly processed and low in fiber, yet there has been no dramatic increase in colon cancer incidence. Their diet today has such a low fiber content because most populations now depend on commercially produced refined cornmeal. We’re not just talking low fiber intake, we’re talking United States of America low, down around half the recommended daily allowance. Yet colon disease in Africa is still about 50 times less common than in the United States.  

Maybe it’s because native Africans are thinner and exercise more? No, they’re not, and no, they don’t. If anything, their physical activity levels may now be even lower than Americans’. So, if they’re sedentary like us and eating mostly refined carbs, few whole plant foods, and little fiber like us, why do they have 50 times less colon cancer than we do? There is one difference. The diet of both African Americans and Caucasian Americans is rich in meat, whereas the native Africans’ diet is so low in meat and saturated fat they have total cholesterol levels averaging 139 mg/dL, compared to over 200 mg/dL in the United States.

They may not get a lot of fiber anymore, but they continue to minimize meat and animal fat consumption, which supports other evidence indicating the most powerful determinants of colon cancer risk may be meat and animal fat intake levels. So, why do Americans get more colon cancer than Africans? Maybe the rarity of colon cancer in Africans is not the fiber, but their low animal product consumption.

Although opinions diverge as to whether cholesterol, animal fat, or animal protein is most responsible for the increased colon cancer risk, given that all three have been proven to have carcinogenic properties, it may not really matter which component is worse, as a diet laden in one is usually laden in the others.

I’ve previously suggested phytates may play a critical role as well (Phytates for the Prevention of Cancer). Resistant starch may be another player. Since native Africans cool down their corn porridge, some of the starch can crystallize and effectively turn into fiber. (This is the same reason pasta salad and potato salad better feed our gut bacteria than starchy dishes served hot.) I touch on it briefly in Bowel Wars: Hydrogen Sulfide vs. Butyrate. Resistant starch may also help explain Beans and the Second Meal Effect. And for even more, see Resistant Starch & Colon Cancer and Getting Starch to Take the Path of Most Resistance.

Fiber may just be a marker for healthier eating since it’s only found concentrated in unprocessed plant foods. So, the apparent protection afforded by high fiber diets may derive from whole food plant-based nutrition rather than the fiber itself (so, fiber supplements would not be expected to provide the same protection). Here are some videos that found protective associations with higher fiber diets:

What might be in animal products that can raise cancer risk? Here’s a smattering:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Discuss

Michael Greger M.D., FACLM

Michael Greger, M.D. FACLM, is a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues. Dr. Greger has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, and the International Bird Flu Summit, testified before Congress, appeared on The Dr. Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous "meat defamation" trial.


61 responses to “Fifty Times Lower Colon Cancer Risk

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  1. Due to being alerted to the benefits of resistant starch and now having it confirmed by Dr Greger, I have begun taking Inulin and dried white kidney bean. The dried white kidney bean I take sparingly and with water on an empty stomach as on occasion it has cause pain in the abdomen. I also eat green bananas bought in a quantity that I can eat before they get completely ripe, potato salad as cold potatoes turn into a resistant starch, and occasionally some brown rice that acts in the same way.

    I’m looking forward to this purple rice germ becoming available.

    Incidentally, if one does get bowel cancer this info might be useful.




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    1. Why not just eat tasty dishes made from whole plants? Eating should be a pleasure, not a cause of pain, and a whole food, plant based diet is both nutritious and enjoyable. Your regime sounds unappealing




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      1. Heh, yeah different strokes, your mileage WILL vary etc.

        To answer your question, I do not eat for pleasure (read: taste) but for tolerance and as fuel. Some of the things I eat do taste good, but that is secondary to my pursuit of longevity.

        It’s long been my position to be wary of foods that are a pleasure to eat. ‘-)




        12
        1. Heh, Nancy, I guess I should have posted the foods I eat that Mike would agree are whole foods.

          Like white flesh peaches that I ate everyday to the point of overdoing it when they were ripe on the tree. Took 4 or 5 days to eat through those plus all the ones I gave away to neighbors and family.

          Been eating garden tomatoes for about a week now and have one on the counter that I’m waiting on to get ripe.

          I’ve got onions that are a ways away from being ready… same with some Persian melons (similar to a cantaloupe but MUCH bigger… and MUCH more flavorful.) After eating my first one of those a decade or two ago, I’ve never planted a cantaloupe since.

          I’ve got watermelons in the garden that should have the first one ripe by the 4th of July. I will take that to my sister’s house some 60 miles away. Since our mother died, she being the oldest and only female now gets the honor of getting the first yield of my garden of each variety, as was once afforded to our mother.

          Makes her feel special… and she is, even being wheelchair bound for the past 5 or 6 years after a stroke.




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          1. hi Lonie, just wanted to mention briefly about kidney beans and lectin toxicity. I love using dried beans and prefer them to canned, but I do soak them and cook them thoroughly before eating them. https://authoritynutrition.com/dietary-lectins/ That link an explain more. I know Dr Greger has mentioned this too, but I havet located it yet.

            Your garden sounds absolutely wonderful, and I’m sure your sister derives a lot of pleasure from receiving first fruits. How lovely.




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            1. Thanks Susan,

              And thanks for the warning in your post. Doesn’t apply to me but is always a good thing to get out front in case someone isn’t aware.




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      1. Well, I don’t question their products. That is, I either trust the merchant or the product maker and then make a buying decision.

        And while I take into consideration a company’s corporate stance, if I don’t find it too eggredious, I buy from them anyway if it fits my needs and price point. Live and let live if they aren’t openly dangerous.

        I really do not understand the push back against supplementation. I can afford a great variety of “foods” by supplementing my diet rather than trying to buy all those different foods and eventually throwing many of them out because they spoiled before I could eat them.

        And besides, pills and capsules and extracts and syrups are all very easy to assimilate. No cooking required.

        In the winter I like to cook one pot dishes because it helps heat the house. In the summer, not so much… because it heats the house.




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        1. A vegan’s dream come true, plus hot & smelly kitchen Fixed by using this:
          https://www.amazon.com/Instant-Pot-Multi-Use-Programmable-Pressure/dp/B00FLYWNYQ/ref=ice_ac_b_dpb

          Instant Pot DUO60 7-in-1 Multi-Use Programmable Pressure Cooker, Slow Cooker, 6 Quart | 1000W
          4.6 out of 5 stars 19,679 customer reviews | 1000+ answered questions

          [ Most importantly…SAFETY…would have had no big third degree foot burn & saved thou$ands & 3 yrs of pain if had been using the IP] cheers




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    2. Ummmm, I hope you mean properly cooked beans, not raw dry beans: raw beans are Toxic.

      Inulin is abundant in numerous plants; artichoke hearts are one of my favorite sources.

      Getting our nutrients from whole plant foods is preferable to swallowing ‘supplements’.




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      1. Pat, I don’t know how the beans are prepared… that is, if they are cooked then dried or otherwise. But they are from Swanson’s and I trust them with most of my supplement purchases.

        And if I took your advice to only get nutrition from plants, I would have to exclude the GuSuiBu I just purchased after reading about this research concerning a beta and tau removal as protection from Alzheimer’s.




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        1. I think all canned beans start as dry beans off the plant.

          I use a cheap slow cooker for 5 hours or so….sort them first…look for stones…

          3 cups beans (pinto?)

          8 cups water

          1/2 tsp salt

          1/2 tsp black pepper

          I start the cooker up on high…throw a towel over it. When it starts to boil I put it on low. After 5 hours I unplug it…throw a couple of sweaters over it….it’s done in the morning.

          I have some and put the rest into 2 quart canning jars and into the fridge. Might last for a week or 10 days or so.

          I avoid BPA/heavy metal issues this way…but the beans are not organic….hard to say what’s been used on them.




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      2. Some of us need supplements. I have a genetic kidney problem. My Gfr’s not good, spilling protein. After doing research, (I’m one of those maligned chemists ), I found taking spirulina and astragalus at every meal normalized my kidney function. I also make sure to have high amounts of foods containing vitamin C and quercetin.
        Some supplements can be very helpful for certain health issues.




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  2. Any guesses why someone eating a plant based diet for many years, with only the occassional processed food, still gets (benign) colon polyps?




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      1. There is plenty of evidence, it’s just not what you want to hear. Why do you bother with this website when all your comments are critical? Dr Greger compiles the science and reports on it, not his OPINION, unlike you. Spare us.




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      2. Jerry Lewis –
        Mr. Lewis, your response to Debbie Binder is less than kind. Your response is filled with snarky, snotty, insensitive response. While this site accepts legitimate difference of scientific opinion, I don’t think anyone following these discussions appreciates your cruelty.




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  3. What effect does the science say (in your objective judgement) on depression
    and suicide risk while living at high latitudes, not excessive like everest, but more
    like colorado, utah, sierras, etc.?

    I’ve read that high elevation, even in first world communities, is a risk factor for
    depression. Truth?

    How about those with breathing difficulties? Prudent to not live above at altitude
    in cities such as Denver, etc?




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    1. I like the fact that he searches out the pertinent, yet under appreciated science that the mainstream media do not see because those studies don’t conform to accepted scientific results that the scientific community is protective of.

      This is changing as there are other sites like this one that also look beyond the accepted and report the cutting edge or perhaps better termed, common sense + science studies.

      i once made a suggestion on a now-defunct blog that we were wasting great opportunities for learning. That is, a study is generally done by picking out a single thing… gene, food, protein etc. to study.

      I said back then that the studies should be more encompassing and even when done on a narrow scale, when that study is over piggy back another one on top of it to see if there is any synergy between the two that changes the results of the first.

      I sense we are at last getting to that point as the newer, younger scientists see things as a whole and even the people approving and funding studies may be reaching that point as well.




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  4. Just gratefully finished my cob of corn and ask:

    Would someone please tell me the date that Dr. Greger is going to speak in Manitoba, Canada? I could not find it on his speaking schedule and he just said on the Facebook live stream that he would be speaking there.
    I had to ask here as there seems to be no area to make an query in the, “Contact” area.
    Thank you.




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  5. When you consider that meat in the human bowel is, to put it bluntly, a putrefying cadaver, it should come as no surprise at all.




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  6. Don’t forget it is possible to eat a plant based diet and yet to eat too much saturated fats while doing so. For example. You add some coconut flakes to your stuff, you eat some 85% cacao dark cocolate, some tofu and a couple of spoons of oil to cook with and you’ll have a pretty high* saturated fat level at the end of the day.

    * The WHO says no more then 7% saturated fat calories from your total daily amount. A gram of fat equals 9 kcal’s.




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    1. I think sometimes we concentrate on one part of the equation and overlook another part that causes the entire hypothesis to fail.

      That is, worrying about the saturated fat component of say dark chocolate and coconut flakes and healthy oils causes us to miss out on their benefits such as the coconut flakes being a gut-friendly resistant starch, oils containing omega-3, and in my mind anyway, the life-extending properties of organic raw cacao powder.

      We think of food as medicine, but to get full medicinal benefits of a food we may have to consume too much to get there. I say we don’t concentrate on what one segment (like saturated fats in your example) can do on its own, but rather where does it fit in the grand scheme of things. An example would be where I’ve read we shouldn’t eat more than one square a day of dark chocolate so it doesn’t add a few more calories to our diet. And another researcher who has studied the great benefit of dark chocolate says we should eat dark chocolate at least 5 times a day.

      I have chosen the second recommendation and believe that is one reason why I have confounded my doctors when they see some of my tests and cannot understand why my actual health is so stalwart when a few of my test results suggest otherwise.

      And while organizations like the WHO, AMA, AHA, et al, try to set guidelines for entire populations to move that population toward an increment of better health, in the end we are molded as individuals and those guidelines may be counter to what will be best for our individual health.




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    2. Your statement assumed “and a couple of spoons of oil to cook with and you’ll have a pretty high* saturated fat level at the end of the day”. Dr Greger’s plan has to my knowledge never advocated any oil for cooking. I know this as only by following up with his evidence based dietary advice was I convinced to drop cooking (olive) oil from use. His plan advocates oil only in whole food form; avocadoes, walnuts, peanuts, etc. which keeps fat levels below advised limits. I even drain all excess oil from the top of raw peanut butter to keep this in check. My PCP Doc even wanted to know what changes I’ve made to keep consistant “perfect” Cholesteral & other related blood levels. By dailey education with videos & blogs it still took 6 months or so before my wife & I were ready to try his plan full time. Keep reading & watching to gain the knowledge needed to overcome hesitations.




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  7. This really interested me, along with the rest of Dr. Greger’s work, of course. My mom passed from colorectal cancer two years ago at age 63. Her mom, my late grandma passed away from colorectal cancer at age 72 in the year 2001. So, here I am at age 45, already had my baseline colonoscopy two years ago. I’m still alive. :) I was a dairy-free (also avoiding gluten as a diagnosed celiac) pescatarian for years. Two years ago, I began to dedicate myself to a vegan diet and recently, took the oil out of my diet. Life is short enough and I don’t want to die young. If others make fun of me for eating the way I do, I ask them a question…”Do you have two best friends?” Usually, they say they do. I respond with, “Well, imagine if they died.” I lost my two best friends to cancer, my mom and grandma. I have lost other family members to other forms of cancer. I know I will die one day, but I just don’t want it to be my fault.




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  8. Good points Netgogate —

    In general are saturated fats from plants just as dangerous as saturated fats from meats/dairy? I would hate to think eating an avocado or a little oil or some nuts would be just as bad (knowing that at least plants don’t have the cholesterol would be one added benefit of eating the plant based fat). Though I have a feeling the saturated fats from plants or animals will both promote weight gain .. but are there other detriments to eating saturated fats from plants




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  9. Fiber may be a MARKER, but let’s not forget that fiber benefits bowel movements and helps to prevent constipation. And, it may be a lack of good regular bowel movements that increase the risk of colon cancer. So, yeah…..let’s not throw fiber out the window, I bet fiber itself plays a role in defending against cancer just by the mere fact that it helps to move the waste out of our bodies.




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  10. This article is inaccurate. Studies indicate that meat consumption by itself does not raise cancer risks. Meat consumption, only when combined with another significant risk factor, does increase the rates of cancer. This is because meat consumption through it’s amino acid profile raises blood levels of growth hormone, specifically IGF1. Growth hormone is an enabler of tissue growth and repair. If there is cancer present from another risk factor, then large amounts of IGF1 will enable tumor growth.




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  11. Dr Gregor’s article is really interesting for me as I gave up meat and fish over 30 years ago, becoming a vegetarian. In 2008 I became a vegan, eating as healthily as I knew how, with low fat, high fibre foods and Vitamin B12 and flax seed etc. Six years later I was diagnosed with stage 3 colon cancer. How did that happen? Was it my 30 years eating meat and fish, or my 60 years eating dairy, or my sixty-six years eating non-resistant starch? I’d love to have some insight so I can avoid the cancer coming back.




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    1. 60 yrs of eating dairy. Mr Rogers had the same problem, a vegetarian that died of stomach cancer. Probably because instead of eating meat he loaded up on dairy. Cottage cheese and fruit, yogurt, cow milk on his cereal, cheese and crackers.

      Many people make the mistake of loading up on dairy when going meat free to insure they get enough protein. Then end up with colon or stomach cancer like Mr Rogers.




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    2. Hi Elgie,
      Thanks for your question.
      I am one of the volunteer moderator at the website. Firstly, I am sorry to hear about your diagnosis of cancer. It is good that you are referring to Dr Greger website for information and empowerment to heal yourself.
      Dr Greger has a video on micro biome that I shall refer you to as well as these references that you can copy and paste in a new tab to read for further information. Dr Greger has marid number of videos on The healing power of plants herbs and vegetables and fruits .
      As well as that I refer you to this talk on Angiogenesis on U tube that I learnt a lot from that about cancer.
      I hope all these information are useful to you and please know that body is amazing at healing itself and share with us your journey of recovery. Wish you all the best.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyC6KkgDlWg

      I wish you great recovery and the other important thing in life is to let go of the mistakes and feelings and emotions that does not serve us and learn from our life experiences good or bad to turn it around in a way that is going to help us.

      Microbiome: We Are What They Eat

      I searched and found some studies that is discussing different food and diet that can help with killing cancer cells and also prevent colon cancer.
      (1) Arch Med Sci. 2010 Aug 30;6(4):605-10. Epub 2010 Sep 7. Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to frequency and total amount of red meat consumption. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Smolińska K, Paluszkiewicz P.

      (2) Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Feb;50(2):95-103. Epub 2011 Oct 14. Red meat intake-induced increases in fecal water genotoxicity correlate with pro-carcinogenic gene expression changes in the human colon. Hebels DG, Sveje KM, de Kok MC, van Herwijnen MH, Kuhnle GG, Engels LG, Vleugels-Simon CB,Mares WG, Pierik M, Masclee AA, Kleinjans JC, de Kok TM.

      (3) Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: A critical review of the epidemiologic literature. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131(3s):1032S-1040S.

      (4) Shenoy NR, Choughuley AS. Inhibitory effect of diet related sulphydryl compounds on the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines.Cancer Letters 1992;65(3):227-232.

      (5) Milner JA. Mechanisms by which garlic and allyl sulfur compounds suppress carcinogen bioactivation. Garlic and carcinogenesis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2001; 492:69-81.

      (6) Russell WR, Drew JE, Scobbie L, Duthie GG. Inhibition of cytokine-induced prostanoid biogenesis by phytochemicals in human colonic fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1762:124-130.

      (7) Russell WR, Scobbie L, Chesson A, Richardson AJ, Stewart CS, Duncan SH, Drew JE, Duthie GG. Anti-inflammatory implications of the microbial transformation of dietary phenolic compounds. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60:636-642

      (8) Olive oil, diet and colorectal cancer: an ecological study and an hypothesis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2000; 54:756-60

      (9) Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2008 Aug;8(6):598-602.Selenium and colon cancerfrom chemoprevention to new treatment modality.Rudolf E, Králová V,Cervinka M.

      (10) Proc Nutr Soc. 2011 Aug;70(3):389-96. Plant secondary metabolites and gut health: the case for phenolic acids. Russell W, Duthie G.

      (11) J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Aug 15;91(10):1849-54. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4394. Epub 2011 Mar 30. Anti-tumorigenic activity of five culinary and medicinal herbs grown under greenhouse conditions and their combination effects.Yi W, Wetzstein HY.

      (12) Nutr Rev. 2011 Dec;69(12):730-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00439.x. The Mediterranean diet: effects on proteins that mediate fatty acid metabolism in the colon.

      (13) Mechanistic insight into the ability of American ginseng to suppress colon cancer associated with colitis. Cui X, Jin Y, Poudyal D, Chumanevich AA, Davis T, Windust A, Hofseth A, Wu W, Habiger J, Pena E, Wood P, Nagarkatti M, Nagarkatti PS, Hofseth L. Carcinogenesis. 2010 Oct;31(10):1734-41. Epub 2010 Aug 20.

      (14) Antioxidant, Antiproliferative, and Pro-Apoptotic Activities of a Saponin Extract Derived from the Roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen. He NW, Zhao Y, Guo L, Shang J, Yang XB.J Med Food. 2012 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]




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  12. Would like to see a change within the format so that links show up in a more vibrant way. As it is, some of us skip over the links as unimportant or inaccessible information because it is grayed out, so to speak.

    Also, I wish we had the capability to quote a post and have the quoting post show up at the end of a thread so we can see any new information.

    As things stand we pretty much have to read an entire thread to see anything newly posted in reply to another post.




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    1. Mark, I noticed the date on the article at your link was 1986. And while knowledge doesn’t necessarily have a “use by” date, I suspect there may be better understanding of the subject from other research buried somewhere.

      However, I remember reading similar research some years ago saying that LDL cholesterol had some positive effects on us… pointing out that there are more than just one type of LDL cholesterol.




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        1. If I understand this correctly:

          “The association between decreased serum cholesterol and colorectal cancer risk suggests a cholesterol-lowering effect of undiagnosed malignancy. ”

          The study seems to suggest that an unexplained drop in cholesterol levels could be a sign that colorectal cancer is present. It doesn’t imply that high cholesterol levels lead to lower risk of colorectal cancer — rather that when colorectal cancer forms, a drop in cholesterol may be a side of effect that …




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  13. What about GMOS and pesticides in the processed food of American diets? Are they higher than in the modern African diet? Could this be a factor as well?




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  14. In Biblical times grains were important but so were animals. Animals were portable wealth. They were food with legs. But they were more than food. They provided clothing in the form of animal skins and fur. If a man had a large flocks, he was considered wealthy like in the case of Job.

    They did not eat a mono diet however. Things like lentils and spelt and other grains were important to their diet. The land was not drained of its minerals from modern farming techniques.

    My sense is that they did not get a tremendous amount of meat. Meet was held for special occasions but it was more than that. They had meat on a regular basis, but not so much like we do today.

    I was in Williamsburg decades ago and they explained that meat was very expensive, so they used meat for flavoring. They ate large vegetarian meals.

    Maybe that is a difference. Ancient cultures used to use meat, but they used a lot of it for flavoring.




    1
    1. Personally, I wish Methuselah had kept a food diary. ‘-)

      Something interesting I remember from watching a guy called the Frugal Gourmet that ran on PBS late in the last century.

      He had just returned from doing a show in China and relayed to the audience that the Chinese (at that time) used meat sparingly as flavoring.

      They also told him that they could smell meat consumption in Westerners.




      1
      1. That is a really interesting observation.

        The Chinese who ate meat sparingly as

        a sprinkled on condiment could actually

        smell an odor coming from meat eating

        Westeners. I wonder how bad the odor was,

        I wonder if it was anything like the kimchie

        we smell coming from the bodies of

        Asians??

        I wonder if there are any machines that could

        detect odors coming from humans?




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        1. Hey John,

          In re the odor thing, I suspect the more natural living Chinese back then had a superior sense of smell and could identify a difference in a person’s odor.

          And while this is off topic for this thread, while reading this I remembered that you have an understanding of Sirt 1. I’m posting it here in hopes you will get a notification as I think it is important information.

          Not going to forego the use of Nicotinamide riboside for the same purpose, but I will save some money by not buying Resveratrol supplements.




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  15. It’s important to clarify what you mean by native Africans. The average African do not have the same level of sedentary lifestyle as an American does. They tend to move more. And not every African eats cornmeal that’s commercially produced, so I’m not sure about the data that provided the results that’s reported in this article. I’m usually impressive by your work but definitely not with this article.
    I’m an African living in the UK so I should know about Africans especially if I visit regularly.




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  16. It’s important to clarify what you mean by native Africans. The average African does not have the same level of sedentary lifestyle as an American does. They tend to move more. And not every African eats cornmeal that’s commercially produced, so I’m not sure about the data that provided the results that’s reported in this article. I’m usually impressive by your work but definitely not with this article.
    I’m an African living in the UK so I should know about Africans especially if I visit regularly.




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  17. dump question but do these studies that compare Colon Cancer rates of Africans to Americans account for Age , example. compare 50 yrs to 50 year old people?




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    1. Hi Bill! I am one of the volunteer moderator’s here at NF.org. You might find this link interesting: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/solving-a-colon-cancer-mystery/. Personally, I enjoy checking out the references cited and reading his references. Those exact questions can then be answered. What type of study? How many people were involved? What age groups were studied? It might take a little time, but that is why I respect this site so much. Dr. Greger has done quite a bit of the work for us, and we are always welcome to double check by reading the studies ourselves. Cheers!




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  18. Processed food is the biggest problem any how the article is very written and the writtee has got some very unique and profesional skill !!keep up the good work and guys do visit our site Thanks




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