Prevent Cancer from Going on TOR

Prevent Cancer from Going on TOR
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Suppressing the engine-of-aging enzyme TOR (Target of Rapamycin) by reducing intake of leucine–rich animal products, such as milk, may reduce cancer risk.

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Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

Over the last decade, more than 5,000 papers have been published about TOR, an enzyme inhibited by the drug rapamycin—a drug used experimentally to extend lifespan, but already in use clinically to prevent the rejection of kidney transplants. “Patients, who received rapamycin due to [kidney] transplantation, had a peculiar “side effect”: a decrease in cancer incidence.” In a set of 15 patients who had biopsy-proven Kaposi’s sarcoma, a cancer that often affects the skin, within three months after starting rapamycin therapy, “all cutaneous Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions had disappeared in all patients.”

This makes sense, given that TOR “functions as a master regulator of cellular growth and proliferation.” For example, TOR is “upregulated in nearly 100% of advanced human [prostate cancers].” Maybe that’s why dairy consumption has been found to be “a major dietary risk factor.” We used to think it was just all the hormones in milk, but maybe prostate cancer initiation and progression is also promoted by cow’s milk stimulation of TOR.

“Our understanding of mammalian milk has changed from a “simple food” to a species-specific endocrine-signaling system,” which activates TOR, “promotes cell growth and proliferation and suppresses [our body’s internal housecleaning mechanisms].” Now, normally, “milk-mediated” TOR stimulation “is restricted only to” infancy, where we really need that constant signal to our cells to grow and divide.

“From an evolutionary perspective, it can be concluded that the persistent ‘abuse’ of the growth-promoting signaling system of bovine milk by [drinking milk] over [our] entire life span maintains the most important hallmark of cancer biology,…sustained proliferative signaling”—grow, grow, grow.

TOR appears to play a role in breast cancer, too. Higher TOR expression has been noted in breast cancer tumors, and associated with more aggressive disease, and lower survival rate among breast cancer patients.

This could explain why women hospitalized for anorexia may end up with only half the risk of breast cancer. “Severe caloric restriction in humans may confer protection [against] invasive breast cancer” by suppressing TOR activation. But we don’t have to starve ourselves to suppress TOR; just reducing animal protein intake can attenuate overall TOR activity.

“Moreover, [diets] emphasizing plants, especially cruciferous vegetables, not only decrease [TOR] activation…[they also] provide natural plant-derived inhibitors of TOR in broccoli, and green tea and soy, and turmeric, and grapes, along with other fruits and vegetables, such as onions, strawberries, blueberries, mangoes, and the skin of cucumbers.

Maybe that’s why plant-based diets are associated with lower risk for many cancers—the “down-regulation” of TOR. So, “[a]re we finally on the threshold of being able to fundamentally alter human ageing…” and age-related disease? “Only time will tell, but if the pace and direction of recent progress are any indication, the next [5,000 studies on TOR] should prove very interesting indeed.”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to Krissy Venosdale via Flickr and Herndon, L.A., Altun, Z.F. and Hall, D.H. 2009. Glossary A. In WormAtlas. doi:10.3908/wormatlas.6.1.

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

Over the last decade, more than 5,000 papers have been published about TOR, an enzyme inhibited by the drug rapamycin—a drug used experimentally to extend lifespan, but already in use clinically to prevent the rejection of kidney transplants. “Patients, who received rapamycin due to [kidney] transplantation, had a peculiar “side effect”: a decrease in cancer incidence.” In a set of 15 patients who had biopsy-proven Kaposi’s sarcoma, a cancer that often affects the skin, within three months after starting rapamycin therapy, “all cutaneous Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions had disappeared in all patients.”

This makes sense, given that TOR “functions as a master regulator of cellular growth and proliferation.” For example, TOR is “upregulated in nearly 100% of advanced human [prostate cancers].” Maybe that’s why dairy consumption has been found to be “a major dietary risk factor.” We used to think it was just all the hormones in milk, but maybe prostate cancer initiation and progression is also promoted by cow’s milk stimulation of TOR.

“Our understanding of mammalian milk has changed from a “simple food” to a species-specific endocrine-signaling system,” which activates TOR, “promotes cell growth and proliferation and suppresses [our body’s internal housecleaning mechanisms].” Now, normally, “milk-mediated” TOR stimulation “is restricted only to” infancy, where we really need that constant signal to our cells to grow and divide.

“From an evolutionary perspective, it can be concluded that the persistent ‘abuse’ of the growth-promoting signaling system of bovine milk by [drinking milk] over [our] entire life span maintains the most important hallmark of cancer biology,…sustained proliferative signaling”—grow, grow, grow.

TOR appears to play a role in breast cancer, too. Higher TOR expression has been noted in breast cancer tumors, and associated with more aggressive disease, and lower survival rate among breast cancer patients.

This could explain why women hospitalized for anorexia may end up with only half the risk of breast cancer. “Severe caloric restriction in humans may confer protection [against] invasive breast cancer” by suppressing TOR activation. But we don’t have to starve ourselves to suppress TOR; just reducing animal protein intake can attenuate overall TOR activity.

“Moreover, [diets] emphasizing plants, especially cruciferous vegetables, not only decrease [TOR] activation…[they also] provide natural plant-derived inhibitors of TOR in broccoli, and green tea and soy, and turmeric, and grapes, along with other fruits and vegetables, such as onions, strawberries, blueberries, mangoes, and the skin of cucumbers.

Maybe that’s why plant-based diets are associated with lower risk for many cancers—the “down-regulation” of TOR. So, “[a]re we finally on the threshold of being able to fundamentally alter human ageing…” and age-related disease? “Only time will tell, but if the pace and direction of recent progress are any indication, the next [5,000 studies on TOR] should prove very interesting indeed.”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to Krissy Venosdale via Flickr and Herndon, L.A., Altun, Z.F. and Hall, D.H. 2009. Glossary A. In WormAtlas. doi:10.3908/wormatlas.6.1.

Doctor's Note

What is TOR? Check out these two backgrounder videos—fascinating stuff:

More on dairy and prostate cancer in Prostate Cancer & Organic Milk vs. Almond Milk.

This story continues in my next video: Saving Lives by Treating Acne With Diet.

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

67 responses to “Prevent Cancer from Going on TOR

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  1. let’s hope the pill people don’t try to squeeze this into a bottle. You would have thought they’d have learned their lesson after (most) all the other vitamin and supplement fiascoes.

      1. Great link. I started taking metformin a couple months ago after spending hours researching articles such as this one. My blood sugar is fine. I am taking it for the widespread health and longevity benefits. The fact that it is derived from the French lilac plant and has been used safely in Europe since the 1950’s was no small factor in my deciding to use it. The DEA tends to frown upon physicians prescribing drugs to themselves so I write the RX for my wife for the max dosage and cut it in half. It costs about three bucks a month.

        1. What age would be a good age to consider metformin? I’m 42 and considering taking this medicine for this very reason. My mom is also pre-diabetic but now focusing on lifestyle changes. Should consider metformin as well?

        1. Metformin does come with potential side effects, so please talk with your doctor about that. You might also want to look at this work on doxycycline, a common antibiotic. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625193 If you have cancer, you should also consider all the plants that inhibit cancer cells from metabolizing glucose and glutamine as fuels and from turning glucose and glutamine into fatty acids that they then use as fuels. I’m compiling a list.

          1. Yeah, I know about metformin side effects – but I don’t do anything without my oncologist being aware of it. That’s exactly why I am looking for a doctor who can understand how these drugs can hellp battle cancer, how they interact with each other and how to control side effects.
            I am already on doxycycline… ;) and I do follow your blog, now anxiously waiting for this promising list!

  2. yay for “skin of cucumbers”…I *always* include skin of cucumber (organic as much as possible to avoid the wax on conventional cukes) in my salads or as a hummus dipper! thanks Doc AGAIN for your life-saving work here! All respect and love to you! ♥ !

  3. So, what are the leading preventable causes of death for people who eat whole food plant based diets? They live longer, but I’m curious as to what does eventually cause death among them?

    1. I read that they suffer much less long-term illness and more often die of catastrophic injury or illnesses such as influenza, pneumonia, etc.

      1. That people who eat whole food plant based diets should die more often from influenza and pneumonia makes no sense. People who die from influenza and pneumonia typically have a chronic condition such as heart disease, diabetes, rheumatic disease, which a WFPD prevents, and a WFPD is typically lower in calories (and maybe have CR mimetic properties), which probably reduce the decline in immunefunction as you age.

          1. They die, for example, of some malnourished, fuzzy-brained, meat-eating atherosclerotic person backing over them in a parking lot. Something that has nothing to do with their own diet.

  4. Unlike methionine, plant proteins in general and animal proteins in general do not differ all that much in % leucine content. For example, as far as leucine as % of total protein goes, egg protein has 8.5%, milk protein 9.7%,and beef protein 7.9%, while soy protein has 7.6%, pumpkin seeds about 8.4%, and rice protein 8.3% (I did some calculations using the tables in Bowes & Church). I know Dr. Greger wants to push the plant based diet, but eating plant based protein will profide about the same amount of leucine as eating he same amount of animal based protein. It looks to me that if one wants to reduce leucine intake, one would need to eat less protein, period.

    1. …and an effective way to do that would be to eat plant-based.

      1 cup rice with chicken breast: 500 Cal, 58 g protein, 4.4 g leucine
      1 cup rice with 1 cup beans: 460 Cal, 19 g protein, 1.6 g leucine

      Unless people on a non-vegan diet restrict their food intake overall, or are in fact limiting their meat consumption (i.e. making their diet closer to a plant-based one), they will most likely consume excessive amounts of protein and subsequently of leucine. An advertisement for a plant-based diet in the context of this subject appears quite reasonable to me.

  5. I am wondering about something mentioned in this video. I had anorexia nervosa for many years in my 30’s (I am now in my 40’s and still have struggles)-I guess that may offer me some protection (which would be the only good thing that came from that illness). Now that I am trying to fully recover, I am being encouraged to eat low fat dairy yougurt–it seems like this is not a good thing based on the video. I normally mix it with fruit and hemp seeds–what should I be doing instead. I apologize for my ignorance as I am new to all of this.

    1. Hi gigi, could you share why you were being encouraged to consume yogurt? If it’s an issue of calcium, you can easily get more than enough calcium from plant foods, particularly beans and green vegetables, and even seemingly “low” calcium plant foods like fruits, whole grains, etc all add up over the course of the day. Add in a serving or two of fortified non-dairy milks, tofu, etc, and your levels will quickly skyrocket above the recommended intake. If the idea of supplements bothers you, keep in mind the calcium in most dairy products comes from a supplement given to the cows in their feed.

      If it’s a matter of protein, know that it’s mathematically impossible to consume less than your rda for protein on a whole foods plant based diet, provided your caloric intake is sufficient. On my simple diet of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, I consistently consume no less than 150% of the recommended amount for my weight.

      Of course if you enjoy your yogurt habit, you can very easily switch to any non-dairy yogurt. If you find it cost prohibitive (it’s quite expensive where I live), you can make your own for much less, either with a cheap yogurt maker (~$20), a crockpot, or a pressure cooker.

    2. You don’t need dairy for the calcium, if that’s why your eating the yogurt, but I would make sure to include kale every day as one of your vegetables, as it has a good amount of absorbable calcium as well as vitamin K. You could also take a calcium supplement, but you don’t really need more than about 800 mg of calcium per day; the body can’t absorb more than about 500 mg at a time anyway. You should also get at least half as much magnesium as calcium.

      With anorexia nervosa, you have to worry about osteoporosis, caused by lack of estrogen from amenorrhea due to low body fat (less than 16%), and also by insufficient weight bearing on your bones. So make sure to get enough weight bearing exercise as well as enough vitamin D and vitamin K.

      You also need to keep your diet sufficiently alkaline by including plenty of fruits and vegetables and enough protein (from beans and grains) to help rebuild and maintain bone density. If necessary, I would also include a potassium bicarbonate supplement (“Potassium Basics” which can be purchased online) to ensure that your urinary pH remains at 7 or higher. Otherwise, your body will take calcium from your bones to raise the pH. You can purchase pH test strips online to determine your urinary pH. If it’s lower than 7 to 7.25, I would take the potassium bicarbonate to raise it

      In order to ensure that you get enough calories, you could also include high calorie foods like avocados and nuts.

      Hope this helps.

    3. gigi: re: “…it seems like this is not a good thing based on the video.” I agree. In fact there are a large number of videos on this site which indicate that dairy is not a good thing.

      I think b00mer was right on when she said that you would want to find out *why* they recommended yogurt. That will help you figure out a more healthy alternative.

      I am not an expert, so I have no idea why they would have made that recommendation. But in addition to what b00mer suggested, I was thinking that maybe they were looking for food that would have a high calorie density. In that case, you could try to figure out the calorie density of the yogurt you eat and find comparable whole plant foods to eat instead. Just an idea.

      If you find out the “why”, let us know and we maybe this group can make some helpful, specific suggestions.

      I know how overwhelming good nutrition can seem at first. I can promise that it does get easier over time as you absorb the information and learn what does and does not work for you in terms of taste, convenience, etc. Good luck to you.

    4. There is yogurts that are made of cashew milk or soy or almond milks that you can eat instead. I really enjoy the cashew ones by forager

  6. Question for Dr. Greger. This video and many others note the importance of the cancer fighting abilities of cruciferous vegetables as well as tea (no doubt Matcha and Hibiscus are at the top of the list). However a simple Google search of “pesticide + tea” brings up many concerning and properly sourced news feeds, of all things, the carcinogenic properties of pesticides still on the packaged tea. not to mention if we simply steep the tea or ingesting it whole as per your practice at home). Is there enough data out there to provide the context if this is a real threat? Does the tea cancel out the negative health effect of the pesticides? Those products claiming to be organic tea at a premium price; do we get our money’s worth? For those of us who consume the tea whole (as you mentioned is a common practice with your family), should we be more worried ingesting more of the less water soluble pesticides with the whole tea?

  7. My question is… if we have cholesterol screening available to give us information about our heart health why don’t we have any tests for our cancer health?
    Many of the videos discuss dropping blood on cancer cells and seeing them either multiply or die.
    Why aren’t there tests that people could get that would tell them… we dropped your blood on some liver cancer cells (or breast or prostate etc…) and they grew or they died so things look ok.
    If things don’t look good then they can suggest dietary changes and test again? Why are we not using this? Is it due to cost?

    1. Hi Andy, yes in vitro work is incredibly expensive, and as someone with experience in mamallian cell culture I personally would not want this to become widespread practice. The time and expertise/training, cell lines themselves, growth media, sera, enzymatic and other solutions for processing cells and all the plastic bottles they come in, all the single-use disposable plastic pipets, flasks, slides, vials, gloves, booties, the maintenance of labs and all the equipment within, etc, that are necessary to do one simple assay are perhaps justified in performing representative and informative studies, but I think it would be quite wasteful to perform as testing for individuals. I think the public would be much better served by advocacy that exposes them to the information we already have. Combined with all the other in vitro work, as well as epidemiological, clinical and interventional research that has already been done, we have quite a consensus already as far as which foods cure and which foods cause cancer. Just my two cents.

      Another thing to keep in mind, as many people who eat a plant based diet either come to it through ethical reasons, or come to care about the ethics of animal consumption as a result of dietary changes – in vitro mammalian cell culture nearly always uses fetal bovine serum. And yes, it is as awful as it sounds. Though synthetic sera have come on the market and are objectively superior in terms of consistency of composition and sterility, in the scientific world, changes in methodology come slowly.

    1. Valid question! No, the plant-based proteins (even those higher in leucine) don’t seem to be connected to TOR in a negative way.

      1. Do you have any idea why that might be the case? Offhand, I’d think all amino acids of a certain type would behave the same way regardless of source (plant vs animal). So perhaps it’s the overall typical amino acid profile of one’s entire diet? Or perhaps there’s something else in animal products that’s the real causative agent?…

        1. I’m not sure. It’s a great question. I can only point to similar situations. Maybe the combined nutrients in plants give the protective effect? Kind of like the nitrites in celery or beets being beneficial vs. nitrites in meat. Or the fact when vegetables are consumed with hight fat meals it seems to reduce the harmful effects. Non-heme iron in excess can be discarded opposed to heme iron. Obviously that is a mechanical enzymatic reaction taking place, but maybe the fiber and antioxidants coupled with abundant leucine create a better atmosphere for digestion/absorption, opposed to a heavy load from animal products with zero fiber. I am speculating, just thinking how it’s possible. Perhaps there is more information in the studies themselves we can check. Fun to think about!

      2. Do you have any idea why that might be the case? Offhand, I’d think all amino acids of a certain type would behave the same way regardless of source (plant vs animal). So perhaps it’s the overall typical amino acid profile of one’s entire diet? Or perhaps there’s something else in animal products that’s the real causative agent?…

  8. Very informative but this does concern me. As someone who has taken up a fitness regime, I take BCAAs (not certified vegan) as part of my supplementation. As we know Leucine is crucial in activating the mTOR pathway for protein synthesis but …it appears also harmful in large amounts leading to cancer? This seems like a weird irony to me since traditionally more muscle mass is favored and associated with less cancer risk. Is there an optimal amount of Leucine that should be taken by those working out to build muscle? I have recently made the switch from whey/casein protein to brown/pea protein (but event these do contain high levels of Leucine). I am very health conscious and currently am making my transition from lacto-vegetarianism to veganism. Many thanks doc, your reviews are cementing my allegiance to plant based diets.

    1. Do you have references for your statement “since traditionally more muscle mass is favored and associated with less cancer risk.”? Many sick people tend to be underweight, have muscle loss, etc so that could account for any association.

      The question is, why would muscle mass per se protect against cancer. Any evidence for that?

      For the record – I regularly do strength training (and supplemented with whey protein for years until I went from vegetarian to vegan so I believe it is important to build and keep good muscle mass as one ages.

    2. Do you have references for your statement “since traditionally more muscle mass is favored and associated with less cancer risk.”? Many sick people tend to be underweight, have muscle loss, etc so that could account for any association.

      The question is, why would muscle mass per se protect against cancer. Any evidence for that?

      For the record – I regularly do strength training (and supplemented with whey protein for years until I went from vegetarian to vegan so I believe it is important to build and keep good muscle mass as one ages.

  9. hm
    the video seems to only adress TOR as a cancer growth stimulator. Wouldn’t plant based amino acids also boost TOR
    if consumed in large quantities? From an athlete’s perspective: can I
    boost muscle growth without boosting cancer growth risk?

    1. >>> From an athlete’s perspective: can I boost muscle growth without boosting cancer growth risk?

      That’s the question I’d like to see answered too.

    2. >>> From an athlete’s perspective: can I boost muscle growth without boosting cancer growth risk?

      That’s the question I’d like to see answered too.

  10. There are DOZENS of plant-based nutritional supplements that can reduce the expression of TOR. The most difficult thing is finding which one(s) work best for each individual… each month. Some supplements work better in hormetic dosages, The more decision support technology the doctor has on hand, the better.

  11. About metformin my dad was on it for years for his diabetes but doctors has takin him off it as he has bad kidneys from the diabetes since then he can not seem to control his sugar levels no matter how much he watches his diet .any suggestions dr G ?

    1. Dr. Greger has LOTS of videos on this site related to diabetes, so if you haven’t already, please check those out (you can search in the box above). If your father is already eating a WFPB diet, you may want to particularly check out the video on how adding a bit of vinegar to the diet can help control blood sugar. You can find it here: Vinegar and Diabetes

  12. Or the reason reduced caloric intake makes life hard for cancer is the reason the Paleo /Ketosis chaps speak about.

    Dr. Dominic is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology is interviewed by Tim Ferris and as much as you pick data that suits your vegetarian premise he seems well able to pick his own data to suit a very different outcome.

    It is hard for educated members of the public to know how to decide when there appear to be highly qualified intellectually honest proponents who have opposing conclusions.

    It appears to me that you can pick a lifestyle choice and then simply troll the data to undermine any support for the opposing side. Mark Sisson does this weekly on his Dear Mark post picking apart any data that seems to undermine his pragmatic Paleo diet as you do for any non vegetarian conclusions by finding faults or contradictory studies.

    My suspicion is that the data simply isnt good enough. eg there are no large cohort data studies of people like Mark Sisson eating a sensible Paleo ish diet (eg not bacon and butterfilled coffee but quality meats, vegetables etc) over a whole life to judge.I suspect if he lived that way or a sensible vegetarian diet it wouldnt make much difference. Just look at the Blue zone studies, they werent vegetarians.

    Have you done any work on ketosis ? It is no surprise cancer struggles in a low carb environment (vegetarians are very quiet on this subject understandably).

  13. On another subject.

    Dr. Dean Burk, PHD (34 years at the national cancer institute) recently said that,

    “IN POINT OF FACT, FLOURIDE CAUSES MORE HUMAN CANCER DEATH, AND CAUSES IT FASTER THEN ANY OTHER CHEMICAL.”

    If this is true, then we have a serious problem as flouride is commonly looked on as the answer to cavities..

    Any thoughts or studies on this??

    By the way, thank you for a wonderful service.

    Best Regards

    Flemming Hansen – hansen@hansen.org

    1. Flemming: Does Dr. Burk provide any evidence to back up his claims? I wasn’t aware of any studies showing actual cancer as a result of fluoride (which by the way is a natural substance in water and one of the nutrients needed by (or at least in) our bones…).

      1. Dear Thea – I work with oral care amongst the very large poor population in the Philippines and we rely heavily on fluoride in tooth paste and fluoride flushing.

        Someone send me this picture…

        And I wanted to check out what this is all about. First time I have heard any such claim, and where else to go than, to Dr. Gregor.

        I am not a medical person, so I hope someone can help me sort this out. Like I said, if this is true, we really do have a problem.

      1. Thank you for your input. I must admit that when I heard about Fluoride causing Cancer, I was shocked, first time I heard such a statement.

        Then I googled Dr. Dean Burk’s claim, and found out that there are lots of videos on you tube and articles on the net by Dr Dean Burk and others, claiming that fluoride is straight poison and definitely causes cancer.

        The links that you send me seems to be of a more recent character saying that the is no research substantiating Dr Dean Burk’s claims that fluoride causes cancer, to the contrary.

        I am not a health care professional and until otherwise proved, I will go with the more recent studies and the advice I have received so far about the use of fluoride and the positive affect it has on our bone structure and teeth etc., but I must admit that it sort of put a pin in my balloon and dampened my enthusiasm about the use of fluoride a bit.

        Thank you so much for taking the time to answer me. I appreciate it.

  14. Flemming,

    Some additional thoughts….. dental decay is rampant in the Philippines, per these older references: http://www.amjdent.com/Archive/2009/Bagramian%20-%20February%202009.pdf http://fluoridealert.org/news/philippines-biggest-health-scourge-of-pinoy-kids-bad-teeth/.

    With that said, I also understand that the water is not fluorinated as of a 2012 reports. There appears to be limited approach to using good dental hygiene, brushing until later ages with a subsequent decrease in caries. Perhaps the best move is to not allow the commercialization via the “handouts” of fluorinated toothpaste but rather the use of both better nutrition and brushing from an earlier age in addition to avoiding the many contaminants from both industry and polluted areas. I can across a significant amount of literature regarding these issue which raised the levels of fluoride present in both ground water along with other dental and periodontal disease producing toxins. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4625339/ https://books.google.com/books?id=y6GwhqZl3g0C&pg=PT386&lpg=PT386&dq=fluoride+in+soils+philippines&source=bl&ots=s303jU3jcd&sig=We6NcXX0xlkkc_3RMzZRjIe4MDs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj53uy51_TSAhVGzGMKHUC8BbwQ6AEINjAD#v=onepage&q=fluoride%20in%20soils%20philippines&f=false

    Is this a clear issue of don’t use the toothpaste, no. After researching the issue in the Philippines it appears that a multifactorial approach is essential. Without a diet low in sugar, high in nutrient density and with some mechanical brushing of the teeth regularly…..the issue will persist. I hope this sheds some light on your concerns. Dr. Alan Kadish moderator for Dr. Greger

  15. I see that this is a several year old thread so questions may perish here now from neglect….BUT….

    Tor expression and also suppression of Autophagy is triggered by antioxidants which are super abundant in Dr. Greger’s 12 foods. Also, leucine is abundant in beans and seeds…And it doesn’t take much leucine to stimulate TOR’s (growth promoting) activity. Might it not be wise to limit even plant protein uptake at least some of the time (as with Intermittent fasting)? And might it also be wise to keep from going overboard on the antioxidants?

  16. DocSiders,
    Lots of good questions! I’m glad you asked; this is an exciting topic.
    Leucine is an essential amino acid so we do need to consume some. By eating plant based and avoiding animal products we can protect ourselves from consuming leucine in excess. For example, a 3 oz serving of beef contains about 2700 mg of leucine, whereas a 1/2 cup serving of lentils only 600 mg. The highest plant based source is probably soy which is about 1500 mg per 1/2 cup serving so it may be wise to not eat 3 serving a day of soybeans.
    https://nutritionfacts.org/2016/01/05/how-to-suppress-the-aging-enzyme-tor/
    See the following video where Dr G compared animal protein restriction to calorie restriction.
    https://nutritionfacts.org/video/caloric-restriction-vs-animal-protein-restriction/
    Regarding autophagy, see this video where Dr G explain how the antioxidant phytate kills cancer cells but not the normal healthy cells.
    https://nutritionfacts.org/2015/05/26/how-phytates-fight-cancer-cells/

  17. I am having a very difficult time finding information that supports any negative issues with dairy like milk. The amount of studies that I am finding are overwhelmingly positive information regarding the consumption of dairy. The majority of studies that I have access to are just from searching through google scholar. Any link between potential cancer causing effect of dairy and prostate cancer is a marginal increase with the consumption of high fat milks but not with yogurt and fermented dairy products. Several studies are pointing to the benefits of low fat milk in the prevention of such cancer. I am having a difficult time in finding a large enough quantity of studies professing the negative effects of dairy.

    What I have found points to in random studies(not majority) increases in overall mortality rate in the consumption of dairy productions. Only a slight increase in IS or inflammation and that the increase is voided by even higher proportions of anti-inflammatory benefits in the consumption of various types of milk. Information regarding IGF-1 and D-Galactose negative effects are slim and mostly studies done on mice. There is a link between an increase in IGF-1 and cancer and that the main dietary source of IGF-1 is animal based including dairy. But IGF-1 is essential in human development and maintaining certain levels of IGF-1 are essential to health. There are also studies that point to an increase in IGF-1 in the consumption of high glycemic index foods. So in theory the IGF-1 levels that induce cancer are just from spikes from processed foods and could occur in a highly processed food diet ? D-galactose is a naturally occurring milk sugar that is produced in the body to help with the production of breast milk in women. Again like with IGF-1 not maintaining certain levels of D-galactose can be harmful to the body. But in studies that use D-galactose in experiments with high quantities in mice to induce oxidation of cells, Alzheimer, Parkinson disease. Most alarming is the necrosis of cells from exposure to D-galactose.

    I am having trouble finding any studies regarding Milk and endocrine disruption and that environmental exposure could be a greater source of ED.
    In regard to overall exposure of estrogen in dairy and negative effects I am having trouble finding information.

    So essentially I am finding very little negative information regarding dairy in peer reviewed studies and that the majority of studies highlight the positives of dairy consumption ( this excludes any association with heart disease as I have not gotten that far in research). With no causation of disease, or cancer associated with dairy consumption. With the most damaging correlation with milk being a milk sugar injected in mice.

    Please help steer me in a direction towards more information. Or an over arching stream of thought that shows causation, or a very solid foundation of correlation.

  18. Hi Deann! Dr. Greger has dozen of videos covering many different aspects of and concerns with dairy, which you can find here! For each video, you can click the “sources cited” tab, to further explore the studies and results that are discussed.

  19. i watch some youtube VDO about M tor about excercise. so i have Question .
    If we excersice , do we promote M tor ? in good way or not?
    and which excersice promote Less M tor? hard excersice (in gym) or light (yoga)?
    and in the short run or long run in better? while excersice and after excersice?
    Which food good with in which level of grah? if eat meat and excersice and eat vegan and plant ?
    If we do not keep muscle what will be problem when we older? such as we can lose bone ?
    …and if yes which muscle is better? in hard or light excersice
    …and if if work in every age the same or diffrent such as if that person 80
    thank you .. :)

    1. Hi, San Fran! I couldn’t find any information on exercise and its relationship to mTOR specifically, however, exercise has been shown to be beneficial in the prevention of cancer (https://nutritionfacts.org/video/exercise-breast-cancer/). Exercise is also promotive of increased longevity, due to its role in preventing disease (https://nutritionfacts.org/video/longer-life-within-walking-distance/) and lowering resting heart rate (https://nutritionfacts.org/video/finger-pulse-longevity/). Practicing yoga with the incorporation of meditation could help to slow cellular aging (https://nutritionfacts.org/video/does-meditation-affect-cellular-aging/).

      Regarding your question on food, the research cited in this video – https://nutritionfacts.org/video/is-it-the-diet-the-exercise-or-both/ – found that the blood of people eating a plant-based diet and exercising moderately was more effective at killing cancer cells than that of those eating a standard diet and exercising strenuously. So exercise is very helpful, but a whole food plant-based diet is key. Additionally, whole food plant-based diets are very dense in antioxidants and therefore very effective in countering the DNA damage caused by free radicals produced by high-intensity exercise (https://nutritionfacts.org/video/preventing-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-with-watercress/).

      Losing muscle comes with a loss of strength and mobility. Older adults who are sedentary will lose a small percentage of muscle mass each year, however, participating in physical activity can combat this. Eating a whole food plant-based diet rich in vegetables can also help protect aging muscles. “Consuming recommended levels of vegetables was associated with cutting the odds basically in half of low muscle mass. Why? The alkalizing effects of vegetables may neutralize the mild metabolic acidosis that occurs with age, and, you know, it may be that little extra acid in our body that facilitates the breakdown of muscle.” (https://nutritionfacts.org/video/increasing-protein-intake-age-65/).

      I hope the above information and links are helpful in answering your questions!

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