Flashback Friday: Boosting Brown Fat Through Diet

Flashback Friday: Boosting Brown Fat Through Diet
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The fat-burning properties of brown adipose tissue can be boosted by cold exposure, certain flavor molecules, and arginine-rich foods.

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Until about ten years ago, brown adipose tissue was considered to be biologically active only in babies and small children, generating heat by burning fat, but there is now no doubt that active brown fat is present in adult humans, involved in cold-induced increases in whole-body calorie expenditure, and thereby, the control of body temperature and how fat we are.

In 2013, researchers showed that one could activate brown adipose tissue by chilling people out long enough: two hours of cold exposure every day for six weeks, which can lead to a significant reduction in body fat. Although they demonstrated the effective recruitment of human brown fat, it would seem difficult to increase exposure to cold in daily life. Thankfully, our brown fat can also be activated by some food ingredients, such as capsaicin, the compound that makes hot peppers hot.

Whereas increased physical activity is usually recommended to increase energy expenditure, specific food components, such as capsaicin, are known to burn off calories and fat.

There was a significant rise in energy expenditure within 30 minutes of eating the equivalent of a jalapeno pepper.

Normally, when we cut down on calories, our metabolism slows down, undercutting our weight loss attempts. But sprinkling a third of a teaspoon of cayenne pepper powder onto our meals counteracts that metabolic slowdown and promotes fat burning. They wanted to try giving them more, to try to match some of the studies done in Asia, but they were working with Caucasians. There is a difference in maximum tolerable dose of red chili pepper between Asians and Caucasians. Take some Japanese women, and you can boost the fat burned after a high-fat meal too, adding over a tablespoon of red pepper powder.

We’ve known for decades that cayenne pepper increases metabolic rate, but we didn’t know how. But now, we have studies showing that this class of compounds increases energy expenditure in human individuals with brown fat, but not those without it, indicating that they increase expenditure straight off the bat. And there’s all sorts of structurally similar flavor molecules in other foods, like black pepper and ginger, which we expect to activate thermogenesis as well, but they haven’t been directly tested.

All these results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of pepper compounds are based on the heat-generating activity of recruited brown fat. Thus, repeated ingestion can mimic the chronic effects of cold exposure without having to freeze ourselves.

Consumption of spicy foods may help us lose weight, but what about the sensory burn and pain on our tongues, and sometimes in our stomach as well as further on down? So, are our only two options for boosting brown fat to freeze our legs or burn our butts?

Arginine-rich foods may also stimulate brown adipose tissue growth and development through a variety of mechanisms, which just means eating more soy foods, seeds, nuts, and beans.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to Wandering Lens via Flickr.

Until about ten years ago, brown adipose tissue was considered to be biologically active only in babies and small children, generating heat by burning fat, but there is now no doubt that active brown fat is present in adult humans, involved in cold-induced increases in whole-body calorie expenditure, and thereby, the control of body temperature and how fat we are.

In 2013, researchers showed that one could activate brown adipose tissue by chilling people out long enough: two hours of cold exposure every day for six weeks, which can lead to a significant reduction in body fat. Although they demonstrated the effective recruitment of human brown fat, it would seem difficult to increase exposure to cold in daily life. Thankfully, our brown fat can also be activated by some food ingredients, such as capsaicin, the compound that makes hot peppers hot.

Whereas increased physical activity is usually recommended to increase energy expenditure, specific food components, such as capsaicin, are known to burn off calories and fat.

There was a significant rise in energy expenditure within 30 minutes of eating the equivalent of a jalapeno pepper.

Normally, when we cut down on calories, our metabolism slows down, undercutting our weight loss attempts. But sprinkling a third of a teaspoon of cayenne pepper powder onto our meals counteracts that metabolic slowdown and promotes fat burning. They wanted to try giving them more, to try to match some of the studies done in Asia, but they were working with Caucasians. There is a difference in maximum tolerable dose of red chili pepper between Asians and Caucasians. Take some Japanese women, and you can boost the fat burned after a high-fat meal too, adding over a tablespoon of red pepper powder.

We’ve known for decades that cayenne pepper increases metabolic rate, but we didn’t know how. But now, we have studies showing that this class of compounds increases energy expenditure in human individuals with brown fat, but not those without it, indicating that they increase expenditure straight off the bat. And there’s all sorts of structurally similar flavor molecules in other foods, like black pepper and ginger, which we expect to activate thermogenesis as well, but they haven’t been directly tested.

All these results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of pepper compounds are based on the heat-generating activity of recruited brown fat. Thus, repeated ingestion can mimic the chronic effects of cold exposure without having to freeze ourselves.

Consumption of spicy foods may help us lose weight, but what about the sensory burn and pain on our tongues, and sometimes in our stomach as well as further on down? So, are our only two options for boosting brown fat to freeze our legs or burn our butts?

Arginine-rich foods may also stimulate brown adipose tissue growth and development through a variety of mechanisms, which just means eating more soy foods, seeds, nuts, and beans.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to Wandering Lens via Flickr.

Doctor's Note

What is brown adipose tissue? Check out my “prequel” video: Brown Fat: Losing Weight Through Thermogenesis

For more on the arginine story, see Fat Burning Via Arginine. The arginine may also play a role in the effects nuts may have on penile blood flow (Pistachio Nuts for Erectile Dysfunction).

Spicy food may also help with digestive disorders (Cayenne Pepper for Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Indigestion) and the hot pepper compound can be a lifesaver for cluster headache sufferers (Hot Sauce in the Nose for Cluster Headaches?).

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

142 responses to “Flashback Friday: Boosting Brown Fat Through Diet

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  1. I opt for the arginine option of increasing brown fat metabolism.

    Unrelated: I’ve been eating more fruit lately. This has lots of sugar in it. Sugar is baaddd–except when eating fruit? Also, I’ve noticed fruit is easy to digest and burns clean. Also, an hour after eating fruit I may be hungry again. Some people live mostly on fruit.

    1. Dan,

      Dr. Greger has a video on fruit and blood sugar.

      If you are juicing it, you would be getting blood sugar spikes.

      You are right that some people like mostly on fruit, but that is a group that tends to fail more often if internet and news are any indications.

      I believe Dr. Lisle was one doctor who spoke against it in one of his videos.

      It isn’t impossible to do a healthy version, but a lot of people fail.

      1. I forgot.

        High Carb Hannah gained 30 or 40 pounds doing a fruit-oriented diet. Then, she switched to The Starch Solution and got to her ideal weight. Happy Healthy Vegan also switched from raw, mostly fruit to The Starch Solution and they had their numbers and bodyweight improve, too.

        But there are a lot of women on the all-fruit diet who lose their periods and people end up with more teeth problems on that diet – partly from things like dates and having more citrus.

        I am not sure whether it would affect fatty liver. I do know that fructose is involved in that pathway, but eating several servings of fruit doesn’t harm the liver. I am just not sure if upping the fruit intake to a much higher level might suddenly bring fructose up to the dangerous levels that cause the whole fatty liver, FFA’s problem. That is me wondering. Not saying it causes it. Regular fruit intake doesn’t cause it.

        Mic The Vegan ate something like 5 bananas and took his blood sugar levels and it was higher eating that than when he ate a vegan pizza.

      2. Deb,
        Thanks. I will keep plenty of veggies going also. Since we are writing about vitamin D, and you are a proponent of D supplementation, I kinda suppect that my winter rigidity and increased wintertime sleep might have something to do with a circadian rhythm that seems like a form of hybernation. I get out in the winter sun when possible but I am concerned with too much vitamin D supplementation. During warmer, sunny months I do much better. This summer vigor diminishes drastically when cooler weather comes around. My muscles get weak and rigid. I feel like I want to crawl into a bear den and hibernate. I am 60 now and I suspect that is part of it but I think there is more to it than that. This last winter was mild thankfully. It helped that I wore a neck scarf and sock cap inside. Turning my thermostat up helps. If I could only turn my body up or back on. I also eat more but it is the lean, vegan style of eating. I do eat peanut butter thinking I might benefit from fat insulation. I take B-12. I walk but have difficulty running. I work in my house painting business. I’ve started experiencing the occasional fall, inside and out, due to diminished muscle strength and coordination. My body weight / height is 185 / 6’4″. This problem is worth correcting, if possible.

        1. Dan,

          I listen to both sides on every issue and try my best to understand the logic from both directions.

          I would say that I am a proponent of Vitamin D supplementation during a pandemic and during flu seasons and any time when you aren’t getting enough sunlight.

          Some people, like Barb, have described being outside every single day all year round and that is different.

          Older people are often deficient. People who have non-white skin or who are at all overweight tend to be deficient. People who aren’t outside a lot during the daylight are often deficient. Or who cover themselves up. (When I was a young person, I would run around in a bathing suit or shorts during the summer. I haven’t worn shorts in decades and wouldn’t walk around in a bathing suit. If I swim, it is at the YMCA, I don’t have a pool anymore and don’t like crowded beaches anymore. I figured out that my walking paths are lined by tall trees on both sides and so are the properties around me. I sat outside for hours at my brother’s house on a sunny day and just speckles of light hit our skin.

          When I try to get Vitamin D from the sun, it is often just while I am driving and I open up my sunroof and a window. If the “you don’t need to supplement” people are right, maybe I get some that way, but I don’t drive long distances except to Whole Foods, and that is after work, so I am not really sure how much I get that way, so, yes, I supplement.

          Dr. Greger has a Vitamin D and preventing falls video.

          https://nutritionfacts.org/video/should-vitamin-d-supplements-be-taken-to-prevent-falls/

            1. Deb,
              I can eat more beets and drink beet juice and I’ve started back on Vitimin D supplement at the 2000 level. Exercising really helps. I will walk more.

          1. Deb,
            Thanks so much. I will watch the video. I eat beets and greens. I think I am doing everything right but still have a problem, as the saying goes. I suspect it could be something from the wonderful world of Parkinson’s coming at me. I should be grateful that it is slow onset and hopefully I will die with it but not from it.

              1. Deb,
                I used to take DHA but then heard bad news it might cause cancer in glands like the prostate. Don’t want to go there. I know Dr. Greger is okay on it with some caveat.

                1. Dan,

                  I understand.

                  Though Dr Ornish has his people use it and he reversed prostate cancer with people taking it and there are also studies where it helps cancer.

                  Though it is an exceedingly confusing topic.

                  It preserves the structure of the brain is why I take it.

                  I experienced Such a serious brain breakdown years ago and it has taken me years to begin to get my brain back.

                  1. Deb,
                    DHA does seem to sit on the fence a bit, but more in the positive way than negative. I will get back on it in low dose.

                    1. Dan,

                      I take comfort that Dr Ornish reversed prostate cancer with men who were taking it.

                      There are PubMed studies that indicate it could stop prostate cancer from growing.

                      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21360560/

                      It isn’t a double blind study either, but studies often come to opposite conclusions.

                2. Dr Fuhrman’s take on the DHA study was that it didn’t measure supplements at all.

                  It measured plasma levels of Omega 3’s and all it likely proved was that the people who had developed cancer were eating fish.

                  They only measured it twice years apart and somehow the study ended up proving that trans fats were good for you and protective against prostate cancer said that was even possible.

                  He thinks the people who started having cancer symptoms may have started trying to eat healthier and added in fish and got rid of their trans fats.

                  1. There is a video and studies where DHA helps cancer and improves the results of chemo.

                    One doctor really believed strongly in using it with cancer patients.

                    But I couldn’t find the video.

                    1. So do trans fats prevent prostate cancer or did the men who were told they got prostate cancer change their diets?

                  2. Deb,
                    Dr.’s Greger, Ornish, Fuhrman, McDougall (?) seem to be positive. Dr. Klapper’s dissent (is he back on now?) sent up a red flag for me.

                    1. Deb,
                      I couldn’t find a DHA opinion from McDougall. Dr.’s Greger & Fuhrman are positive. Dr. Greger does not support fish oil because of pollutants. Dr. Greger does support DHA supplementation with algae derived DHA.

                  3. Deb,
                    It would really be weird if trans fats turned out to be healthy. I used to eat it by the tub to help peanut butter go down.

                3. This DHA prostate cancer story may be confusing cause and effect.

                  The scare is based on observational studies by a single team that found found high DHA levels in prostate cancer patients. From that certain people made the heroic leap to concluding that high DHA serum levels increase prostate cancer risk. There is however, to my knowledge, no evidence for this. It made a headline catching story even if it ignored most of the scientific evidence on the interrelationships between cancers and fatty acids.

                  The explanation for the association is most likely the fact that cancers and certainly prostate cancer are known to affect the body’s regulation of fatty acids and to increase their synthesis.
                  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4219300/

                4. Dan, this article quoting the Drs Sherzai might interest you. https://news.llu.edu/health-wellness/how-eat-for-healthy-brain I wish I had had their book along with Dr Greger’s diet book during these past months! Anyway, they list food sources they eat for omega 3’s. You might be getting more than you realize with the plant foods you eat now!
                  I heard them discussing this during the webinar with chef AJ. The amounts used in many of the studies are quite large , ie 2 to 4 gram and made by a prescription drug company.

                  1. Barb,
                    I am eating and living very similar to what the Sherzais suggest. Rich Roll did a long pod cast with them. Thank you

          2. Deb,
            This video is supportive of getting enough vitamin D (and) exercise. Older people lose vitamin D receptors in their muscles. Vit D supplementation can make muscles more supple (less rigid and tight) and improve cognitive performance.

          1. House painting? I didn’t and will NOT click on your link, but is the site you’re looking for in order to sell your wares? I didn’t think so!

            1. (I didn’t see where Dan C. mentioned house painting. So…mea culpa?)

              Dan, sorry to hear about your Parkinson’s. One of my friends was diagnosed with it a year or two ago.

              1. YR,
                I’ve not been diagnosed with Parkinson’s. I’ve kind of figured out I have some of the symtoms. There are so many symtoms though. There are conditions that mimic Parkinson’s. I’m wondering if there is an online test that can peg some diseases, within the ballpark, like: Runny nose (check), increased sleep (check), rigid, weak muscles (check), neuro-muscle instability (check), lethargy (check) —————and then list conditions these symptoms may fall under. Also, remedys to try.

                1. Dan C, don’t know where you live. But leaving out the runny nose, your other symptoms sound like what some athletes experience here in our very hot dry climate. It’s caused by their sodium going too low.
                  We have also found that older people (and, again, you are not that old), have the same problem with just normal activity. They also test low in sodium, sometimes also in potassium.
                  Have you had a check up since all this started?
                  If you have, look at the numbers. Many doctors are too busy to pay attention to the results of the tests they order. You need to get a copy and look at them yourself. A complete blood workup may reveal the answer you need.
                  Also, if you are on any medications, many of them block certain nutrients from being absorbed. You can find that info online.

                  1. MK,
                    –I live in NE OK, also known as Green Country.
                    –I do not add salt to my food. I will try some. I eat tomato products and dates for potassium.
                    –I recognize some of my decline is age related, but I’m not sure it all is.
                    –I am on no medications. I supplement with B-12 and started D3 @ 2000 today. I would go back on DHA, if safe. I eat lots of nuts and flax.
                    –My last blood work-up was several years ago. A PA went over it with me. It looked good. I have it on file.
                    –I will schedule an appt. with a former neighbor who is an OD to get a blood work-up, after COVID 19 is over.
                    –If you are a health professional willing to work on this, my business information can be found at dancaglecustompainting.com

                    1. Dan, this is what I do. But I take only local people.
                      When you get your bloodwork, compare results to former years. You can get copies. Even if everything is ‘normal’, it may not be normal for you.
                      Had one woman with multiple symptoms. Her lab tests showed normal hemoglobin, but much lower than her numbers in past years. Asked for iron levels to be tested, she had so little the lab had trouble reading. But she wasn’t anemic according to her lab results. Apparently she is just genetically very good at using iron to make red blood cells. Only red flag was her numbers were not usual for Her.

                  1. I use symptom checker.

                    I watched a talk with the man who did the first version decades ago. It can’t replace a doctor with years of experience but it is a starting point.

                    It has helped me a lot, but it doesn’t diagnose people.

          2. Karen,
            The paint product market has shifted to low VOC. I’m semi-retired and do mostly residential. Much of that is outside. I’ve always been cautious with my health, but can’t say that the thousands of gallons of paint material I’ve worked with, over 35 years, did not affect my health somehow.

            1. Karen,
              I lied. I’ve been on several hot jobs, like lacquer and oil based paint. But, it was mostly at the residential level. These chemicals give you headaches and disrupt sleep, even after wearing a respirator. Most of my painting is done by hand, brush and roller, and I avoid using spray equipment. I’ve had the thought before that “opening up a container of high VOC sovent in an occupied structure should be against the law.” But, so should using a cooking grill near a pregnant woman. So should using yard chemicals. Many furnishings in offices and residences are toxic. And you really shouldn’t be drinking some ground water anymore.

              1. Hi Dan C,
                I only mentioned the paint because two of my favorite house painters had similar, but not identical, issues. They both died a few years ago before low VOC paints came into wide-spread use. Great painters, and great people. I miss them both.

                Best of luck to you in your quest for better health.

                To YR:
                Sorry I failed to identify Dan C, in my first post.

        2. Dan C, you may not be consuming enough protein if you are losing muscle. At your weight you should be getting about 70grams per day. More if you are very active. According to Dr. Longo, some people need more protein as they get older. But 60yo is relatively young.
          And Deb is right, hunger within a short time after a meal usually indicates blood sugar spikes.

          1. MK
            I eat a lot of food. I started eating more two winters ago to counter body coldness, thinking increasing my calories might help. I eat nuts by the big bags and jar fulls. I may eat 2 or 3 loaves of really good bread a week. I slather peanut butter on toast. I eat over 20 servings of homemade bean / veggie stew per week. I eat two breakfasts. If I’m hungry I eat. It’s all high in fiber though and I know some of the calories are not getting on board.

    2. Sounds like a plan if not exposed to HSV-1 or HSV-2. Arginine is an essential requirement for the replication of viruses and progression of viral infections. Arginine bioavailability is absolutely necessary for the replication of herpes simplex virus, which causes cold sores/genital herpes. When arginine is not available, herpes viruses in cells are unable to complete a single replication cycle and cell damage is evident in infected cells.

    3. Dan, I have been eating a high raw whole fruit and vegetable diet for approaching two years. I could not be happier with the results. I also eat warmed or cooked grains, and avoid any animal products. I remain at 5’ 11” 170 lbs., within 5 lbs. of my high school/college/Navy weight, without even trying. I am 58. For breakfast, I eat three apples and a bowl of warmed fermented oatmeal with one tablespoon of freshly ground flaxseed and a sliced banana. For lunch, I have a smoothie of five frozen bananas with two oranges. I follow that with a large salad of mixed lettuces, a tomato, homemade broccoli and mung bean sprouts, juice of one lime, sea salt, hemp seeds, and a teaspoon of olive oil. For dinner, I make a pizza from homemade sourdough gluten free flour, homemade nut milk ‘cheese’, and homemade sauce. Or, I have some lentil chili. I have snacks of dates, dark chocolate, and soaked and dried walnuts or pecans. I have no aches or pains, have no chronic conditions, and take no medications. I was inspired by the 80/10/10 Diet book, but adapted it over timeto include some grains, which I find satisfying. Eating raw whole fruit and vegetables does indeed burn clean.

      1. John G.
        Your eating routine sounds great. I am eating very similar to what you are. I’ve bumped my fruit intake up. I eat apples, oranges, grapefruits and bananas by the bags and bunches. I cook bean / veggie stew. I eat whole oats & barley, flax, cocoa and dried and fresh fruit for breakfast.
        I will eat more beets and beet juice and I’ve started back on vitamin D supplement–and keep the exercise going.
        Thank you for your help.

    1. YR
      My take is that a mask barrier does not protect the wearer from infection but may protect others from being infected from a transmitting mask wearer.

      1. Vented N95 masks are banned in many places specifically because they only protect the wearer and allow cough/sneeze/etc water droplets out the vent as if they are not wearing a mask at all.

        The square masks only need the two layers, the absorbent side and the water vapor side. Just so everyone knows, the colored side is usually the water vapor barrier side which ALWAYS goes on the outside away from your face. There is some absurd info circulating online that reversing it makes them work better. Ignore them and go to a hospital or medical website and see that the pros recommend.

        1. Reality bites,

          I listened to that logic, too.

          To someone like me, it was easier to figure out how to add a layer to a vented mask than to make one that would protect me while it was protecting everybody else.

        2. Reality bites,

          “Specifically, single-use, disposable respiratory protective devices used and worn by health care personnel during procedures to protect both the patient and health care personnel from the transfer of microorganisms, body fluids, and particulate material. These surgical N95 respirators are class II devices regulated by the FDA, under 21 CFR 878.4040, and CDC NIOSH under 42 CFR Part 84.”. https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/personal-protective-equipment-infection-control/n95-respirators-and-surgical-masks-face-masks

          Can you share the source of your statement: that N95 masks “ only protect the wearer and allow cough/sneeze/etc water droplets out the vent as if they are not wearing a mask at all?” Thank you.

            1. Dr J.,

              Industries like the one I work in use N95 or N100 respirators with a valve. It wouldn’t protect patients. It would only protect the person wearing it.

              The N95, N99, and N100 represents the size and percentage of the particle that gets filtered out, so we could be using the exact same 3M material as doctors and nurses, but the valve means that the breath comes out and sneezes and coughs can come out.

              It surprised me that the medical used N95 instead of N100, but that is related to how easy it is to breathe with it on. We use N100, but we have a valve because people have to wear them all day and it is hot in machine shops and heat treaters and things like that. There are particles like asbestos and metal chips and all sorts of things that we don’t want our workers having to think about. Also things like chemical fumes and paint fumes. Each of the purposes have masks aimed at them.

      2. Dan,

        There are ways to make masks more effective.

        Adding a layer of chiffon, silk, nylon, pantyhose.

        Adding a filter pocket and using a filter from a Hepa filter (They are used in air purifiers, house air filter systems, vacuums, etc.)

        Making the masks out of materials like car covers, recycling bags from the grocery store or a material infused with silver – Silvertize sells fairly expensive masks and cloths, but this might be a good time to repurpose a Norwex.

        Making the mask from quilted layers, rather than single layers.

        Covering your layers in citric acid, saltwater, zinc ions, copper ions, colloidal silver are all antivirals that will kill the germs on the mask.

        The tightness of the fit is one of the things that make the difference, so gluing foam around the edge of the mask, so that will sit around your nose and mouth can help. (That is what respirators often have.)

        Plus, you can still buy N99 respirators with valves because medical people won’t buy them because of the valves. They will tell you not to use them because it will protect you, but your breath will go out the valve, but people are just putting a procedural mask over them.

        (If I was a medical person who was in the situation described yesterday on Dr. John Campbell’s site where the nurse was being asked to work using a snorkel and garbage bag, I would be getting a respirator with a valve and putting any type of mask over it.)

        I am doing the N99 mask to protect myself with a procedural mask.

        It was expensive, but I had sent my N100 to my father who was having people die on his street in Florida.

        I had family members who were getting things like pneumonia back in November so that was when I started looking at masks. My cousin was in and out of the hospital for months last year.

        He told me yesterday that every day he sees obituaries from the rehab that he was still in around the New Year. He is on dialysis and had a serious lung infection and kept needing to have his lungs drained and that was just weeks before COVID.

        I thank God every day for his mercy on my life because so many of the people who I am trying to protect still haven’t gotten this.

        A friend’s mother just turned 95 in a nursing home. She went in just before this because of falls. So far, she is still doing very well.

        My other friend found out that they are going to move her son out of the institution that he has been in. He is going someplace safer.

        We have been working on mask solutions for him, but he will now have a bedroom of his own.

        Not everybody should wear masks for a long duration.

        People have passed out while driving and things like that.

        I don’t wear them except while shopping and things like that.

        But I have the ability to work alone.

        1. How is it that the whole world is in a global conversation on how to make masks perform like N95’s and if I was handy, I could make one out of one of my bras or out of the recycling bags I bought at the grocery store or out of my car cover, or out of my air purifier filter or my house filter and yet there are hospitals that have medical people and all they could come up with was putting them in garbage bags with snorkels?

          To me, that means that the medical people need to be pro-active for their own health and not rely on hospitals as employers.

          The hospital administration doesn’t have Google or Youtube?

          1. I am floating the concept that doctors and nurses should each own 7 emergency masks from now on.

            There are doctors dying because of not having PPE.

            If Dr. McDougall has a whole supply of masks and Dr. Greger knew to have masks before the next pandemic, medical people should know that and they should never rely on hospitals ever.

            1. Deb,

              88 nurses have died to date from Covid-19. I don’t know how many doctors, other medical professionals, and other hospital staff have also died.

              And many hospitals still don’t have enough supplies and PPEs. Our health care system has some serious problems. This pandemic is exposing them.

              1. Dr. J.,

                I know. And that is tragic.

                My point is that almost every person I have met has gone on the internet and figured out how to make a mask and half of the websites are teaching how to make ones that are as good if not better than N95’s.

                I do know that there are nurses and doctors who went to Home Depot or Lowes and have made thousands of them for their colleagues, out of plans that were on YouTube.

                My point is that it seems like there is something wrong when nurses are using snorkels instead of having someone try to figure out the effective ways that are out there.

                I say it again, most doctors could afford 365 masks of their own or more than that, and I don’t think doctors and nurses should ever just rely on the hospitals ever again.

                They might not be able to get exactly what they are looking for right this second, but I would rather the nurse with the snorkel bought one with a valve on Amazon and added a layer to that, rather than allow herself to be exposed that way.

              2. Dr. J.,

                I am saying that the system was designed to fail and Dr. Greger, Dr. McDougall, Taiwan, and the preppers could predict the exact failures that would happen 15 years ago, so the medical field should have been able to predict it, too.

                The system has to change and I don’t hear that conversation happening yet.

                Hopefully, it is happening in the hospital administrators’ offices, but I am saying that it should be happening in every medical person’s houses.

                My family members are all buying their masks now because I didn’t buy enough for work to last a whole pandemic, and that is a discussion we are having and I am so happy they are all getting their own masks for every member of their family and we are talking how to have them be N95 to N99 quality, but still have them legal even if we have to have the valves.

                Our system has to change and I will never not have a collection of masks again.

                I don’t want to wear the same mask every day, so I will have a system of 7 days worth eventually. Right now, I am alternating days because COVID should die on that material within a day. I also put my procedural mask underneath it and those I change more frequently.

                I haven’t finished figuring out my system yet, but I am telling each of my workers that we will have the proper quality equipment for them to work on the machines and not inhale the particles which is dangerous in our work, but we can’t get N100’s right now and it might be years, so they need their own home masks.

                But I didn’t buy enough and when this is over, that won’t happen again next time.

                Doctors and nurses should own their own and I would say they should have months worth or something like that, in case the next pandemic has a virus that lasts longer on mask material.

                1. Dr. J.,

                  NY stayed open saying they were over-prepared – they didn’t close until they had 10,000 cases, but they expected the Federal government to have stockpiled the nearly a billion masks needed for a pandemic and it just couldn’t even happen from that direction.

                  Doctors and nurses are dying because they don’t have masks that cost $1 per mask and which were available everywhere pre-pandemic.

                  I feel like the logic has to be reversed and it has to be the medical people who stock at least $10 worth for an emergency supply from now on.

                  1. If these doctors and nurses had invested $100 in masks pre-pandemic, they could change their masks 14 times per day and still use a different set of masks all week long.

                    Their lives are worth figuring out a system like that.

        2. Deb,
          It’s amazing what creativity can come up with. This reminds me of the Apollo crew who scrubbed their oxygen with odds and ends to get back to Earth.

        1. YR,

          There are so many new links that I couldn’t find the link – which was posted because Trump recommended to at least use a scarf and that is still the recommendation.

          But the CDC recommends a bandana or scarf only as a last resort.

          It probably would keep your cough or sneeze from traveling quite as far, but it will not be all that protective over you.

          I am not sure what scarf material was tested though.

    2. YR,

      I worry more about medical staff dying from wearing the wrong kind of mask.

      My daughter is a hospital nurse, and they still don’t have enough supplies and PPEs. The thought that what they do have might be ineffective makes my already boiling blood positively steam!!

      1. Bless her heart, Dr. J.! I hope her hospital doesn’t get many, if any patients who are positive with The Virus.

          1. Thanks Deb. There must be zillions of websites on the ‘Net showing masks — many how to make yourself.

            I’ve decided not to get all angst-y about it. I’ll continue to wear the ones I already own. If I ever did buy a new one I’d look for one showing a mouth window. It’s hard to understand what people are saying when y’can’t see their mouths. We all look down at their mouths when they speak, if you’ve ever noticed. I hear a lot of “What was that?”

            Lots bucks for this one, though:

            “with the added benefit of a fog-resistant clear window for improved communication.”

            https://safenclear.com/product/communicator-box/

            1. I saw that one last week and I think it creeped me out a little bit in photos.

              But it is highly practical, particularly if you have anybody hearing impaired around.

              YR, do be careful though.

              When I looked at the Missions district study last week, 95% of the people who got it were people who couldn’t work from home.

              But the recent study from NY, 66% of the people who are seeking medical treatment are people who stayed home.

              I am not sure if that means grocery stores or food delivery, but it means that even people who aren’t working and who aren’t in nursing homes are at risk.

              I can’t convince my father of that. Florida opened up and he went swimming, playing tennis, and out to a restaurant as soon as he was allowed.

              He isn’t going to keep self-isolating and I am not going to stop self-isolating.

              1. “He isn’t going to keep self-isolating and I am not going to stop self-isolating.”
                – – – – –

                Good show! *_*

            2. YR,

              Also, it is the outsides of masks that are generally infected, so be careful with the outside of your scarf.

              They did a fascinating study and the part that was fascinating was that the inside of the masks swabbed okay, but the outsides of the masks were covered in virus. They said some jibber-jabber about possibly why, but I need a real lab with high tech tools to test their theories.

              https://healthnewshub.org/health-news-hub/top-news/cloth-mask-vs-surgical-mask-vs-n95-how-effective-is-each/

              They tested it from the person coughing and apparently all of the virus made it out.

              They didn’t get curious enough.

              I want to know if all of the virus makes it in the mask — if they put the mask on a breathing doll and have the infected person talking to it.

              1. And if there is anybody who understands the scientific jibber-jabber, are there any implications that the insides of the masks were all negative?

                Shouldn’t the percentage of the virus that doesn’t make it through the material have stayed there?

                Does that mean that it is more about the velocity of the spray than the size of the virus?

                It is an interesting study for me because I am wearing a procedural mask on the inside of my other mask and I did that because I have an N99 with a valve and figured that I would protect people with the procedural mask and protect myself with the N99

                I am wondering if my coughs or sneezes go between the two masks or to the outside of the N99?

                1. They are trying to answer why the virus all went to the outside of the mask and I want to know why there wasn’t any on the inside of the mask.

                  It is like a magic trick.

                    1. It would seem like it would mean that talking maybe didn’t even infect the inside of the mask?

                      Or that it doesn’t last long at all unless it comes from a cough or sneeze and is in maybe droplet form?

                      It would seem like the inside of the mask should have been infected for at least a few seconds?

                    2. I think it matters even more because the outside of the cloth mask was less infected than the outside of the surgical mask.

                      Researchers, using a measurement for viral loads, found 2.42 log copies per milliliter on the exterior of surgical masks and 1.85 log copies per milliliter on the exterior of cloth masks

                      Again, the size of the virus didn’t really matter. I have to figure out if the virus sticks to paper longer or stronger than cloth or something.

                      The person wearing a cloth mask with not even great filtration might be more protected than a surgical mask if their mask is easy to take off.

                    3. It really is going to bother me as a study because my logic then goes to that it may be MORE important to find materials the virus lives on for a shorter period of time versus how many layers.

                      If we put too many layers, for instance, does the virus eventually get stuck on the inside? Or it just goes through anything.

                      It changes the logic for the vulnerable people.

                      Maybe we need the outer layer to be anti-viral, but I thought surgical masks WERE antiviral, but they had MORE virus than the cloth masks?

                      Am I wrong about the surgical masks being treated with the ions and saline?

                  1. Laughing.

                    That’s a good one.

                    The virus not being on the inside of the mask, I wonder if when you cough into your elbow, if it is not in the outside of the shirt?

                    Anyway, I listened to experts talking about a mask making you worse if you have it by holding it right there, but if it isn’t on the inside of the mask, I don’t see how.

  2. This is off-topic

    I see that a European study has found an association between low vitamin D levels and covid !9 severity/mortality

    ‘The researchers noted that patients from countries with high COVID-19 mortality rates, such as Italy, Spain and the UK, had lower levels of vitamin D compared to patients in countries that were not as severely affected.’
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200507121353.htm

    This might also help explain why ethnic minorities (ie darker skinned people) and the elderly In Western countries appear to have higher mortality. Both groups are more prone to vitamin D insufficiency

    1. Tom,

      I have been listening to a few videos on it over the past few days. One talked about how Japan is within the latitudes where they expected COVID-19 to hit it more severely, but the Japanese turned out to have a very low percentage of people who are Vitamin D deficient.

      Dr. John Campbell, yesterday, showed a chart where, basically, the darker the skin of the non-white person the higher the risk of death. He said that they analyzed it correcting for things like socioeconomic issues and comorbidities and the darker skin having more mortality persisted.

      1. Deb,
        This may imply the Japanese are getting vitamin D in their diet via food or supplement. I doubt if the protection is all from supplement. I wonder what the food source may be.

        1. Dan,

          I think you are right that some of it would be from food, but there have been studies with Vitamin D supplementation and things like colds, flu and lung infections and respiratory therapists use it.

          https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/02/study-confirms-vitamin-d-protects-against-cold-and-flu/

          https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28202713

          Vitamin D can also help with sleep, and sleep also can help the immune system.

          I had such severe insomnia for well over a decade and Vitamin D has helped me get some sleep.

    2. Fumbles,
      I read once over and picked up on the association of virus illness for those with “severe” D deficiency. It seems like this cohort would be vulnerable to the common cold.

    3. These type of not peer reviewed reports on covid are not helping. The reason, cause and effect is not part of the equation. Decreases in vitamin D levels are a marker of deteriorating health. A person with normal levels will see a drop when they are sick. This does not mean the drop happened before the sickness. The study looked at people sick with covid in hospitals.

      1. Reality bites,

        They are studying it as fast as they can, but when they looked at skin-color, the darker the skin color the more likely to die even after adjusting for factors like illness, socioeconomic status, and other factors.

        The fact that Japan tested much better in Vitamin D status and didn’t have the same negative outcomes as other similar skin colors in similar latitudes is why they are interested in it.

      2. If the study compared patients tested positive and found that those who were sicker had low D levels, then it is very relevant. Also, these studies are too new to be ‘peer-reviewed’. In crisis mode, who has time for that?
        We are finding here locally that the hispanic population has almost 6x the rate of covid per 100,000 that caucasians do. They do test lower for vitamin D status at this time of year. Of course they also have much higher rates of diabetes, but many are fairly young.

      3. RB

        That’s a good point. Disease states and trauma appear to cause serum levels of things like cholesterol, vitamin C, vitamin D etc to decline in many cases.

        However, the interesting thing about this hypothesis is that it would explain why darker skinned people, the elderly, the obese and people with co-morbidities seem to be at higher risk of covid-19 mortality.

        There is of course no evidence that vitamin D supplementation would prevent severe or fatal covid-19 infection. But a daily walk in the sunlight seems to be a very good idea for a whole host of reasons.

      4. There are many pre-covid studies of vitamin D levels showing darker skinned and older people have lower levels. The similarity of populations who historically are chronically D deficient and those susceptible to this coronavirus is overwhelming. I could only find reports that some serious liver and kidney disease may lower vitamin D levels. I didn’t find that simple infections reduced D levels.
        Here is a peer reviewed article that was pre pandemic recommending societal bit D intervention for infections in general.https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0558-y.pdf
        Here is another pre pandemic report indicating vitamin D effectiveness in addressing respiratory infections.https://www.bmj.com/content/356/bmj.i6583
        I believe you should re-evaluate hand wavy dismissals of current work by actual authorities. There is no harm in taking appropriate amounts of vitamin D, in fact vitamin D supplementation is recommended in general by health authorities around the world. If some not yet reviewed studies are even slightly supported by additional research then vitamin D supplementation would be the most effective action to prevent harm from Civid short of a vaccine.
        Do you have any support that simple infections reduce vitamin D levels?

  3. For me, this particular video format is ideal. Dr. Greger’s unique, confident and authoritative voice in the background, and the data (in various forms) being presented. In contrast, having the doctor taking up half the screen is distracting.

  4. The statement that “Until about ten years ago, brown adipose tissue was considered to be biologically active only in babies and small children” is not correct. Thermogenesis for weight loss in adults has been not only studied since 1957, they patented a product for it in 1990.
    https://patents.justia.com/patent/5055460

  5. Arginine triggers cold sores for me. I am unable to eat any kind of nut, without suffering a bad (three week intense awful) coldsore.
    That way of burning fat is out for me.
    Purchased a juicer. Planning on doing a 10 day cleanse and hoping to incorporate more veggie/fruit juice into our daily lives.

    1. it may be a lack of lysine as much as a surfeit of arginine.
      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6262023/

      Lysine containing foods include soy, other beans, nuts and seeds. I also keep a bottle of lysine supplements on hand just in case. Taking the supplement when the first ‘tingle’ occurs, then every 4 hours thereafter works wonders for me. However, now I’ve increased my bean intake, I haven’t had a cold sore for years.

  6. While this is irrelevant, I would like to know if there is a link between dairy foods intake and breast cancer risk. Can someone please link me to a video that explains this link if available? Thank you.

    1. Vinay,

      That is nowhere near a complete list of dairy and cancer.

      The topic comes up under things like Methionine-restriction and there is a How Not to Die video.

      I left out some of the topics like Dioxin and I didn’t copy Neu5gc into the ones I could post.

      And I am not sure if would have been in TMAO, but I already feel like I gave TMI.

  7. I’m just curious what is the explanation then on Mexican obesity crisis – are they suppose to eat spicy food?! They are one of the fattest nations – no?!

    1. Brankica,

      I have looked up Mexico because of the Latino Paradox and I wondered what has changed there that they suddenly are being mentioned with the USA in obesity. (Though, the islands are mentioned as first)

      They had questionnaires and what struck me was that it sounds like Mexico city did exactly what the USA did.

      They asked what the people eat for meals and they were saying things like they go out to eat every single day.

      “We go to eat tacos, pizza, burgers, or chicken wings.” and they described drinking soda and the kids said that their parents tell them to buy a second hamburger if they are still hungry.

      They asked the children how often they were given junk food as snacks or rewards and the answer was almost every day. They asked which types of junk food the kids were eating and the answer was potato chips or a chocolate bar. Sometimes candy. All sorts of snacks.

      They asked the kids, whether they would buy small glasses of soda or large glasses of soda and the answer was large. (aka supersize)

      I was fascinated because if they had hidden which country it was and made me guess, I would have guessed the USA. The exact same fast food and soda. The exact same marketing campaigns. Cheap prices for convenient, big-sized food.

      Everybody wins and loses and gains all at the same time.

    2. Traditional flour tortillas have a ridiculous amount of fat in them. The horrid sausage like substance cooked for breakfast with eggs is mostly fat and water. A little pepper doesn’t stand a chance against those things.

  8. I go back to the economics.

    The average caregiver at a nursing home in the USA is making minimum wage.

    Nursing assistants make a little bit more at $12 per hour.

    The nursing home administrators make on average $66,000.

    https://www.indeed.com/cmp/Nursing-Homes/salaries

    Home companions are similar. The company they work for gets more but it tends to be drive the length of the state and work part-time minimum wage with hours between clients very, very hands on with washing and feeding and dressing and help with potty.

    I post it because a lot of people don’t understand how many people who will die are part-time minimum wage workers.

    They are heroes, too and do not have sny N95 masks or gowns and might not even have gloves half the time.

    Our glove supplier said that it is going to be a long time before our chemical protection gloves come back.

    1. They aren’t going to get the same applause or thank you’s as the higher valued medical workers, but they deserve their half second of mention. We don’t value them almost at all.

      1. They might have started getting some PPE last week, but it isn’t going to be the ones wiping the butts who are getting it.

        They are brave in my eyes.

    2. Deb,
      There is a silver lining to some home care jobs. These jobs are plentiful. A worker doesn’t have to go through a care agency, but can work direct for the client. Sometimes it is a good job for those who are older and / or cannot gain employment otherwise. My family employed a caregiver weekdays for seven years. I lived in the home with my mom as the primary caregiver. The caregiver we hired freed me up to work in my business weekdays. In this rural area, $10 an hour is average pay. It is what starting police officers and EMT’s make (believe it or not). We paid our caregiver by the week with sick days and holidays off and paid. I made less money in my business but was glad to have the support. Caregiving is demanding work.

  9. I was thinking that we will always generate compassion for the professionals. The modern women’s movement we generate compassion for the professionals and the Hollywood women who are treated unfairly in their negotiated contracts, but one out of six prostitutes get murdered never causes people to think twice.

    Obesity, it will be the very charming Oprah we will generate compassion for, then we will try to start a shame movement for the poor people in the food deserts and the news will report the benefits of shame but just for the groups they don’t care about.

    I don’t know if it is the corporations behind that or if the press is elitist.

    I was thinking about how we shamed the fat people in America and probably will do the same thing if not worse about the fat people in Mexico, but the same corporations are getting rich and there might be people requiring shaming in a country near you. I was interested that Canada and places like France were on the obesity list. The islands have it worse than America because of who they let feed their countries but we skip over their situation. Didn’t even pause to shame them a little but also didn’t pause to generate compassion.

  10. I know that it is exploitation in the food industry because of who the main victims are. When it is the poor around the world, when it is the inner cities, when it is the non-white communities with more comorbidities, we won’t acknowledge that there are food predators aiming at the vulnerable.

    We don’t even acknowledge their children. We just wait until they are adults so that we can blame them properly.

  11. They may not have known what they were doing when they did it to America but now they are doing it on purpose.

    Giving the world what they world is crying out for.

    Food.

    Jobs.

    Whatever the cost to humanity.

  12. There are countries where the uncared about people literally have no food at all most days. If they only had a little bit of money we could build them a McDonalds. Instead the children literally eat nothing half the time.

  13. We only take the type of corporate, global responsibility like we are taking now with COVID when we generate enough compassion to care. I will include the animals and planet in that and the same corporations harm those, too.

    1. YR, I don’t put much faith in “Snopes” fact-checking because they have been wrong so often, in my opinion. But I do doubt that this quarter is somehow related to a vast conspiracy. I would have to see a lot more evidence to support this hypothesis. ;-) That being said, there is a lot of evidence that corona viruses are somehow related to bats. For a reference, see this PubMed research paper:

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356540/

      “Bats are speculated to be reservoirs of several emerging viruses including coronaviruses (CoVs) that cause serious disease in humans and agricultural animals. These include CoVs that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and severe acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS).”

      I wonder if we’ll see a lot of people hoarding these quarters as souvenirs? :-)

      And one thing I’ve noticed is that people are no longer using cash as much as they used to, for fear of catching the virus through touch. Now here’s a conspiracy theory for one to ponder about: Haven’t those in power been trying to get people to abandon cash altogether for quite a while now? Much easier to follow people’s spending in a cash-less society?

      1. Darwin, I was one who posted an anti-Snopes article here (to Fumbles, I think). Plenty of dirt on that outfit too. One article was from Forbes.

        IMO, everybody will fear one another from here on. Pretty sad. And a lot more fearmongering going on in the media too. (And is Fausi really worried about getting the bug for himself? I’ve heard rumors….)

        1. YR, Yes, I agree. I’m afraid his “event” will have a lasting effect on all of us from here on out. Some changes might be good, but others are definitely bad, such as fearing one another.

          BTW, I just ran across an article by a biology professor who specializes in infectious diseases. The article appears to be a fairly level-headed approach going forward on this and other viruses. It’s too long post, so here’s the link:

          https://www.erinbromage.com/post/the-risks-know-them-avoid-them

          1. Darwin, what a depressing article! If all the governors and whatevers read it they’ll surely keep their states “closed” even longer. This is like a bloody nightmare from which we never wake up. :-(

            “Stop the world — I want to get off.”

            1. YR, There are so many unknowns in all this, I have no idea whether the article is in fact “correct” in all the things proposed. But it does sound somewhat encouraging in certain respects. For example, he says there is no, or very minimal, risk in doing outdoor activities, unlike some of these governors who closed all the beaches!

              1. Darwin, I searched high and low for an optimistic sentence, and could find only one or two semi-ones. The majority sounded dire. :-(

                Here is how the writer sums it up. Not much to pick from, if you ask me.

                “As we are allowed to move around our communities more freely and be in contact with more people in more places more regularly, the risks to ourselves and our family are significant. Even if you are gung-ho for reopening and resuming business as usual, do your part and wear a mask to reduce what you release into the environment. It will help everyone, including your own business.”

                1. YR, I agree that the immediate future doesn’t look all that rosey. But I think the value in the article is that the author delineates pretty well which situations present the most risk, rather than have people guessing and fearful of every situation.

  14. I ended up watching a PBS show about the heat wave in Chicago while I was doing laundry and they ended up going in the same direction as my own thoughts during this pandemic.

    They got up to the food deserts and there was one heroic man who planted gardens so that the poor people could have vegetables but the people trying to help the poor community black women didn’t have How Not To Die. They walked around all day offering mammograms.

    I wanted them to pair up with the garden guy.

    1. It started off about the heat wave and from a map of where the people who died lived it was where the poor people live.

      She ended up finding so much money being spent in every area of preparedness for every type of potential situation just in case, but no money going toward the daily slow motion disaster in the very same neighborhoods.

  15. What struck me was when she asked “Since these will be the people you end up rescuing over here, maybe we could just switch the definition of disaster to include what is happening and prepare for that.” The disaster preparedness guy went straight into those people need to pull themselves up by the bootstraps.

  16. I was looking at the kiwi and flu study where they were 50% less likely to get the flu if they are kiwis every day and it made me wonder how much of the death from COVID could be caused by food deserts.

    Could they save lives just handing out kiwis?

    1. As a strict vegetarian, I would never eat a Kiwi. It’ probably illegal anyway.

      Also, as an Australian, I have a very high regard for our neighbours across the Tasman (Sea).

      1. Fumbles,
        There is a vegan cook that has a YouTube channel titled, “I kill chick peas.” I must confess, I eat chick peas also :-0

  17. I just gave the documentary film-maker the concept of Whole Food Plant-Based as reversing disease and reversing co-morbidities. Ironically, Chicago is currently doing disaster prep of how to prepare for the extreme heat of summer when cooling stations would spread coronavirus. Theoretical disaster prep always has money. I figure they have a few weeks to lower the co-morbidities if somebody gets the concept.

    1. Deb,

      My misspent youth was in Chicago, Born 1943, graduated HS ins 61, U of Ill and received my degree and draft notice in 65. Spent 20+ years in the military and never went back to live, only visit. If you want some interesting stats on current Chicago, type in HeyJackass.

      I enjoy listening to, reading and watching Dr Greger. This one about spicy foods (Thailand and Korea twice) and cold weather (Alaska for five years); however, this is not a social justice warrior site. Please stick to the theme of the presentation.

      Thanks to the China virus I am now a “social vegan”–I avoid all meets.

  18. “PERSPECTIVE (an old buddy sent me this; neither of us was born in 1900 *_^)

    Maybe we don’t have it that bad?

    It’s a mess out there now. Hard to discern between what’s a real threat and what is just simple panic and hysteria. For a small amount of perspective at this moment, imagine you were born in 1900.

    On your 14th birthday, World War I starts, and ends on your 18th birthday. 22 million people perish in that war. Later in the year, a Spanish Flu epidemic hits the planet and runs until your 20th birthday. 50 million people die from it in those two years. Yes, 50 million.

    On your 29th birthday, the Great Depression begins. Unemployment hits 25%, the World GDP drops 27%. That runs until you are 33. The country nearly collapses along with the world economy.

    When you turn 39, World War II starts. You aren’t even over the hill yet. And don’t try to catch your breath. On your 41st birthday, the United States is fully pulled into WWII. Between your 39th and 45th birthday, 75 million people perish in the war.

    Smallpox was epidemic until you were in your 40’s, as it killed 300 million people during your lifetime.

    At 50, the Korean War starts. 5 million perish. From your birth, until you are 55 you dealt with the fear of Polio epidemics each summer. You experience friends and family contracting polio and being paralyzed and/or die.

    At 55 the Vietnam War begins and doesn’t end for 20 years. 4 million people perish in that conflict. During the Cold War, you lived each day with the fear of nuclear annihilation. On your 62nd birthday you have the Cuban Missile Crisis, a tipping point in the Cold War. Life on our planet, as we know it, almost ended. When you turn 75, the Vietnam War finally ends.

    Think of everyone on the planet born in 1900. How did they endure all of that? When you were a kid in 1985 and didn’t think your 85-year-old grandparent understood how hard school was. And how mean that kid in your class was. Yet they survived through everything listed above. Perspective is an amazing art. Refined and enlightening as time goes on. Let’s try and keep things in perspective. Your parents and/or grandparents were called to endure all of the above – you are called to stay home and sit on your *couch. Unquote.
    – – – – –

    (Can be edited to “butt.” :-)

  19. It would be really interesting to know if populations that eat a lot of spicy food, or intentionally expose themselves to cold (like Fins do after sauna) have a greater proportion of adipose tissue. I guess this would be done by comparing autopsies?

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