Transcript: MRSA Superbugs in Meat
As a rule, high-ranking public-health officials try to avoid apocalyptic descriptors. So it’s worrying to hear those like the Director of the CDC warn of a coming health “nightmare” and a “catastrophic threat.” A number of prominent publications recently warn of the threat of antibiotic resistance. The CDC estimates that at a minimum, more than two million people are sickened every year with antibiotic-resistant infections in the United States, with at least 23,000 dying as a result.
We may be at the dawn of a post-antibiotic era. Achievements in modern medicine, such as surgery and the treatment of preterm babies, which we today take for granted, would not be possible without access to effective treatment for bacterial infections. For example, without antibiotics, the rate of postoperative infection after a procedure like a hip replacement would be 40-50% and about 1 in 3 those patients would die. (That’s like Russian roulette odds.) So the so-called worst case scenarios where resistant infections could cost like $50 billion a year might still be an underestimate. From cradle to grave, antibiotics have become pivotal in safeguarding the overall health of human societies.
So the dire phrasing from head officials may be warranted. There are now infections like carbapenem-resistent enterobacter resistant to nearly all antibiotics, even to so-called drugs of last resort. Worryingly, some of these last resort drugs are being used extensively in animal agriculture.
According to the World Health Organization, more antibiotics are fed to farmed animals than is used to treat disease in human patients. Doctors overprescribe antibiotics, but huge amounts of antibiotics are used in fish farming and other intensive animal agriculture, up to four times the amount used in human medicine. Why? Suboptimum growth to slaughter weight caused by unsanitary conditions can be compensated with addition of antibiotics to feed. Instead of relieving any stressful overcrowded unhygienic conditions, it may be cheaper to just dose the animals with drugs.
In this way, factory farms are driving the growth of antibiotic-resistant organisms that cause human diseases. This may help bolster the industry’s bottom line, but in the process, bacteria are developing antimicrobial resistance, which affects human health.
In the United States, the FDA reports that 80% of antibiotics in the United States are used in food animals, mainly to promote growth in this kind of high-density production. This can select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staph aureus, “mersa,” or MRSA, considered a serious threat in the United States.
These industrial pig operations may provide optimal conditions for the introduction and transmission of MRSA. US pork producers are currently permitted to use 29 different antibiotic drugs in feed—without a prescription, are currently added to about 90% of pigs starter feeds.
When animals receive unnecessary antibiotics, bacteria can be come resistant to the drugs, then travel on meat to the store, and end up causing hard-to-treat illnesses in people.
MRSA present in retail raw meat may serve as a possible source of bacterial infections for food preparers in the food industry and hands of consumers in the home, unless you wear gloves. Once MRSA gets into our homes on meat, it can transfer to our cutting boards, knives, and onto our skin at a rate similar to the rate of transmission from touching an infected patient contaminated with MRSA. Washing of hands after touching raw pork is advised.
To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.
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