Alkaline Water: a Scam?

Alkaline Water: a Scam?
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Hawkers of “ionizer” water machines (like Kangen) claim healing alkaline water benefits; skeptics call it snake oil. They both may be wrong.

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Is alkaline water a scam? There are thousands of websites and pyramid schemes hawking $6,000 machines to alkalinize our tap water into “miracle healing water.” And not just any miracle healing water, but, “magical miracle healing water.” With, no surprise, miraculous properties, “one of the [supposed] greatest health advances in human history,” the “secret to optimal health and longevity!” 

Though if you actually scroll down, you’ll see the disclaimer that they’re “not allowed to claim [their] water will actually do any of these things…Does our water actually help to restore the body to a youthful condition? We can’t say.”

The skeptics are skeptical. Alkaline water is described as an incredible fraud, foisted on the public by desperate, deluded, glue-sniffing wannabes, asserting that “there’s no credible evidence in the…scientific literature [that there are any particular benefits]. It turns out that they’re both wrong.

A new study found that, compared to a control group drinking regular water, young adults drinking about a quart of alkalinized water a day dropped their bad cholesterol 10% within two months—that’s pretty impressive. And older women may achieve a drop of nearly 15%—that’s huge! It even helped their blood sugars.

If you and your doctor want to give it a try, you can make alkaline water this way [cha-ching] or, this way. By adding three-quarters of a teaspoon of baking soda to a liter (or quart) of water, you can save yourself $5,999.99.

Now, baking soda is sodium bicarbonate, so this would add about a gram of sodium to our daily diet. But sodium bicarb doesn’t seem to have the same effect as sodium chloride, or table salt. In this study, those drinking the baking soda water had no change in blood pressure, and the other study actually found that they enjoyed a significant improvement in their blood pressure. But your physician will want to keep an eye on it.

So, alkaline water machines are indeed a scam, but alkaline water itself may not be.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Peter Mellor.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to szucker81, Tahoemnts via Wikimedia Commons, and likeablerodent via Flickr. Sound effect thanks to daaaan.

Is alkaline water a scam? There are thousands of websites and pyramid schemes hawking $6,000 machines to alkalinize our tap water into “miracle healing water.” And not just any miracle healing water, but, “magical miracle healing water.” With, no surprise, miraculous properties, “one of the [supposed] greatest health advances in human history,” the “secret to optimal health and longevity!” 

Though if you actually scroll down, you’ll see the disclaimer that they’re “not allowed to claim [their] water will actually do any of these things…Does our water actually help to restore the body to a youthful condition? We can’t say.”

The skeptics are skeptical. Alkaline water is described as an incredible fraud, foisted on the public by desperate, deluded, glue-sniffing wannabes, asserting that “there’s no credible evidence in the…scientific literature [that there are any particular benefits]. It turns out that they’re both wrong.

A new study found that, compared to a control group drinking regular water, young adults drinking about a quart of alkalinized water a day dropped their bad cholesterol 10% within two months—that’s pretty impressive. And older women may achieve a drop of nearly 15%—that’s huge! It even helped their blood sugars.

If you and your doctor want to give it a try, you can make alkaline water this way [cha-ching] or, this way. By adding three-quarters of a teaspoon of baking soda to a liter (or quart) of water, you can save yourself $5,999.99.

Now, baking soda is sodium bicarbonate, so this would add about a gram of sodium to our daily diet. But sodium bicarb doesn’t seem to have the same effect as sodium chloride, or table salt. In this study, those drinking the baking soda water had no change in blood pressure, and the other study actually found that they enjoyed a significant improvement in their blood pressure. But your physician will want to keep an eye on it.

So, alkaline water machines are indeed a scam, but alkaline water itself may not be.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Peter Mellor.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to szucker81, Tahoemnts via Wikimedia Commons, and likeablerodent via Flickr. Sound effect thanks to daaaan.

Doctor's Note

This is the first video on my Latest in Clinical Nutrition volume 6 DVD. Be sure to check out all my other videos on nutrition myths

For more context, check out my associated blog post: Stool Size and Breast Cancer Risk.

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

172 responses to “Alkaline Water: a Scam?

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    1. Are you aware of any credible, definitive studies whether reverse-osmosis purified water should be used for drinking? As you might expect, the Internet is full of advocates for both sides.

      1. Regarding revers osmosis water, from my understanding there wouldn’t necessarily need to be research on the health benefits as there are no miraculous claims, it’s just simply the most thorough (to my mind) method of purifying water. I hate that we need such powerful water filter systems because it would be easier to conserve water without them, but unfortunately due to the fact that they add things such as fluoride to drinking water and things like chloramine instead of simple and effective chlorine which is very easy to filter out (you can do it through simple boiling among other methods), we need more powerful filtration systems to actually get rid of the fluoride and chloramine (if your city adds chloramine instead of chlorine, luckily mine does not but this is important information, people should find out and request that they do not use chloramine and use chlorine instead). The health benefit then lies simply in the fact that you’re getting none of the harmful stuff. But I think it’s important to add back some of the minerals which I believe all the systems do.
        Reverse osmosis tastes really good too, my cats drink it better than my old filter which was also really good but only got out some of the fluoride (which is still really good considering most filters don’t filter out the fluoride).

        It’s pathetic that the government can decide what to put in our water without our say. Chlorine is one thing so as to avoid harmful substances, and that too is unfortunate but understandable and easy enough to filter out.

        1. Few know that reverse osmosis water has a pH of 5.5. This is hyper-acidic water. pH is logarithmic. Every number is 10 times higher than the previous number. Moving from pH 7.5 to 5.5 pH as found in reverse osmosis and distilled water is 100x (one hundred times!) more acidic than water with a pH of 7.5. No one seems to be looking at pH as an important factor, It certainly is! No one has ever addressed the significance and impact of drinking hyper-acidic water as found in distilled water and R/O water.

          As for ionized alkaline water, it is very different from plain alkaline water. This site illuminates the differences:
          https://www.waterionizerjapan.com/what-is-ionized-water

          1. I have a water distiller, and have been drinking distilled water for several years. Should I be taking mineral supplements. Since its considered acidic, which foods can I add to my diet to add alkaline?

            1. Hi, LSam! I am not sure why you are distilling your drinking water, and you should know that some contaminants, such as mercury, are not removed by distillation, because they evaporate with the water. That said, as noted in the video, water may be alkalized by adding a small amount of baking soda. A whole food, plant-based diet is rich in most minerals, so supplementation should not be necessary. This article includes a list of foods with their Potential Renal Acid Loads, for your reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195546/ Negative numbers are alkaline-forming foods, and positive numbers are acid-forming foods, with higher numbers representing higher acid loads than lower numbers.
              I hope that helps!

      2. I can tell you my truth concerning Reverse Osmosis Water. I got very very painful your by drinking it ! R.O. which was all the rage in 80s and 90s strips out magnesium and potassium out of the water and they say repeated drinking even takes minerals out of your body hence my gout.The aqualiv system has filters and actually adds alkaline minerals and this canister that actually spins the water all for five hundred.I have not bought one but it’s on my list.If you still want a RO system,take my advice get one that adds minerals after in cleans your water.RO still may be the best filter but make sure to mineralize it.

        1. The fact is your health issues (painful) had nothing to do with drinking purified water from a RO system. The Ro membrane reduces total dissolved solids (TDS) and the pre treatment filters reduce suspended solids and adsorb VOC’s and organics. None of what the RO reduced is helpful for your health. The minerals are rocks that your bodies organs have to remove in order to use the H2O for bodily functions. If you eat a healthy diet your body can synthesize the minerals from fruits and vegetables, or take a multi-vitamin. You will note that they contain Calcium-citrate and Magnesium-citrate, these are absorbable by our bodies, where very little calcium or magnesium carbonate are. On the story of Alkaline water it is a hype to take advantage of consumers. Your body pH is on the low side 6.5 and needs to be for health bodily functions.

          1. Sean is almost completely wrong.

            R.O water can dissolve concrete. The calcium and other salts in concrete are aggressively dissolved by water. The fact that mountain ranges have disappeared from rain water is a clue. Why do oceans contain dissolved gold, platinum, uranium?

            Now add say a litre per day of R.O to your intake. How does your body excrete 100% H2O? It doesn’t. It can not. Unless you took RO and seriously amped up your intake of inorganic salts, containing Mg, Ca, K, Na you would be in trouble. Then there are all the minor substances such as Co as well…(in Vit B12).

            R,O, water needs to be toned down and there are rocks which contain a broad spectrum of minerals necessary for life. Search internet. Allow your R.O water to soak in these rocks before you drink.

            Or just get a filter system containing activated charcoals if you are really anal about organics.in your water.

    2. Good morning Joseph,

      Congratulations on your appointment as Nutrition Director of
      Nutrition Facts.org. I am a big fan of Dr Greger. I contribute to his
      foundation each month and I do volunteer work for him also.

      I have been reluctant to ask questions of him because I know
      how busy he is so now that we have you on board I am hoping that you can help
      me.

      My question is about “ionized” alkaline water and “ionized”
      acid water. I have a Chanson
      machine. It is the same as the Kangen
      machine but half the price and it works twice as well. I have been using the machine for five years
      now and I love the results I am getting.
      My hair and skin feel better and my health is much improved. I have a sophisticated set of pre filters
      which gets rid of all the chemicals and heavy metals before it reaches the
      machine. I use the acid water to rinse
      my hair and body after I shower and I use the alkaline water to drink and cook
      with. I am very pleased with the results
      and my blood ph is always slightly alkaline and never acidic.

      Here are my questions:
      (1) Are there any recent scientific tests or studies to confirm the
      validity of the results that I am getting by using ionized alkaline water for
      drinking and cooking and/or using ionized acid water for rinsing my skin and
      hair? Also: (2) Does ionizing add any benefits to the
      water, or is it just the change in PH that makes the difference? The cost is insignificant when amortized over
      the hundreds of gallons of water we use each year. I am not excited about the baking soda idea.

      Thanks, Paul

      1. Hey Paul. Please forgive my delay. I appreciate the post and your kind words! Unfortunately, I have not seen anything new on ionized water. As Dr. Greger mentions these machines may not be worth it until there is better science.

        1. If you are looking for the real reasons that people are benefiting from drinking water from these machines check out the http://www.molecularhydrogenfoundation.org/studies/ . Spoiler alert: it’s not the pH of the water! Ionized water has a very high level of molecular hydrogen otherwise known as H2 (measured as -ORP). There are over 600 published scientific studies (posted at the above address) on the positive effect of Ionized water on over 150 models (disease models). This high H2 state is a natural phenomenon found in “healing spring waters” and many waterfalls worldwide. I have personally tested some of these springs in Georgia (Indian Springs) and Florida (Suwannee Springs) as a comparison to the water produced from my water ionizer. Both of these springs have a history of “healing waters” predating the civil war. Most people (mistakenly) thought it was the minerals because you can smell the sulfur in the waters, Not so, it is the state of the hydrogen. Surprisingly the pH of the waters was not very high, 7.5 t0 7.8

      2. I hate to tell you, but everyone’s blood pH is between 7.35-7.45, unless you’re dead or dying…it’s an extremely narrow range and is naturally buffered by certain body system processes…if your blood pH falls out of that range, youve got acidosis or alkalosis…and both are deadly…

        1. there’s more to the body than blood. tissue pH varies fairly widely and has some correlation with disease. plan-based diets = generally higher (alkaline) tissue pH. we all have a lot more to learn.

      3. I am looking for alkaline ionizers in India(Bangalore). Can you suggest which is a good product to go for?All companies look overpriced and ambiguous. Any lead will help. Am using RO + UV aquaguard for water purification at home. Thanks, Arti Iyengar

      1. Distilled water (deionized water) is very acidic. It is not intended as drinking water. Some appliances that use water specify distilled water because it is void of all minerals (the definition of acidic water). If you are looking for “healthy” water, look for alkaline water. If you are looking for “healthy water that hydrates, look for “Ionized Alkaline Water” that comes directly from a machine. Both tap water, bottled water (which is tap water in a plastic container), and even bottled ionized alkaline water off the shelf do not hydrate us as we expect. Why are the doctors recommending that we drink more water? We are not getting hydrated from typical waters.

      2. There was n article in Swimming Technique Magazine years ago about distilled water. It said if I remember correctly that since it is 100% pure water your red blood cells are able to absorb more 02 therefore a possibility of your body having more energy. I used this in my coaching of elite swimmers and it seemed to be right, except there are so many factors including rest before a big meet etc. The negatives were that drinking distilled water would deplete minerals that are needed for good health as well. Not sure how accurate or true this information is but I just happened to read about it many years ago.

        1. I have heard that about depleting minerals but I have also heard that refuted. It was said that it does not remove them from your body but no need to be concerned about the lack of minerals in your water because it is not the main source of minerals anyway. Eating a plant based whole foods variety is where ones minerals should come. Thanks for responding.

      3. Annette Larkin who is in her 80’s and looks amazing, is very physically active and mentally active and is know for all that I’ve mentioned, swears by distilled water. She’s also 100% plant based and I think a vegan.
        I use a reverse osmosis filter. Purest water you can find, but the system has the minerals added back to it so it is not void of minerals. I use Pelican. My main concern with water is purity.

    3. I’m not a believer in alkaline water and it’s “miracles”, but I must say I do hear many testimonials both online and off about it’s health benefits: eczema, high blood pressure, diabetes, weight loss, etc. So this is one topic I haven’t figured out yet.

    4. This is just a thought, could it be that when you think you are drinking a healthier water that you start to eat healthier. Could be other dietary changes that are causing the drop in cholestoral? Just a thought, I noticed when my cousin bought her 6000 dollar machine she changes alot of other things and spent more time in the kitchen cooking instead of eating out. Any thoughts.

      1. That is exactly what I was going to say. What were the controls on these studies?

        I have been drinking either distilled or RO water for roughly 2 decades. I also use it to cook with. I have suffered zero ill effects. I honestly believe that the people putting out the information that it is somehow “dangerous” has an ulterior motive – either selling alkaline water, or the government wanting us to drink tap water (and all the fluoride that goes with it).

    5. Hi, Dr. Greger in this old video of yours and on youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3uJxZKwuRQ , there are some issues not addressed about Alkaline water.

      What about the ionization of water (negative ions) and the micro-clustering of water molecules particularly in the Kangen water machines(Japanese)?
      You solely talked about alkalinity in this video. However, the negative ions or anti-oxidants properties were not addressed.

  1. I prefer to use potassium bicarbonate instead so that I don’t get excess sodium- it’s is available on the internet. If I add it to my soup which contains red cabbage- it turns green since red cabbage is a pH indicator for alkaline solutions.

  2. This is just so fascinating.

    I’m going to try it to see how the baking soda affects the taste of the water.

    I don’t drink much water plain. Mostly, I drink teas of all sorts. So, I wonder if adding some baking soda to my tea would have a healthful effect and whether or not doing so would interfere with any of the good properties of the tea.

    And out of curiosity, I wonder if adding baking soda to any other drink would be worth it or not. For example, suppose I buy some orange or apple juice? (Which I don’t do very often myself) Would it be a good idea to add some baking soda? What about chia pudding/tapioca/gel where people add a bunch of water to a small amount of chia seeds and let it sit over night. Would adding some baking soda (since it is a lot of water) be a good idea?

    Also, I wonder if it is possible to get too much baking soda? Especially since it would not be in a baked good, but eaten/drunk raw. Is there an advisable upper limit?

    I don’t need an answer to this post. I’m just sharing my thoughts.

    1. Yes, you are right. The stomachs acid will neutralize the alkalinity of the akaline water forcing stomach to produce more acid to digest the food. But the stomach acid is from your body that means that the more acid produced by the stomach, the less acid in the rest of your body. The important point to understand is the overral acidity of your body tends to move to alkaline side when something akaline is adsorb in your body.
      As fat and oil are fatty acids, high acid level will favorize them to stay inside our body. This could be the reason of high cholesterol problem. Thus high acidity is a cause of bad cholesterol deposit in our blood vessels.
      Our kidneys are responsible to maintain blood pH at neutral level of 6.5 to 7. The problem is that our foods contain too much acid. The kidney function of removing acid is overloaded causing this kidney function failure.
      When pH of our blood is neutral, try to control pH at this level and do not overdose the alkaline products that bring us to other troubles with too alkaline blood.
      Note that pH is a measure of -OH ions and this is calculated with logarithm 10 scale. Let suppose that pH 7 is 1 -OH ion then pH 8 is 10 -OH, pH 9 is 100, pH 10 is 1000, pH 11 is 10000, pH 12 is 100000… So do not think that pH 9 to pH 10 is just about 10% more alkaline. It’s is 10 times more. And from pH 8 to pH 10 is 100 time more ions. Therefore, be careful when you raise your water pH.

      1. Karen, I appreciate your efforts to educate us, but you must first make sure your information is correct before diseminating it. Your right wenyou say the stomach reacts to alkaline substances by producing more stomach acid to maintain the low pH of thestomach. However, the by-product of the production of stomach acid is the concomitant production of sodium bicarbonate which is sent to your pancreas to be sent to your small intestine to alklalize acidic chyme (food) from your stomach and into your blood stream as a store of alkaline buffer to be used where needed to neutralize acidity in all parts of the body.

        High acidity is indeed a cause of cholesterol deposits in our blood vessels, but the process is different than you describe. When acid damages blood vessel linings, causing inflammation, the body sends cholesterol to the site to help repair the damage. The more damage to the blood vessels, the greater the amount of cholesterol sent, hence the plaque build up over time which can cause heart attacks and strokes.

        If our blood pH dropped to 6.5, we would be dead. I don’t think that is the proper function of our kidneys.

        The pH of our blood is not neutral. Neutral, by definition is pH 7. Our blood must maintain a level of ph 7.365 to 7.465 to be healthy. At blood pH of 7, we would be comatose or worse.

        You are correct that the pH scale, like the Richter Scale for earthquakes is logarithmic or base 10 scale. But the letters pH, or Potential Hydrogen, is actually means the amount of hydrogen atoms in a fluid, not -OH, which is the hydroxide ion.

        Like many people, you admonish against drinking high pH water because you are apparently unaware of the overwhelming strength of acid vs alkalinity in the body. Nintey nine percent of us are suffering from too much acid, mainly from our diets, particularly meats, dairy and sodas. Sodas, including diet sodas and even an otherwise healthy ginger ale have a pH 3 to 2.5. in a laboratory setting, a single 20 ounce can of soda requires 32 times that amount of 9.5pH water to prevent it from lowering our blood pH to a fatal level. That is approximately 5.5 gallons of pH 9.5 water. Obviously in the body, there are additional alkaline resources to help neutralize the soda, but imagine the awful toll it takes on the bodies limited alkaline resources. In practice, research has shown that there is little to no danger of drinking too much alkaline water. The few people who are abnormally alkaline are or should be under a doctor’s care to treat the underlying condition.

        A little knowledge…

        1. I’m just curious about some fruit that is acidic, is it then unhealthy to consume lemons etc.? If not, could you explain why? I’ve heard it turns alkaline in the body, but that seems very odd. Too many lemons and oranges is dangerous? Thank you.
          Hoping for a little more knowledge…

          1. Almost all plant foods will produce a potential renal acid load (PRAL) that is negative (alkaline) because of the amino acid makeup as well as certain minerals being present. Grains are very slightly acidic but most animal products are several times times more acidic. The PRAL can be calculated with this formula PRAL = 0.49(Protein) + 0.037(Phosphorus) – 0.021(Potassium) – 0.026(Magnesium) – 0.013(Calcium).

            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7797810

            You can go to the USDA nutrition database and calculate the alkalinity or acidity of certain foods this way using a 100 gram serving sample.

            http://nutritiondata.self.com/

            Here are a list of common plant foods. A negative number indicates alkalinity whereas positive means acidity.

            Cereals, oats, regular cooked with water, w/o salt/ 2.18

            Bananas, raw/ -6.93

            Blueberries, raw/ -1.04

            Rice, brown, long-grain, cooked/ 2.18

            Broccoli, cooked, boiled, drained, w/o salt/ -3.57

            Cauliflower, cooked, boiled, drained, w/o salt / -1.33

            Carrots, cooked, boiled, drained, w/o salt/ -4.10

            Peaches, raw/ -3.11

            Beans, kidney, cooked, boiled, w/o salt/ -0.69

            Kale, raw/ -8.34

            Animal Foods

            Chicken, broilers or fryers, breast, meat only, cooked, roasted/ 17.30

            Egg, whole, raw, fresh/ 9.43

            Fish, salmon, Atlantic, wild, cooked, dry heat/ 7.57

            Beef, bottom sirloin, tri-tip, separable lean only, trimmed to 0″ fat, choice, cooked, roasted/ 12.79

            Cheese, cheddar/ 19.00

            1. There is enormous difference between the meat from industrially production vs free-ranging animals. Which figures are you quoting?

          2. When a food substance is totally metabolized, at the end of the digestion cycle only then is the ph of the ash determined. And yes, as odd as it seems, lemons, limes and oranges test ””alkaline, not acidic on the ph scale.

            1. You make two separate claims here. First, lemons, limes, and oranges test alkaline on the pH scale. This is easy to test. I would assume that they are acidic, but I am open to someone showing the opposite.

              The second claim is that we should analyze some remaining part of food “after the digestion cycle.” How does this make any sense? Do you mean we should measure the substance’s effect on the body, rather than its actual pH, to determine whether it is acidifying or alkalizing? Fine. Even so, you’re going to have a hard time convincing me that giving an acid has the effect of creating a more basic system. Either way, it definitely doesn’t make any sense to say “if you give something that is mostly an acid, and the body has to accept those hydrogens and use up some of it’s buffer and breathe off some acid in the form of CO2, let’s wait until it has done all of this, and NOW let’s see what’s left of the material and examine it’s pH”. By this argument, I could argue that beef fat is fat-free! After all, when the digestion cycle is complete, the beef has no fat left in it (because it’s stored as body fat now). In the same way, if you ate an acid and depleted buffer that is in place to handle acids, your body now has to regenerate that buffer, or else it has to use other systems to handle acids in the future. Just because “after digestion” the remaining ash is basic doesn’t mean it makes any sense to argue that the food is alkalizing.

              1. You can’t determine whether is a substance is acidic or alkaline until it is “burned” that is once it is completely metabolized. The pH of a substance is irrelevant while it is in your glass!

              2. I have taken this challenge before and did some testing. If you add lemon juice to water the pH drops drastically. It is (as lemon juice) very acidic.

                The effect on the body is a more complex matter. As it is broken down and absorbed by the body, the Blood pH rise, the urine pH drops. At this point, it is no longer lemon juice. I believe that this is true for everything we consume.

              1. You’re Right, DVI, they all test acid on the pH scale in your glass or bottle. But the scientific test of the pH of a substance AFTER its burned is the only one that counts. Looks like you need a little higher level of science than you are presently acquainted with…

                1. If something is acidic, and then it is metabolized, and the remains are basic (eg, ash) then acid was released or bases were absorbed by the substance. That means it acidified your body.

                  For what it’s worth, pH doesn’t mean “potential hydrogens.” This is just a layperson’s backronym. It’s cute, but not true.

                  All you’ve done is repeat the claim that I already rebutted, and then accused me of not being smart enough to answer the question. I explained my argument in depth. For what it’s worth, I have a doctorate in medicine, a bachelors in biology, and a minor in chemistry.

                  But that is irrelevant. We are discussing the merits of your claims. You’ll have to do better.

    2. Yes, plus constant excess alkaline intake can increase stomach acid production…which can erode the stomach and esophagus…yay ulcers and esophagitis…I’ve had them both and I don’t recommend it!

        1. Really? I have Barretts Esophogus. Isn’t BE caused by to much acid splashing to your esophagus creating scar tissue which in turn makes it smaller and somewhat impassable? How much 9.5 water should I drink, and will it eventually heal it?

          1. Wasso, drink 1 gallon per family
            Day, eat vegetarian, take 700-900gms curcumin/day, as well as 10,000 IU/day. Eat Plenty of garlic,Call me in 1 month 646 961 3818 Bill

        2. Isn’t that called anecdotal evidence? I seem to remember learning in Junior High science class that anecdotal evidence doesn’t qualify as scientific evidence?

  3. Speaking of water, is there any credence to cold water therapy? That is to say, is there any health benefit to standing in the shower for 5 minutes while only cold water cascades over your body? I’ve been doing this for over 6 months and I sleep better and my skin is clearer…but that could be me looking for an upside to this practice. btw, great website and excellent work!

  4. Cool … since I make my own toothpaste out of a mixture of baking soda and refined sea salt, I probably luck out both by decreased exposure to fluoride as well as due to the effect of water alkalinity.

  5. Baking soda works slightly, but it sure doesn’t taste very good. And you have to be careful what else is in the soda…anti-caking chemicals, aluminum, etc.

    The body needs a blend of minerals to correctly buffer the effects of acid imbalance. Just like we need a variety of foods, we need more than just sodium bicarb. Having a good pH isn’t the entire answer, it’s how we get that good pH that’s key.

    As far as the stomach acid goes. I recommend reading some of Sang Whang’s work at http://alkalineworld.wordpress.com/2010/03/07/alkaline-water-stomach-acid/

    1. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) intoxication can be devastating, especially in infants. The 1995 paper “Baking Soda: A Potentially Fatal Home Remedy” in Pediatric Emergency Care led Arm & Hammer to start placing warning labels against use in children under 5 on all their cartons. Too much bicarbonate can overwhelm our kidneys’ ability to excrete it leading to a metabolic alkalosis, which can lead to seizures or even death. To answer your question, as little as a few pinches can sicken an infant, but based on the series of case reports in adults it appears to take tablespoons for folks with normal kidney function to get into trouble. This is why I encourage anyone trying the three-quarters-of-a-teaspoon-per-quart of water regimen to do it under the supervision of a physician to make sure you don’t have a condition that would preclude such a trial. There are ways to lower blood pressure without fear of toxicity. See, for example, my video Fill in the Blank.

  6. Some benefits of alkaline/reverse osmosis water is that it removes chlorine and over 90% of the sodium fluoride.

    Hydrofluorosilicic acid, which is the waste product from metal plating industry’s acid and phosphate mining industry’s fluoride, strontium 90, and excess chromium, is what gets thrown into city drinking water under the guise that it is “good for your teeth.”

    Fluoride is one of the 3 most common toxic elements on planet Earth. Arsenic is number 1, fluoride is number 2, and lead is number 3. The MCLG (Maximum Contamination Level Goal) for cities is 0 for arsenic, 0 for lead, and 4000 parts per billion for fluoride. What’s wrong with this picture?

    1. It’s absolutely insane that we accept fluoride in our water. It’s mass medication and I’ve fought this at the municipal level but ordinary people are not interested in supporting unflouridated water. I just don’t get it.

  7. it sounds like the pricy machines do something that the baking soda doesn’t in order to yield the results noted in the study. instead of writing off the machines, i think it best to systematically study what the machines are doing to create the healthful effects. as the saying goes, sometimes a fool can say something wise and the wise sometimes say something foolish.

  8. I have read that lemon juice added to a glass of water “alkalizes” water.  Is that true?  If so, it would seem a good and harmless alternative to machines and baking soda (given that you rinse your mouth and/or brush your teeth afterwards to prevent acid damage to your teeth).

      1. For what I’ve heard lemon juice turns alkaline when digested, unlike vinegar (any kind). So yes it does alkalinize water. 

        1. Nobody seems to be able to explain how or even if this is actually true. I would love to hear a breakdown of this process from someone who’s knowledgeable. Can anyone on the NF team debunk this? Thank you.

  9. A study by Remer et al. in 1995 evaluated the effects of food consumption on the urine by giving food the night before and checking whether the urine was alkaline or acidic the next morning. (reminds me of when we were checking urine glucose to control diabetes). He showed that citrus resulted in mild alkalinizing of the urine so it does have a mild effect in that direction. Grains interestingly have a mild acidic load on the body…. much higher were meats, eggs and cheeses whereas plants with the exception of grains were alkalinizing. Baking Soda is much stronger. As a medical doctor I’m not aware of the studies which support the timing, agents and best approach to oral hygiene. I was unable to find any links specifically to “teeth” or “dental caries”. Maybe Dr. Greger and his team can keep an eye out for some good articles in the prevention of dental caries and gum disease for future videos. They could be added to some of the other excellent videos on “oral health”… see http://nutritionfacts.org/video/apthous-ulcer-mystery-solved/ for a fairly common self limiting condition that I used to see in patients and was unable to offer much except reassurance until 2009… now I can… thanks again to NutritionFacts.org.

    1.  Yes Potassium Bicarbonate added to water makes it alkaline. However carbonated water is acidic so sodium or potassium bicarbonate are often added to reduce the acidity. Whether enough is added to make the product alkaline would depend on the amount so would vary from product to product. You of course want to avoid sodas which often contain benzene which is a carcinogen… see http://nutritionfacts.org/video/is-sodium-benzoate-harmful/. And if your goal is to lose weight you are best off not to “drink your calories” as one study showed that drinking a 100 calories of fruit juice before your meal actually increased the amount eaten. Recent data has helped sort out the best drinks see… http://nutritionfacts.org/video/better-than-green-tea/. There are a variety of healthy drinks see.. http://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-healthiest-beverage-2/. The best way to maintain a more alkaline diet is to avoid the more acidic foods such as cheese, dairy, meat and eggs and stick with plants which have an alkaline effect of the body with the exception of grains which are mildly acidic.

  10. I have a alkaline water filter that costs way less than the Kragen one and does not need chemicals added to it. It acts as a reverse osmosis filters also. If you were to buy a filter, I suggest getting an alkaline water filter. There is a difference between water that has been flowing down a river or in a lake (living water) and water held in a tank for redistrubution (tap water).

  11. I actually own a Kangen water machine. I have had it for the last two years. Everyone should try the water for themselves and see the difference in their health. Educating oneself while drinking the water (which is free) will help anyone to figure out what to believe. People can say what they want, but when you experience your own health problems disappearing (or not), that will give you a definitive answer.

    1. This is 72 years young Mike from Australia, I own an Enagic
      Water Ioniser valued at US$4000 and can report only positive results for myself
      and others who have machines. The water tastes good so it is easy to drink,
      prior to getting the machine I would drink some water when thirsty but could
      always justify a beer to quench that thirst. I now drink less beer and other
      alcohol, positive #1. I now sleep better, positive #2. I now wake up refreshed,
      positive #3. So I have a better more productive day, positive #4 and the list
      goes on, perhaps it’s the Compounding Effect of one positive leading to another.
      My arthritic knee which was going to be replaced 3 years ago is now pain free
      and I take no medication or other supplements. My good friend Geoff similar age
      had Irritable Bowel Syndrome and after 3 months on the Ionised water is off his
      medication with the readings all back to normal; so Geoff can now look forward
      to a more active life once again, a big positive in the “mind body
      connection”. So I have no problem sharing my good fortune with others and
      would not be so actively engaged in the process if there was no financial
      reward. Direct Sales, MLM whatever you want to label it. Like any other industry
      that pays for effort attracts a few scum buckets, but they pail into
      insignificance compared to those greedy characters who wrought havoc on the
      world with the GFC and those who add chemicals into the food chain, not to
      mention the food labelling people who hide behind 4 font print on their 95% fat
      free products. So which scam are we talking about? I’ll go for the one where
      the evidence is in front of me not the one creep up on me microgram by microgram
      and eventually paralyses me, don’t get me started on the sugar people

      1. With all due respect Mike, there are many anecdotal references to the value of “Kangen” Enagic machines. THAT, however, does not constitute a scientific study – or, studies. This site is dedicated to disseminating what the predominance of scientifically derived information points to. This means using scientific methodology, whether it be epidemiological, or in the lab double-blind controlled and, peer review and repeated. Meta-analyses are good too!
        If you read on this page – http://www.vegsource.com/news/2010/07/china-study-author-colin-campbell-slaps-down-critic-denise-minger.html – Section B where Dr. Campbell discusses The use of ‘raw’ univariate correlations. – You will begin to understand that to only consider one to one cause and effect without controlling for other factors, does not even begin to demonstrate biological plausibility.
        If you know of such a study or studies, please post them. I have a client who has colon cancer and, while he went plant-based two weeks ago, he attributes his improving condition, (since then), to his starting Kangen water drinking, not the change in diet. While there is plenty of scientific evidence for the reversal of cancer due to eating whole food plant-based nutrition, ( without the K water), I’ve yet to see the same for Kangen water without the WFPB diet! The Placebo effect can be very strong in and of itself…

        1. Sounds good vegcoach, but double blind, placebo controlled, random selected studies are only good for comparing poisons! Also we know that figures don’t les, but liars figure, INCLUDING those conducting, placebo controlled double blind studies In the real, if it works for you, do it!

          1. Wait, hang on, did you just claim that the currently accepted means of approving or not approving medications for specific uses is inherently flawed? That controlling for placebo is a BAD idea??? What century is this?!?!?

            It is not the double-blind clinical study that is flawed, but that some people who abuse it for monetary gain. That is more a political issue than a scientific one, and once re-examined by other scientists with different perspectives the truth often holds. If the seeming resistance of the Bio-Medical Model to adopt less conventional therapies like accupuncture (seems to be a fantastic, repeatable way to elicit placebo), certain aspects of herbal medicine (lets keep in mind that many modern medicines have their roots in effective plant-based medicines), and other things that are included in the Bio-Psycho-Social Model of medicine, then your qualms are acceptable.

            That said, a huge challenge to the migration from the older Bio-Medical Model to including the useful elements of what the layman would understand as “holistic medicine” is the seeming inability of many purveyors of holistic medicine to separate the chaff from the wheat of their practices. Medicine which works without the placebo effect is inherently more valuable than medicine which requires the placebo effect, partly because the addition of placebo to an already effective medicine is the best means of treating illness.

            Kangen water is rubbish. Water filtration isn’t rubbish, but the possible benefits it could convey depend on what in the drinking water is worth taking out. Ultimately, maintaining the mineral load in the body is the best way to ensure proper body pH, which can be accomplished by taking decent multivitamins as well as eating a healthy diet full of vegetables (this isn’t to say that veggies do not confer other benefits unattainable in a multivitamin).

            Your assertion that citrus fruits do not place an additional acidic load on the body’s buffer system is laughable – clearly it does in the acute sense. While it is true that the ash of most plants would be alkaline, and the ash of processed meat or cheese would be acidic, the type of ash you refer to has no bearing on actual metabolic processes. Metabolism uses a great variety of enzymes and non-enzymatic biochemistry to perform an incredible complexity of chemical transformations, which provides living creatures with the necessary building blocks and supporting chemicals to continue metabolism. This crazy complex array of chemistry is nothing like the rather simple combustion process employed to turn something into ash. If, perhaps, we exhaled most of the carbon we consume in food as carbon dioxide, then this analogy might have some weight – however, this is far from true.

            With ash, really we are comparing the ratio of involatile anions to involatile cations. Bio-required minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium all have positive charges (cations), and the compounds they create during combustion do not evaporate very well (involatile). Likewise, the counter-ions to these minerals are normally chloride, sulfate, or nitrate ions with negative charges (anions), and most of the compounds they create also no not evaporate very well (though admittedly they are generally more volatile than the alkali and alkaline earth ions). When a plant or a meat product is burned completely in a furnace, the majority of the carbon – the key atom to the complexity of biomolecules – turns into CO2 gas. Likewise, most of the nitrogen turns into nitrogen gas, but some stays behind to form nitrogen oxides, which generally turn into acids when in contact with water. The same is true for phosphorus, which when burned results in phosphorus oxides which are also acidic in contact with water. Any chloride, phosphate, sulfate, sulfite, nitrite, or nitrate ions are likely to remain in the ash, at least partly, and contribute to the acidity of the ash. Likewise, any metal ions like sodium or potassium are likely to remain in the ash and contribute to the basicity of the ash. Since many plant products contain more minerals than many meat products, and since many meat products contain more nitrogen (in protein) and phosphorus than many plant products, it stands to reason that the plant ash will have a more alkaline pH than meat ash.

            Again I stress that combustion is far away from the complexity of biochemical metabolism in its results. Trying to analogize the two is an over-generalization and ignores the biochemical role of organic chemical compounds in the body. For example, the nitrogen in amino acids are typically cations at body pH and contribute to alkalinity, where the same nitrogen burned is unlikely to remain in its basic form, and instead either evaporate as a neutral gas or take on an acidic form as a nitrogen oxide. While carbon is usually neutral or part of an acidic group (carboxylic acids) on a molecule, certain structures can help stabilize a positive charge. Let’s not forget sulfur, which is one of the most versatile atoms in acid-base and redox biochemistry; sulfur is normally neutral in biomolecules, but when burned creates sulfur oxides which, just like phosphorus and nitrogen oxides, are acidic in water. All of this information is available in textbooks.

            The general character of your pro-plant-based-diet claim is rooted in solid evidence, and luckily more doctors in the broader medical world are really embracing these facts. I might work on the way you discuss this sort of thing with your clients, Bill. The “Acid is bad, base is good” paradigm might help less-educated people embrace better dietary habits, but it also fills the pockets of the purveyors of snake oil like Kangen water. Ultimately, as long as dietary intake requirements are met by a person’s diet, the pH of food and drink has virtually no impact on health. The dietary intake requirements meet the pH needs just fine.

  12. You’d obviously not want to consume a high pH water with food.
    My question: When is it optimal to ingest the bicarbonate water? Bedtime?
    Tip: “Ener G” baking soda incorporates calcium and magnesium bicarbonate rather than sodium. So the results might be further improved. http://www.ener-g.com/baking-soda.html
    Legitimate million dollar idea: “Night Time Water”. Enhanced with “Ener G” brand calcium and magnesium bicarbonate.

  13. Hello Doctor, I am in the process of buying a a Kangen machine. Why? Because it does do what it is suppose to do and yes it is worth it too! Our bodies are priceless, and so we need to take care of our bodies and we will live longer. My husband had Ulcerative Colitis and after drinking the Kangen water, less than three months, the Ulcerative Colitis was gone. He was on Insulin three times a day. Now it is down to once a day. Attention all readers. The Kangen water does work.

  14. Hi,
    I am presently reconsidering changing direction for my studies in nutrition, after searching a lot… So, an alkaline water have an impact… Well, I would like to know what you think of the AAADIET (Acid-alkaline-association diet)…”alkaline forming food”, is it fake? With the process of digestion that we know and the blood constantly keeping the good PH (or we would die), can we rely on urine PH test? Can the PH of the food we eat actually have an impact on our health? …

    1. Any processed food you eat is acidic. Meats are acidic, sugar is acidic, and so on. Eat fruits and vegetables to stay alkaline answer healthy!

  15. Like others, I still have difficulty with the idea that drinking mildly alkaline fluids has an effect in the gut environment where the ph is around 2, however the trials confirming the efficacy of such a simple treatment are truly encouraging and here’s hoping that more trials and publicity will follow.

  16. I have searched your webb site but don’t see anything on the budwig diet. I would really be interested in your opion on this. Joanna Budwig claims that by mixing the flax oil, cottage cheese and ground flax it produces a chemical change and make the flax oil water soluable. This in turn allows the omega 3’s easy access to have a curing effect on cancer. She also claims it has an extremely good effect on heart desease. Would love your opion.
    Thanks
    Gary

  17. Not sure if this is necessarily a good idea, but some people add a drop of hydrogen peroxide to a glass of water to alkalize it before drinking. It does increase the pH.

  18. I have used a Kangen water machine for nine months. I can no longer drink “tap water” coffee because it tastes so bad. Baking soda may change the ph but I don’t think I would like it in my coffee! Kangendemo.com has a spot where they wash cherry tomatoes (previously washed in tap water) in 2.5 ph water and the water turns tea coloured: they claim this is the pesticides coming out of the tomatoes! They claim the 11.5 ph water works as a degreaser.
    They further claim that several several restaurant and hotel chains use Kangen Water to:
    1. Improve the taste of coffee, water, tea and food,
    2. As a chemical free sanitizer, and
    3. As a chemical free degreaser.

    There are several major commercial floor cleaning equipment manufacturers that actually make and sell alkaline floor cleaning equipment successfully so the water must work!

    It would be nice to know if it really cleaned food (removed the crap from chicken, removed pesticides). Can anyone test for crap removal and pesticide removal???

    1. J Food Sci. 2011 May;76(4):C520-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02154.x.

      Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.

      Hao J, Wuyundalai, Liu H, Chen T, Zhou Y, Su YC, Li L.

      Source

      College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., P. O. Box 40, No.17 Qinghuadonglu, Haidian, Beijing 100083, PR China.

      Abstract

      Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition.

      © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Here is #1 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42078. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

    Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice.

    Spulber S, Edoff K, Hong L, Morisawa S, Shirahata S, Ceccatelli S.

    Source

    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Abstract

    Molecular hydrogen has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in mouse models of acute neurodegeneration. The effect was suggested to be mediated by its free-radical scavenger properties. However, it has been shown recently that molecular hydrogen alters gene expression and protein phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to test whether chronic ad libitum consumption of molecular hydrogen-enriched electrochemically reduced water (H-ERW) improves the outcome of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Seven days after the initiation of H-ERW treatment, C57Bl/6 mice received a single injection of LPS (0.33 mg/kg i.p.) or an equivalent volume of vehicle. The LPS-induced sickness behaviour was assessed 2 h after the injection, and recovery was assessed by monitoring the spontaneous locomotor activity in the homecage for 72 h after the administration of LPS. The mice were killed in the acute or recovery phase, and the expression of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was assessed by real-time PCR. We found that molecular hydrogen reduces the LPS-induced sickness behaviour and promotes recovery. These effects are associated with a shift towards anti-inflammatory gene expression profile at baseline (downregulation of TNF- α and upregulation of IL-10). In addition, molecular hydrogen increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration and promotes the extinction of neuroinflammation. Consistently, molecular hydrogen modulates the activation and gene expression in a similar fashion in immortalized murine microglia (BV-2 cell line), suggesting that the effects observed in vivo may involve the modulation of microglial activation. Taken together, our data point to the regulation of cytokine expression being an additional critical mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen.

  20. Here is #2 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Cytotechnology. 2012 May;64(3):357-71. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

    Suppressive effects of electrochemically reduced water on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities and in vitro invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells.

    Kinjo T, Ye J, Yan H, Hamasaki T, Nakanishi H, Toh K, Nakamichi N, Kabayama S, Teruya K, Shirahata S.

    Source

    Division of Life Engineering, Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581, Japan.

    Abstract

    It has been demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is directly associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression in several cell lines. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW), produced near the cathode during electrolysis, and scavenges intracellular H(2)O(2) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. RT-PCR and zymography analyses revealed that when HT1080 cells were treated with ERW, the gene expression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1 MMP and activation of MMP-2 was repressed, resulting in decreased invasion of the cells into matrigel.ERW also inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced MMP-2 upregulation. To investigate signal transduction involved in MMP-2 downregulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (MAPK/extracellular regulated kinase kinase 1 inhibitor) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase inhibitor II, were used to block the MAPK signal cascade. MMP-2 gene expression was only inhibited by SB203580 treatment, suggesting a pivotal role of p38 MAPK in regulation of MMP-2 gene expression. Western blot analysis showed that ERW downregulated the phosphorylation of p38 both in H(2)O(2)-treated and untreated HT1080 cells. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of ERW on tumor invasion is due to, at least in part, its antioxidative effect.

  21. Here is #3 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(11):1671-7.

    Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice.

    Yoon KS, Huang XZ, Yoon YS, Kim SK, Song SB, Chang BS, Kim DH, Lee KJ.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon, South Korea.

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), functional water, has various beneficial effects via antioxidant mechanism in vivo and in vitro. However there is no study about beneficial effects of ERW bathing. This study aimed to determine the effect of ERW bathing on the UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. For this purpose, mice were irradiated with UVB to cause skin injury, followed by individually taken a bath in ERW (ERW-bathing) and tap water (TW-bathing) for 21 d. We examined cytokines profile in acute period, and histological and ultrastructural observation of skin in chronic period. We found that UVB-mediated skin injury of ERW-bathing group was significantly low compared to TW control group in the early stage of experiment. Consistently, epidermal thickening as well as the number of dermal mast cell was significantly lowered in ERW-bathing group. Defection of corneocytes under the scanning electron microscope was less observed in ERW-bathing group than in TW-bathing group. Further, the level of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p70 in ERW group decreased whereas those of IL-10 increased. Collectively, our data indicate that ERW-bathing significantly reduces UVB-induced skin damage through influencing pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in hairless mice. This suggests that ERW-bathing has a positive effect on acute UVB-mediated skin disorders. This is the first report on bathing effects of ERWin UVB-induced skin injury.

  22. Here is #4 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(7):1295-9. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

    Mechanism of the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by electrolyzed reduced water–participation of Pt nanoparticles.

    Yan H, Kinjo T, Tian H, Hamasaki T, Teruya K, Kabayama S, Shirahata S.

    Source

    Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) contains a large amount of molecular hydrogen and a small amount of Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs). We have found that ERW significantly extended the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans in a novel culture medium designated Water Medium. In this study, we found that synthetic Pt NPs at ppb levels significantly extended the nematode lifespan and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the nematode induced by paraquat treatment. In contrast, a high concentration of dissolved molecular hydrogen had no significant effect on the lifespan of the nematode. These findings suggest that the Pt NPs in ERW, rather than the molecular hydrogen, extend the longevity of the nematode, at least partly by scavenging ROS.

  23. Here is #45of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Aug;25(8):2730-7. Epub 2010 Feb 26.

    Electrolysed-reduced water dialysate improves T-cell damage in end-stage renal disease patients with chronic haemodialysis.

    Huang KC, Hsu SP, Yang CC, Ou-Yang P, Lee KT, Morisawa S, Otsubo K, Chien CT.

    Source

    Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND:

    T-cell damage by increased oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD) led to the increased T-cell apoptosis and the alteration of surface markers and Th1/Th2 ratio in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Antioxidant electrolysed-reduced water (ERW) was used as the dialysate in ESRD patients undergoing chronic HD to test for improved oxidative stress-related T-cell apoptosis, alterations of surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile.

    METHODS:

    We evaluated apoptosis formation by annexin V, CD25-related surface markers, and cytokine ratio of Th1/Th2 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes and Tc1/Tc2 in CD8(+) T lymphocytes of 42 ESRD patients haemodialysed with ERW for 1 year.

    RESULTS:

    In comparison to 12 healthy individuals, the ESRD patients had more T-cell apoptosis and less CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3(+) phenotypes at baseline. Lower intracellular IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the Th1/CD4(+) and Tc1/CD8(+) cells and higher intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/CD4(+) and Tc2/CD8(+) cells were also noted in the ESRD patients. After a 1-year ERW treatment, the patients had a decrease in T-cell apoptosis and increases in CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell numbers and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3(+) phenotypes in the T cells. The intracellular IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the Th1/Tc1 cells significantly (P < 0.05) increased and the intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/Tc2 cells decreased. Furthermore, the Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine ratios were improved toward a normal status.

    CONCLUSION:

    One-year ERW treatment effectively ameliorated T-cell apoptosis, altered CD25-related surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile in the HD patients.

  24. Here is #6 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Aug;47(8):2031-6. Epub 2009 May 27.

    Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    Tsai CF, Hsu YW, Chen WK, Chang WH, Yen CC, Ho YC, Lu FJ.

    Source

    Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan.

    Abstract

    The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

  25. Here is #7 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Mar;32(3):456-62.

    The immunological effects of electrolyzed reduced water on the Echinostoma hortense infection in C57BL/6 mice.

    Lee KJ, Jin D, Chang BS, Teng YC, Kim DH.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Gang Won, South Korea.

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) is widely used for drinking by people in Asia. The purpose of this study was to examine the immunological effect of ERW on the immunity of animals by supplying ERW to C57BL/6 mice infected with Echinostoma hortense metacercariae. In the non-infected groups, interleukin (IL)-4 (p < 0.001), IL-5, IL-10, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) A expression of the group fedERW (ERW group) increased in small intestine compared with the normal control group. In the case of infected groups, the group fed ERW (ERW+E. hortense group) showed the result that IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and Ig A expression increased, but IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) decreased, and the number of goblet cells (p < 0.001) and helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) positive cells increased compared with the group without feeding ERW. However, adult worm recovery rate was markedly increased (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the expression of all the cytokines except IL-10 in spleen was mildly increased but not significant statistically, and there was no significant difference in the numerical changes of white blood cell (WBC). These results indicate that feeding ERW may have influence on the local immune response (Th-1 type cytokines such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) in the small intestine but not on the systemic immune response.

  26. Here is #8 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    iosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Feb;73(2):280-7. Epub 2009 Feb 7.

    Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione.

    Tsai CF, Hsu YW, Chen WK, Ho YC, Lu FJ.

    Source

    Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    Abstract

    Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  27. Here is #9 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2009 Feb;35(2):145-53.

    Effect of several electrolyzed waters on the skin permeation of lidocaine, benzoic Acid, and isosorbide mononitrate.

    Kitamura T, Todo H, Sugibayashi K.

    Source

    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan.

    Abstract

    The effects of several electrolyzed waters were evaluated on the permeation of model base, acid and non-ionized compounds, lidocaine (LC), benzoic acid (BA), and isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), respectively, through excised hairless rat skin. Strong alkaline-electrolyzed reducing water (ERW) enhanced and suppressed the skin permeation of LC and BA, respectively, and it also increased the skin permeation of ISMN, a non-ionized compound. On the contrary, strong acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) enhanced BA permeation, whereas suppressing LC permeation. Only a marginal effect was observed on the skin permeation of ISMN by EOW. These marked enhancing effects of ERW on the skin permeation of LC and ISMN were explained by pH partition hypothesis as well as a decrease in skin impedance. The present results strongly support that electrolyzed waters, ERW and EOW, can be used as a new vehicle in topical pharmaceuticals or cosmetics to modify the skin permeation of drugs without severe skin damage.

  28. Here is #10 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Feb;30(2):234-6.

    Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db/db mice.

    Kim MJ, Jung KH, Uhm YK, Leem KH, Kim HK.

    Source

    Department of Obesity Management, Graduate School of Obesity Science, Dongduk Women’s University, Seoul, South Korea. mijakim@dongduck.ac.jp

    Abstract

    Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db). ERWwith ROS scavenging ability reduced the blood glucose concentration, increased blood insulin level, improved glucose tolerance and preserved beta-cell mass in db/db mice. The present data suggest that ERW may protects beta-cell damage and would be useful for antidiabetic agent.

  29. Here is #11 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Life Sci. 2006 Nov 10;79(24):2288-92. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

    Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice.

    Kim MJ, Kim HK.

    Source

    Department of Obesity management, Graduate School of Obesity Science, Dongduk Women’s University, 23-1 Wolkgukdong, Seoul, 136-714, South Korea. mijakim@dongduk.ac.kr

    Abstract

    Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and is likely involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction found in diabetes. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in two different diabetic animal models. The genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse were used as insulin deficient type 1 and insulin resistant type 2 animal model, respectively. ERW, provided as a drinking water, significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and improved glucose tolerance in both animal models. However, ERW fail to affect blood insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice whereas blood insulin level was markedly increased in genetically diabetic db/db mice. This improved blood glucose control could result from enhanced insulin sensitivity, as well as increased insulin release. The present data suggest that ERW may function as an orally effective anti-diabetic agent and merit further studies on its precise mechanism.

  30. Here is #12 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Sci. 2012 Apr;77(4):M182-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02633.x.

    Transmission electron microscopic analysis showing structural changes to bacterial cells treated with electrolyzed water and an acidic sanitizer.

    Feliciano L, Lee J, Pascall MA.

    Source

    Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

    Abstract

    The effects of various sanitizers on the viability and cellular injury to structures of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were investigated. A food grade organic acidic formulation (pH 2.5) and acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyzed water [AEW (pH 2.7, oxidation reduction potential; ORP: 1100 mV, free available chlorine; FAC: 150 ppm), NEW (pH 6.9, ORP: 840 mV, FAC: 150 ppm), BEW (pH 11.6, ORP: -810 mV)] were used to treat E. coli and L. innocua cells. After 10 min of exposure to the sanitizers, changes to the bacterial numbers and cell structures were evaluated by plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. It was concluded from the results that the sanitizers reduced the E. coli cells between 2 and 3 log CFU/mL. Except for the BEW treatment, reductions in L. innocua population were greater (>1 log CFU/mL) than that of E. coli for all treatments. Data from the TEM showed that all sanitizers caused changes to the cell envelope and cytoplasm of both organisms. However, smaller changes were observed for L. innocua cells. Decrease in the integrity of the cell envelope and aggregation of the cytoplasmic components appeared to be mainly because of exposure to the sanitizers. The organic acid formulation and AEW were the most effective sanitizers against bacterial cells, indicating that penetration of acidic substances effectively caused the cell inactivation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: An understanding of the method in which E-water and an acidic sanitizer cause injury to E. coli and L. innocua would be helpful in selecting an effective chemical agent as a food safety tool. This will allow a scientist to target similar microorganisms such as food borne bacteria with structures that are vulnerable to the sanitizer.

  31. Here is #13 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Prot. 2012 Apr;75(4):765-70.

    Effect of anolyte on background microflora, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on catfish fillets.

    Rajkowski KT, Sommers CH.

    Source

    Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Wyndmoor, PA 19083-8551, USA. kathleen.rajkowski@ars.usda.gov

    Abstract

    Near-neutral electrolyzed water (anolyte), having a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 ± 0.02, oxidation reduction potential of greater than 700 mV, and a residual chlorine level of 10 to 200 ppm, was reported to have a potential use to decontaminate food surfaces. An electrolyzing cell was developed that is capable of producing neutral electrolyzed water containing a chlorine level of greater than 700 ppm in the form of hypochlorous acid (anolyte). Anolyte with a chlorine level of 300 ppm was used to determine its effect on Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes cells after a 3-min contact. Transmission electron micrograph results showed disruption of the outer cellular membrane for both bacteria. The anolyte (300 ppm) was used as a washing solution to decontaminate catfish fillets inoculated with either Salmonella or L. monocytogenes. After a 3-min contact time with the anolyte, there was a 1-log reduction for Salmonella, and after 8 days of refrigerated storage (4°C), this bacterial reduction was maintained. There was no reduction of L. monocytogenes on the catfish fillet surfaces. The anolyte was an effective wash solution for Salmonella reduction on the catfish fillet surfaces.

    1. i think most of u r educated idiots, trying to impress either yourselves or us, it must be yourselves u r trying to impress because i m sure like me most of the people who read all that crap with the big numbers and fancy names u cant pronounce, doesnt mean diddly squat. we r all not rocket scientist. so what i would like to see is the kiss principle. KEEP IT SIMPLE STUPID. what most of us i m sure would like to see is reports from people who has tried this and DID IT WORK FOR THEM!!!! period! signed a kiss believer.

          1. BOYD: If you can express your opinion without name-calling, etc, that would be great. In other words, if you can be civil, your personal opinion will be welcome.

  32. Here is #14 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Sci. 2011 May;76(4):C520-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02154.x.

    Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.

    Hao J, Wuyundalai, Liu H, Chen T, Zhou Y, Su YC, Li L.

    Source

    College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., P. O. Box 40, No.17 Qinghuadonglu, Haidian, Beijing 100083, PR China.

    Abstract

    Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition.

    © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  33. Here is #15 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    iomed Res. 2009 Oct;30(5):263-9.

    Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Park SK, Qi XF, Song SB, Kim DH, Teng YC, Yoon YS, Kim KY, Li JH, Jin D, Lee KJ.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon, Republic of Korea.

    Abstract

    Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERW-treated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms.

  34. Here is #16 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Sci. 2008 Aug;73(6):M268-72.

    Effect of electrolyzed water for reduction of foodborne pathogens on lettuce and spinach.

    Park EJ, Alexander E, Taylor GA, Costa R, Kang DH.

    Source

    Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164-6376, USA.

    Abstract

    The ability of electrolyzed water (EW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens on the surfaces of lettuce and spinach was investigated. Lettuce and spinach leaves were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains each of Escherichia col O157:H7, Salmnonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and treated with acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AK-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water followed by acidic electrolyzedwater (sequential treatment, AK-EW + AC-EW), deionized water followed by acidic electrolyzed water (sequential treatment, DW + AC-EW), and deionized water (control, DW) for 15, 30 s, and 1, 3, and 5 min at room temperature (22 +/- 2 degrees C). For all 3 pathogens, the same pattern of microbial reduction on lettuce and spinach were apparent. The relative efficacy of reduction was AC-EW > DW + AC-EW approximately = AK-EW + AC-EW > AK-EW > control. After a 3-min treatment of AC-EW, the 3 tested pathogens were reduced below the detection limit (0.7 log). DW + AC-EW and AK-EW + AC-EW produced the same levels of reduction after 5 min when compared to the control. AK-EW did not reduce levels of pathogens even after a 5-min treatment on lettuce and spinach. Results suggest that AC-EW treatment was able to significantly reduce populations of the 3 tested pathogens from the surfaces of lettuce and spinach with increasing time of exposure.

  35. Here is #18 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Int J Food Microbiol. 2008 Mar 31;123(1-2):151-8. Epub 2008 Jan 30.

    Efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) for reducing microbial contamination on minimally-processed vegetables.

    Abadias M, Usall J, Oliveira M, Alegre I, Viñas I.

    Source

    IRTA, Centre UdL-IRTA, XaRTA-Postharvest, 191 Rovira Roure, 25198-Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. isabel.abadias@irta.cat

    Abstract

    Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 10(8), 10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1), depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted NEW (containing approximately 50 ppm of free chlorine, pH 8.60) against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, L. innocua and E. carotovora on lettuce was similar to that of chlorinated water (120 ppm of free chlorine) with reductions of 1-2 log units. There were generally no significant differences when treating lettuce with NEW for 1 and 3 min. Neither inoculation dose (10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1)) influenced the bacterial reduction achieved. Treating fresh-cut lettuce, carrot, endive, corn salad and ‘Four seasons’ salad with NEW 1:5 (containing about 50 ppm of free chlorine) was equally effective as applying chlorinated water at 120 ppm. Microbial reduction depended on the vegetable tested: NEW and sodium hypochlorite treatments were more effective on carrot and endive than on iceberg lettuce, ‘Four seasons’ salad and corn salad. The reductions of indigenous microbiota were smaller than those obtained with the artificially inoculated bacteria tested (0.5-1.2 log reduction). NEW seems to be a promising disinfection method as it would allow to reduce the amount of free chlorine used for the disinfection of fresh-cut produce by the food industry, as the same microbial reduction as sodium hypochlorite is obtained. This would constitute a safer, ‘in situ’, and easier to handle way of ensuring food safety.

  36. Here is #19 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Comparison of the Microbicidal Activities of Superoxidized and Ozonated Water in the Disinfection of Endoscopes

    Authors: Urata, M.; Isomoto, H.; Murase, K.; Wada, A.; Yanagihara, K.; Hirakata, Y.; Takeshima, F.; Omagari, K.; Mizuta, Y.; Murata, I.; Kohno, S.

    Source: The Journal of International Medical Research, Volume 31, Number 4, July 2003 , pp. 299-306(8)

    1The microbicidal activities of superoxidized water (electrolysed strong acid water [ESAW] or electrolysed weak acid water [EWAW]), ozonated water, 0.05% chlorhexidine and 2% glutaraldehyde were tested against seven strains of clinical micro-organism isolates. Following incubation of bacterial suspensions in ESAW and EWAW for 10 s, the number of micro-organisms was reduced below the detection limit. The microbicidal activities of ESAW and EWAW were similar to that of glutaraldehyde, and superior to ozonated water and 0.05% chlorhexidine. The microbicidal activities of ESAW, EWAW and ozonated water were markedly diminished in the presence of albumin. Microbial contamination of upper gastrointestinal endoscopes was detected after 90 endoscopic procedures, but treatment of the endoscope with ESAW, EWAW or ozonated water eradicated the microbes. These results indicate that ESAW and EWAW are effective disinfectants after mechanical cleaning of upper gastrointestinal endoscopes, and can, therefore, be used in the endoscopy unit

    http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/field/jimr/2003/00000031/00000004/art00007

  37. Here is #20 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Park SK, Qi XF, Song SB, Kim DH, Teng YC, Yoon YS, Kim KY, Li JH, Jin D, Lee KJ.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon, Republic of Korea.

    Abstract

    Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERW-treated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms.

  38. Here is #21 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Cytotechnology. 2005 Jan;47(1-3):97-105. doi: 10.1007/s10616-005-3759-2.

    Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation.

    Nishikawa R, Teruya K, Katakura Y, Osada K, Hamasaki T, Kashiwagi T, Komatsu T, Li Y, Ye J, Ichikawa A, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Xu Q, Shirahata S.

    Author information

    Abstract

    In the two-stage cell transformation theory, cancer cells first receive initiation, which is mainly caused by DNA damage, and then promotion, which enhances transformation. Murine Balb/c 3T3 cells are widely used for transformation experiments because they lose contact inhibition ability when transformed. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), which is produced near a cathode during electrolysis of water, is an alkaline drinking water that is beneficial to health. ERW contains a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with a small amount of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (Pt nps) derived from Pt-coated titanium electrodes. Pt nps stably disperse in aqueous solution for a long time, and convert hydrogen molecules to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen) that can scavenge ROS. Therefore, ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps is a model strong reduced water. This is the first report that ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps strongly prevents transformation of Balb/c 3T3 cells. ERW was prepared by electrolysis of 0.002 M NaOH solution using a batch-type electrolysis device. Balb/c 3T3 cells were treated with 3-methyl cholanthrene (MCA) as an initiation substance, followed by treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) as a promotion substance. MCA/PMA-induced formation of a transformation focus was strongly suppressed by ERW supplemented with Pt nps but not by ERW or Pt nps individually. ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed transformation at the promoter stage, not at initiation, suggesting that ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed the PMA-induced augmentation of intracellular ROS. ERW supplemented with Pt nps is a potential new antioxidant against carcinogenesis.

  39. Here is #22 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Electrolyzed-reduced water increases resistance to oxidative stress, fertility, and lifespan via insulin/IGF-1-like signal in C. elegans.

    Park SK, Park SK.

    Author information

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) scavenges reactive oxygen species and is a powerful anti-oxidant. A positive correlation between oxidative stress and aging has been proved in many model organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans, many long-lived mutants showed reduced fertility as a trade off against longevity phenotype. We aimed to study the effect of ERW on oxidative stress, fertility and lifespan of C. elegans. We also investigated the genetic pathway involved in the effect of ERW on resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan. We compared lifespan and fertility of worms in media prepared with distilled water and ERW. ERW significantly extended lifespan and increased the number of progeny produced. Then the effect of ERWon resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan of long-lived mutants was determined. ERW increased resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan of eat-2, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but had no effect on those of age-1, which is involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-like signal. In addition, knockdown of daf-16, the downstream mediator of insulin/IGF-1-like signal, completely prevented the effect of ERW on lifespan. These findings suggest that ERW can extend lifespan without accompanying reduced fertility and modulate resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan via insulin/IGF-1-like signal in C. elegans.

  40. Could it be the sodium/salt that created the affect and not the ‘alkaline water’? We need sodium for health, it is one of the main conductors of cell energy, we would be dead without it. In school, it was explained to me that if you drink something alkaline than your stomach just produces a little more hydrochloric acid to bring it to the right pH. Your stomach dumps at a certain pH level. At the end of the stomach into the duodenum there are buffers produced and injected into the slurry as the food leaves the stomach to reduce this acid, so what would alkaline water have to do with anything? I would think it was the baking soda itself, not that fact the water is more alkaline

  41. Doctor, I urge you to read Dr. Hiromi Shinya’s Book, the Enzyme Factor, then research what you know nothing about. I did not see an RD after your MD, so I assume you have maybe the minimum nutrition classes behind you to become a Dr. (3 Units?) Do you even know of Dr Shinya? You might look up his credentials before commenting on something you know nothing about. Research before opening your mouth. I for one, am a survivor of BIG C and would not be here w/o it. I’d be 6′ under. The USA is not the #1 nation for longevity in the world. Why? Due to people like you. Think then insert Foot!

  42. Hello Dr. Greger I was wondering what do you think about getting spring water directly at the spring. Many tout its benefits. What do you think ?

    Thank you

  43. Am confused about how this discussion relates to drinking chlorinated municiple tap water ? Is it worth drinking some other type of water? Distilled? What would you recommend?

  44. Would about deminerailzed water? Is reverse osmosis unhealthy? What about distilled water? Is reverse osmosis considered deminerzlized water? Here’s the study from the World Health Organization (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrientsindw.pdf)? What’s your thought on it?

    What’s your thought on this article? It states demineralized water increases cardiovascular risk mortality and morbidity and it’s healthy? http://www.vega-licious.com/best-water-filter-home/

    I’m just trying to avoid all the chemicals and etc in my water and find the safest and best water to drink. The article suggests carbon. I’m also trying to avoid fluoride exposure. Any advice? Thanks!

    1. Hi Derrek. I wrote about this a while ago in response to a similar question about water, please check it out for more details, here.

    2. I use a Berkey free standing water filter. They say the carbon filters take out the bad stuff and i added another type of filter to remove fluoride and arsenic.

  45. Good morning Joseph,

    Congratulations on your appointment as Nutrition Director of
    Nutrition Facts.org. I am a big fan of Dr Greger. I contribute to his
    foundation each month and I do volunteer work for him also.

    I have been reluctant to ask questions of him because I know
    how busy he is so now that we have you on board I am hoping that you can help
    me.

    My question is about “ionized” alkaline water and “ionized”
    acid water. I have a Chanson
    machine. It is the same as the Kangen
    machine but half the price and it works twice as well. I have been using the machine for five years
    now and I love the results I am getting.
    My hair and skin feel better and my health is much improved. I have a sophisticated set of pre filters
    which gets rid of all the chemicals and heavy metals before it reaches the
    machine. I use the acid water to rinse
    my hair and body after I shower and I use the alkaline water to drink and cook
    with. I am very pleased with the results
    and my blood ph is always slightly alkaline and never acidic.

    Here are my questions:
    (1) Are there any recent scientific tests or studies to confirm the
    validity of the results that I am getting by using ionized alkaline water for
    drinking and cooking and/or using ionized acid water for rinsing my skin and
    hair? Also: (2) Does ionizing add any benefits to the
    water, or is it just the change in PH that makes the difference? The cost is insignificant when amortized over
    the hundreds of gallons of water we use each year. I am not excited about the baking soda idea.

    Thanks, Paul

    1. Hi Paul. Thanks so much for your kind donations. Forgive my delay. Did this video help clarify things? It may help to read the thread here and see my comment under Dr. Greger’s video on alkalized water. Make sure to click the link within that comment to learn more about deionized water. I hope that helps! Let me know!

  46. What about potassium bicarbonate (found in soda, wine (and fire extinguishers))?

    I used to rinse with sodium bicarbonate after eating fruit before brushing my teeth in the morning.

    EDIT: I see others have asked this question. Seems KHCO3 is common in many processed foods and drinks to reduce or neutralize their acidity.

  47. What about the effects of mixing baking soda with lemon juice (end result trisodium citrate)? I have some health issues which manifests sometimes after eating (swollen veins in hands is one effect) and I have found it has a very fast relief, in a matter of minutes if I drink 1-2 squeezed lemons in a glass of water, combined with baking soda, around 10-30 minutes after eating. I’ve observed no improvement if I drink this combination on empty stomach.

  48. This makes me so happy! I’ve been reading a lot of alkaline water and wished I could afford a way to have it. We purchased a Berkey Water Filter system to remove fluoride and the many other chemicals/toxins in our tap water. Now we can have our alkalinized water too!

  49. Not sure anyone will see this as this is an older post. but I was very curious about an aspect of my water consumption. When we moved here (FL) the well water was so sulfurous, you could smell when anyone in the neighborhood is using their irrigation system to water their yard! Even with the standard household water filtering system (ion exchange?) you could still smell and taste the sulfur in the water, smell it in clean clothes, showers, etc. We eventually opted for a rather pricey RO system, and one of the “sales points” was that it alkalized the water. It was just a huge relief to have usable water at last, and though I did wonder about the validity of the alkalinity benefits, I was later concerned reading about the lack of vital minerals that are also removed. Does anyone have any info about this, or how to (cheaply-on a fixed income now) compensate for the loss? I do eat an animal free WFPB diet, so hopefully that helps, but since water is such a primary necessity, I am concerned.

  50. how would you know if it ac tually changed the water?
    and if it did, how would you know what it was doing to you?
    any alkalinity it might add would
    a. be from metal ions and
    b. be neutralized by the 1000x more powerful stomach acid
    so
    scam
    wle

  51. Go to my site we have technology for water that is used by Professional Sport Teams and they love our Alkaline Water. We have testimonial letters from them; Go to http://www.myvollara.com/timshaw when the page opens go to our products a window will drop down with all of our products go to the Living Water and click on it the page will open there is videos and information also some letters from Professional Sports Teams. If any questions you can send me a Email at; timothyshaw274@comcast.net Thanks, Tim Shaw

  52. OK, How do I know how much Bicarb to add and what is it going to taste like? Many people I come across just don’t drink much water at all because they dont like the taste, but they do like the taste of the water from my machine so the drink more and get the benefit of being hydrated. What is your scientific comment on the water from a good machine having a greater Hydrogen content which scavenges the free Oxygen created by the Oxidation processes. I am using laymans language so as not to confuse myself and happy to hear the scientific explanation.

  53. You don’t nessesarily need to buy a 6000 dollar machine. I have a water pitcher at home that alkalises my water and it cost not more than buying Brita filters

  54. Hi Michael Gregor, thanks for this video and addressing the alkaline issue of water produced by water ionizing devices. However I believe you have not addressed 2 other claimed beneficial properties of ionised water. They are:
    1) that the water contains an abundance of active hydrogen particles that act as antioxidants, and
    2) that the water is restructured to a its purest form as micro-clustered hexagonal molecules that enter our cells more efficiently than macro-clustered tap water.
    Apologies if I have missed any relevant information already covering this. Your input here would be much appreciated? Many Thanks, Timmy

    1. I don’t think so. I checked pubmed for anything on that device I nothing popped up. The only risk I feel with drinking carbonated water is tooth enamel damage. Drinking through a straw (go for glass!) may be preferred.

  55. Ok so what I just read last night was that it’s the hydrogen byproduct of alkalanizing the water – not the water ph – that brings all the health benefits. Does adding baking soda to water create hydrogen?

  56. I read in the book by Walter Crinnion, Clean, Green and Lean, that you should drink sparkling water every day. He says it alkalizes your urine so more toxins are released from your body. True or false?

  57. Hello, I was told by a Kangen water machine representative that drinking reverse osmosis water is bad for you because it robs the water of vital minerals. My thinking is that the amount of usable minerals in our tap water is already pretty minuscule. Anyway, I was looking for information on here about reverse osmosis water but only found this article. Does anyone have any knowledge that would pursue me to stop drinking reverse osmosis water and trade it for Kangen water? Thanks and I love all the interaction and information on here!

  58. I’m a strict vegan on a wpbd. I tried alkaline water and seem to have buzzing in my hands from it. I tried it again a few days later and the same thing happened. Any opinions on whether this is a symptom of too much ph?

  59. Have you looked in to the pros & cons of using a water softener? The internet is all over the place on this subject and I think might be something people would really like to know “what does the science say?” Some questions would be how much salt do you ingest from drinking softened water? Is softened water better for your skin? Are there other downsides to drinking soft water? Should you only soften the hot water line? Put water softener before or after water filter?

  60. I have been putting 1/2 tsp of baking soda in my meals instead of salt every day.What do you think of it? Am I putting myself at risk?

  61. Hallo!
    Are there new studies about Alkaline Water? We have here in Portugal Alkaline water with a PH 9,5 ( Monchique). What do you think about alkaline mineral water? Thank you!

  62. A couple of my thoughts on this water:

    First of all, this whole alkaline/acid thing is a bunch of marketing nonsense. Alkalinity in water is ONLY indicative of it’s mineral content. If you put baking soda in water it doesn’t become good for you. However, generally speaking, high mineral water will be alkaline.

    So to call it “alkaline” water is nonsense.

    The interesting thing about these machines is that they replicate something in nature that we don’t get in tap water or store bought water.

    Consider natural water:

    Rain=distilled water.
    As it falls through the atmosphere and on to the land, it picks up minerals from the earth.
    Minerals make this water capable of conducting electricity.
    Running across the earth’s surface causes it to pick up electrical energy.

    So, in your home, you have a distiller/RO systerm. Which is the rain part.
    Then, you pass the water through a mineral filter to add minerals back in. This simulates the water running across rocks and sand.
    Then it goes in to the water “ionizer” and as it passes over the plates, it picks up electrical energy.
    Then you drink it.

    It simulates this natural process.

    Does this do anything for our health?

    Well, SUPPOSEDLY, the claim is that this electrical energy makes water more hydrating. The minerals gain an electrical charge and SUPPOSEDLY changing the structure of movement in the water molecules. They form themselves in to tighter-knit, constantly moving “chain links” which SUPPOSEDLY makes the water more capable of penetrating tissue walls.

    SUPPOSEDLY, this means the water won’t “run right through you” as much and will actually absorb.

    SUPPOSEDLY, this water makes a big difference.

    The description of this process and what it does is so muddled and effed up by the marketers. There is some legitimacy to these claims.

  63. Anything on distilled water. Years ago, I went to Dr Esser’s Ranch and did a two week supervised water fast drinking only distilled water made there ( not store bought from a plastic bottles). It has been said that distilled water leaches mineral from the body but that was claimed to be false. I don’t worry that there are no minerals in the distilled water because that is not my sourcing for minerals. What is your expert feelings on this subject? I recently Water fasted at home for two weeks with my husband and after a while, all of our water seemed to have a funny taste and odor, even alkaline Kangen Water. Voss in a glass bottle was by far the best tasting. Tap water here in Naples, FL is not safe for drinking or bathing.

    1. Hi Adam,

      I am a volunteer for Dr. Greger. Thanks so much for your question.

      Some of the nutrients in foods like parsley, cucumber, or mint leaves will leach into the water you drink. However, this amount is probably fairly small in comparison to the overall nutrient profile of these foods. So if you’re looking for the most efficient nutritional bang for your buck, then eating the foods entirely is probably best. But if you’re just looking to flavor your water while getting a little extra nutrition out of it (and don’t care about the extra money going into it), then it certainly won’t hurt.

      I hope this helps, Adam!

      1. Beautifully articulated answer, thanks dude!
        Quick follow up (if I may …)

        I eat one meal a day, at night, and I drink 6-10 Liters a day of water and green/red/white tea with lemon Also 1-2 cups from that amount would be coffee.

        Given that, is there still little benefit to augmenting the water is anything?

        I don’t paying for a cucumber every couple of days to stack up some nutrition, question is HOW MUCH do I get?

        And also if this would burden on my digestive system, as my entire idea of one meal a day is to let digestive system rest …

        Phew!
        Turned out to be not such a little follow up, thanks for the help again, YOU ROCK!

    1. Stomach acid breaks down food and triggers enzymes to break down food. This results in individual nutrients which are transferred to the small intestine to be absorbed. It doesn’t make everything acidic otherwise all of the good alkaline foods like fruits and vegetables would also turn acidic and our bodies would be very damaged.

      This article explains it in a very lengthy way which may or may not help your understanding.
      http://www.healthalkaline.com/does-stomach-acid-neutralize-alkaline-water/

      The bottom line is while the stomach is acidic it doesn’t turn alkaline foods acidic.

  64. I was diagnosed of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in summer of 2014, my symptoms started out with shortness of breath and chronic cough. The pulmonary disease specialist prescribed me some medications to help my symptoms however the medications did no good and their side effects were too severe. In May 2016, i started on NewLife Herbal Clinic COPD Herbal formula treatment, i read alot of positive reviews on their success rate with the COPD Herbal formula and i immediately started on the treatment. Just 11 weeks into the Herbal formula treatment I had great improvements with my breathing, there is no case of dyspnea and chest tightness since treatment, visit NewLife Herbal Clinic official website www. newlifeherbalclinic. com or email info@ newlifeherbalclinic. com. This treatment is incredible!

    Shirley Heche

  65. Ph inalkaline water is just part of the claimed benefit of it. ORP stands for oxidation reduction potencial and is suppose to make it super strong antioxidant water. Probably you may not get it with baking soda as it requires water ionisation. And the third benefit is its broken down less complex water molecule structure which as thought results in much quicker and easier water absorbtion. Could you please PUT IT TO THE TEST?
    I myself drink this type of water for about 5 years. I have noticed that if I add a little bit alkaline water to my green tea in just few seconds it becomes ten times stronger. You can make strong green tea just in a cold alkaline water if you want to refresh yourself in summer. It’s just curious to me if you mix 50 percet of a cup boiled regular water and 50 percent of strong alkaline water (11 pH) and make green tea, how much of antioxidants in general you can get?

    1. I just read the classic book on the subject called “Reverse Aging”, by Sang Whang.In the book Sang claims that the alkaline machines which product alkaline water in the 10 to 11 range are the best.They may indeed work faster that alkaline mineral water that is between 8.5 and 9.5.However the machines I have heard in studies may harm the heart long term.So I am also going to stick to the slower but safer mineral water.Right now I am adding mineral drops to my spring water to make it more alkaline.These are made by Sangs son called Alkalife.I am already feeling more energy.In his book Sang says he got off his BP meds in 6 weeks! He also says that peoples eyes got better especially over 40 and the ability to see close improved.He also says that 1 can of Cola with a ph of 2.5 can wipe out something like 20 alkaline drinks with a ph of 10.5 ! It may not be a factor in the young-but at age 40-50 and someone who is overweight and acidic it can do terrible damage.Interestingly the pancreas produces very alkaline secretions which can be disrupted.Sang also says that some ph water particularly alters acidic blood which is a cause of cancer.Ozone treatments and Alkaline water do the same thing add oxygen into the body.One does it by water and the other mostly supported by the Germans ,use ozone gas to get oxygen into the body.I think the Asian way of using water is the better simpler way.Sang also says the combination of alkaline water and far infrared blanket to sleep with at night can work together to erase an acidic condition,which is revealed by a big pot belly in men.Thank You Doc as usual.Good stuff. I think there should be a longer video on this subject. By the way I think I will retrofit my reverse osmosis filter with a mineral cartridge.

  66. What if I drink 3 quarts of water a day out of the same container on one fill. Can I just add 3/4 teaspoon to that since the dose in the study was 3/4 tsp to 1 quart water for 1 quart of alkaline water a day for those benefits?

  67. Hello,

    Does a pinch of Bicarbonate of Soda in the pot with green vegetables like broccoli, brussels sprouts or silverbeet compromise levels of Vitamin C?

    Bicarb. seems to help boiled or steamed green vegetables retain a bright green colour, which can be fragile and leach out of the vegetables especially if they are cooked beyond mere blanching… and I don’t really like crunchy broccoli unless it’s raw. I like my broccoli soft, but not mushy.

    I posted my somewhat unrelated query in this comments section as advised but the “Support” feature on this site.

    Sincerely,

    Seamus Warren.

    1. Hi, Seamus Warren! There does not appear to be any research on this, so we don’t know…until they put it to the test! While these are not related to your question directly, it does suggest that, at least in some applications, vitamin C and baking soda might work together for some health benefits:
      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29442224
      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28003574
      I am afraid that is the best answer I can provide right now.

  68. Few people know that ionized alkaline water occurs naturally at a handful of springs on Earth. Here is an example of one of these very rare natural springs plus an explanation of how ionized alkaline water clearly differs from mere alkaline water: https://www.waterionizerjapan.com/what-is-ionized-water

    This article also mentions reverse osmosis as being okay to drink long term. Few are aware that reverse osmosis water has a pH of 5.5. This is hyper-acidic water. pH is logarithmic. Every number is 10 times higher than the previous number. Moving from pH 7.5 to 5.5 pH as found in reverse osmosis and distilled water is 100x (one hundred times!) more acidic than water with a pH of 7.5. No one seems to be looking at pH as an important factor, It certainly is! No one has ever addressed the significance and impact of drinking hyper-acidic water as found in distilled water and R/O water.

    Sure, some ignorant people may make exaggerated claims, and this should rightly be exposed. Blueberries, curcumin, ionized alkaline water, and eating greens are all healthy but no one should inaccurately claim that eating well cures ALS or Cancer. That does not obviate their great health benefits! The same applies here.

  69. The pH of the stomach is 1.5 to 3.5 which renders the pH of the items you’re talking about completely insignificant.

    Dr. Ben

    1. Are you saying that it does not correspondingly matter if people eat alkaline vegetables rather than acidic soda pop and hot dogs because the pH of the stomach is 1.5 to 3.5? You have pursued this one point but there is more to what was said. What about the acidity of reverse osmosis water?
      Is it okay to drink reverse osmosis water which may be one hundred times more acidic than tap water? There are no studies on this, correct? No one thinks about the acidity of distilled water and R/O water.

      Please note that ionized alkaline water is altogether different from conventional alkaline water with added minerals. The typical -ORP of ionized alkaline water in around -350 mV indicating the presence of hydrogen which is a universal antioxidant. I agree that more studies are needed, and people should not make idle claims to sell products.

      It took science a long time to understand how vitamin C or aspirin worked in the body. No one knows if ionized alkaline water increases hydration in the body. This notion came from the transient micro-cluster effect described in the above link. If you place a teabag in ionized alkaline water, the water will get visibly darker at a faster rate than with tap water. Some conjecture without factual studies that this will better hydrate cells in the body.

      Notwithstanding, the presence of hydrogen in alkaline ionized water is assuredly antioxidant. You can add an ionized alkaline water ice cube to whiskey and it will be more alkaline as measured with a pH meter. If added to Coca-Cola, it will nullify carbonation because it is actively antioxidant.

      There is much more to say but the main point is that comparing alkaline ionized water to which no minerals have been added is altogether distinct from water where sodium bicarbonate and alkaline minerals have been added.

  70. If I’m not mistaken. Reverse Osmosis water is actually dead water. There is no minerals or enzyme or compounds. So it cant be good or bad for you. it’s dead water.

    1. Reverse Osmosis water is like taking topsoil and turning it into pure desert sand. It can be useful where the water is toxic, but the process doesn’t remove pharmaceuticals in our water supply. No one really knows if its 5.5 pH acidity (100 times more acidic than 7.5 pH water) has a negative health impact. Some may say that the stomach pH is 1.5 so this should not matter. Coca-Cola with a 2.5 pH is higher than stomach acid but it would be a mistake to say this has no significance. Acidic foods and liquids taken in quantity are typically unhealthy. No one has ever scientifically studied the impact of drinking acidic water. I’ll leave it there.

  71. Dr Greger, sodium bicarb sounds beneficial here, and in your kidney videos, but your PPIs video has this info “The problem is that “[i]t contains sodium bicarbonate and [therefore] has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts,” potentially resulting “in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances.”

    The labels were modified in 1990 to include the warning, “Do not administer to children under age 5,” because of reports of “seizure and respiratory depression.” Even just “a pinch” may be too much for an infant, and even just a few large spoonfuls could be fatal in a child.

    Another new addition is the “stomach warning,” stressing the importance of not taking the product “when overly full with food or drink.” Why not? Well, if you’re familiar with scholastic science fair volcanoes, they’re baking soda and vinegar, right? Baking soda and acid, like what’s in your stomach. “This warning was added at the request of the [FDA] because of multiple case reports of spontaneous gastric rupture,” where people’s stomachs burst.”

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