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Alkaline Water: a Scam?

Hawkers of “ionizer” water machines (like Kangen) claim healing alkaline water benefits; skeptics call it snake oil. They both may be wrong.

October 17, 2011 |
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Acknowledgements

Images thanks to szucker81, Tahoemnts via Wikimedia Commons, and likeablerodent via Flickr. Sound effect thanks to daaaan.

Transcript

Is alkaline water a scam? There are thousands of websites and pyramid schemes hawking $6,000 machines to alkalinize our tap water into "miracle healing water." And not just miracle healing water, but, "Magical miracle healing water." With, no surprise, miraculous properties, one of the supposed health advances in human history, the "secret to optimal health and longevity," exclamation point.

Though if you actually scroll down you'll see the disclaimer that they're not allowed to claim their water will actually do any of these things. Does our water actually help to restore the body to a youthful condition? We can't say…

The skeptics… are skeptical. Alkaline water is described as an incredible fraud, foisted on the public by desperate deluded glue-sniffing wanna-be's… asserting that there's no credible evidence in the scientific literature that there are any particular benefits. Turns out they’re both wrong.

A new study found that compared to a control group drinking regular water, young adults drinking about a quart of alkalinized water a day dropped their bad cholesterol 10% within 2 months—that’s pretty impressive. And older women may achieve a drop of nearly 15%--that's huge! And even helped their blood sugars.

If you and your doctor want to give it a try, you can make alkaline water, this way [cha-ching, label machine] or, this way [baking soday price tag]. By adding ¾ of a teaspoon of baking soda to a liter (or quart of water) and you can save yourself 5999 and 99 cents.

Now baking soda is sodium bicarbonate, so this would add about a gram of sodium to our daily diet but sodium bicarb doesn’t seem to have the same effect of sodium chloride, or table salt. In this study those drinking the baking soda water had no change in blood pressue, and in the other study actually enjoyed a significant improvement in their blood pressure, but your physician will want to keep an eye on it.

So, alkaline water machines are a scam, but alkaline water itself, might not be.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Peter Mellor.

To help out on the site please email volunteer@nutritionfacts.org

Dr. Michael Greger

Doctor's Note

This is the first video off my Latest in Clinical Nutrition volume 6 DVD. Please feel free to post any ask-the-doctor type questions here in the comments section and I’d be happy to try to answer them.  Be sure to check out all the videos on nutrition myths. And don't forget, there are 1,449 subjects covered in my other videos–please feel free to explore them!

For more context, check out my associated blog post, Stool Size and Breast Cancer Risk.

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/mgreger/ Michael Greger M.D.

    This is the first video off my Latest in Clinical Nutrition volume 6 DVD. Please feel free to post any ask-the-doctor type questions here in the comments section and I’d be happy to try to answer them. Be sure to check out all the videos on nutrition myths. And don’t forget, there are 1,449 subjects covered in my other videos–please feel free to explore them!

    • Dallasreader

      Are you aware of any credible, definitive studies whether reverse-osmosis purified water should be used for drinking? As you might expect, the Internet is full of advocates for both sides.

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/paul3917/ paul3917

    I prefer to use potassium bicarbonate instead so that I don’t get excess sodium- it’s is available on the internet. If I add it to my soup which contains red cabbage- it turns green since red cabbage is a pH indicator for alkaline solutions.

  • JJ

    This is just so fascinating.

    I’m going to try it to see how the baking soda affects the taste of the water.

    I don’t drink much water plain. Mostly, I drink teas of all sorts. So, I wonder if adding some baking soda to my tea would have a healthful effect and whether or not doing so would interfere with any of the good properties of the tea.

    And out of curiosity, I wonder if adding baking soda to any other drink would be worth it or not. For example, suppose I buy some orange or apple juice? (Which I don’t do very often myself) Would it be a good idea to add some baking soda? What about chia pudding/tapioca/gel where people add a bunch of water to a small amount of chia seeds and let it sit over night. Would adding some baking soda (since it is a lot of water) be a good idea?

    Also, I wonder if it is possible to get too much baking soda? Especially since it would not be in a baked good, but eaten/drunk raw. Is there an advisable upper limit?

    I don’t need an answer to this post. I’m just sharing my thoughts.

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/KarenEardley/ Karen Eardley

    Wouldn’t the acid in our stomachs dilute the alkalinity of anything we ingest?

    • VNN

      Yes, you are right. The stomachs acid will neutralize the alkalinity of the akaline water forcing stomach to produce more acid to digest the food. But the stomach acid is from your body that means that the more acid produced by the stomach, the less acid in the rest of your body. The important point to understand is the overral acidity of your body tends to move to alkaline side when something akaline is adsorb in your body.
      As fat and oil are fatty acids, high acid level will favorize them to stay inside our body. This could be the reason of high cholesterol problem. Thus high acidity is a cause of bad cholesterol deposit in our blood vessels.
      Our kidneys are responsible to maintain blood pH at neutral level of 6.5 to 7. The problem is that our foods contain too much acid. The kidney function of removing acid is overloaded causing this kidney function failure.
      When pH of our blood is neutral, try to control pH at this level and do not overdose the alkaline products that bring us to other troubles with too alkaline blood.
      Note that pH is a measure of -OH ions and this is calculated with logarithm 10 scale. Let suppose that pH 7 is 1 -OH ion then pH 8 is 10 -OH, pH 9 is 100, pH 10 is 1000, pH 11 is 10000, pH 12 is 100000… So do not think that pH 9 to pH 10 is just about 10% more alkaline. It’s is 10 times more. And from pH 8 to pH 10 is 100 time more ions. Therefore, be careful when you raise your water pH.

      • Bill Young

        Karen, I appreciate your efforts to educate us, but you must first make sure your information is correct before diseminating it. Your right wenyou say the stomach reacts to alkaline substances by producing more stomach acid to maintain the low pH of thestomach. However, the by-product of the production of stomach acid is the concomitant production of sodium bicarbonate which is sent to your pancreas to be sent to your small intestine to alklalize acidic chyme (food) from your stomach and into your blood stream as a store of alkaline buffer to be used where needed to neutralize acidity in all parts of the body.

        High acidity is indeed a cause of cholesterol deposits in our blood vessels, but the process is different than you describe. When acid damages blood vessel linings, causing inflammation, the body sends cholesterol to the site to help repair the damage. The more damage to the blood vessels, the greater the amount of cholesterol sent, hence the plaque build up over time which can cause heart attacks and strokes.

        If our blood pH dropped to 6.5, we would be dead. I don’t think that is the proper function of our kidneys.

        The pH of our blood is not neutral. Neutral, by definition is pH 7. Our blood must maintain a level of ph 7.365 to 7.465 to be healthy. At blood pH of 7, we would be comatose or worse.

        You are correct that the pH scale, like the Richter Scale for earthquakes is logarithmic or base 10 scale. But the letters pH, or Potential Hydrogen, is actually means the amount of hydrogen atoms in a fluid, not -OH, which is the hydroxide ion.

        Like many people, you admonish against drinking high pH water because you are apparently unaware of the overwhelming strength of acid vs alkalinity in the body. Nintey nine percent of us are suffering from too much acid, mainly from our diets, particularly meats, dairy and sodas. Sodas, including diet sodas and even an otherwise healthy ginger ale have a pH 3 to 2.5. in a laboratory setting, a single 20 ounce can of soda requires 32 times that amount of 9.5pH water to prevent it from lowering our blood pH to a fatal level. That is approximately 5.5 gallons of pH 9.5 water. Obviously in the body, there are additional alkaline resources to help neutralize the soda, but imagine the awful toll it takes on the bodies limited alkaline resources. In practice, research has shown that there is little to no danger of drinking too much alkaline water. The few people who are abnormally alkaline are or should be under a doctor’s care to treat the underlying condition.

        A little knowledge…

        • johnnywhite

          Excellent post!

        • barbarabrussels

          I’m just curious about some fruit that is acidic, is it then unhealthy to consume lemons etc.? If not, could you explain why? I’ve heard it turns alkaline in the body, but that seems very odd. Too many lemons and oranges is dangerous? Thank you.
          Hoping for a little more knowledge…

          • Toxins

            Almost all plant foods will produce a potential renal acid load (PRAL) that is negative (alkaline) because of the amino acid makeup as well as certain minerals being present. Grains are very slightly acidic but most animal products are several times times more acidic. The PRAL can be calculated with this formula PRAL = 0.49(Protein) + 0.037(Phosphorus) – 0.021(Potassium) – 0.026(Magnesium) – 0.013(Calcium).

            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7797810

            You can go to the USDA nutrition database and calculate the alkalinity or acidity of certain foods this way using a 100 gram serving sample.

            http://nutritiondata.self.com/

            Here are a list of common plant foods. A negative number indicates alkalinity whereas positive means acidity.

            Cereals, oats, regular cooked with water, w/o salt/ 2.18

            Bananas, raw/ -6.93

            Blueberries, raw/ -1.04

            Rice, brown, long-grain, cooked/ 2.18

            Broccoli, cooked, boiled, drained, w/o salt/ -3.57

            Cauliflower, cooked, boiled, drained, w/o salt / -1.33

            Carrots, cooked, boiled, drained, w/o salt/ -4.10

            Peaches, raw/ -3.11

            Beans, kidney, cooked, boiled, w/o salt/ -0.69

            Kale, raw/ -8.34

            Animal Foods

            Chicken, broilers or fryers, breast, meat only, cooked, roasted/ 17.30

            Egg, whole, raw, fresh/ 9.43

            Fish, salmon, Atlantic, wild, cooked, dry heat/ 7.57

            Beef, bottom sirloin, tri-tip, separable lean only, trimmed to 0″ fat, choice, cooked, roasted/ 12.79

            Cheese, cheddar/ 19.00

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/MarkBiddy/ Mark Biddy

    Speaking of water, is there any credence to cold water therapy? That is to say, is there any health benefit to standing in the shower for 5 minutes while only cold water cascades over your body? I’ve been doing this for over 6 months and I sleep better and my skin is clearer…but that could be me looking for an upside to this practice. btw, great website and excellent work!

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/bpcveg/ BPC

    Cool … since I make my own toothpaste out of a mixture of baking soda and refined sea salt, I probably luck out both by decreased exposure to fluoride as well as due to the effect of water alkalinity.

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/gabe/ gabe

    Baking soda works slightly, but it sure doesn’t taste very good. And you have to be careful what else is in the soda…anti-caking chemicals, aluminum, etc.

    The body needs a blend of minerals to correctly buffer the effects of acid imbalance. Just like we need a variety of foods, we need more than just sodium bicarb. Having a good pH isn’t the entire answer, it’s how we get that good pH that’s key.

    As far as the stomach acid goes. I recommend reading some of Sang Whang’s work at http://alkalineworld.wordpress.com/2010/03/07/alkaline-water-stomach-acid/

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/wickedchicken/ wickedchicken

    I had really written these kangen water people off as annoying, bothersome and somewhat idiotic. Wups!!

    Well, being salespeople- they are still at least two of those things [i'll let you pick].

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002749.htm

    I wish they said what constituted a “large amount”…. yikes.

    • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/mgreger/ Michael Greger M.D.

      Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) intoxication can be devastating, especially in infants. The 1995 paper “Baking Soda: A Potentially Fatal Home Remedy” in Pediatric Emergency Care led Arm & Hammer to start placing warning labels against use in children under 5 on all their cartons. Too much bicarbonate can overwhelm our kidneys’ ability to excrete it leading to a metabolic alkalosis, which can lead to seizures or even death. To answer your question, as little as a few pinches can sicken an infant, but based on the series of case reports in adults it appears to take tablespoons for folks with normal kidney function to get into trouble. This is why I encourage anyone trying the three-quarters-of-a-teaspoon-per-quart of water regimen to do it under the supervision of a physician to make sure you don’t have a condition that would preclude such a trial. There are ways to lower blood pressure without fear of toxicity. See, for example, my video Fill in the Blank.

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/MichaelJanuszewski/ Michael Januszewski

    Some benefits of alkaline/reverse osmosis water is that it removes chlorine and over 90% of the sodium fluoride.

    Hydrofluorosilicic acid, which is the waste product from metal plating industry’s acid and phosphate mining industry’s fluoride, strontium 90, and excess chromium, is what gets thrown into city drinking water under the guise that it is “good for your teeth.”

    Fluoride is one of the 3 most common toxic elements on planet Earth. Arsenic is number 1, fluoride is number 2, and lead is number 3. The MCLG (Maximum Contamination Level Goal) for cities is 0 for arsenic, 0 for lead, and 4000 parts per billion for fluoride. What’s wrong with this picture?

  • http://nutritionfacts.org/members/MarkBiddy/ Mark Biddy

    it sounds like the pricy machines do something that the baking soda doesn’t in order to yield the results noted in the study. instead of writing off the machines, i think it best to systematically study what the machines are doing to create the healthful effects. as the saying goes, sometimes a fool can say something wise and the wise sometimes say something foolish.

  • Mare

    I have read that lemon juice added to a glass of water “alkalizes” water.  Is that true?  If so, it would seem a good and harmless alternative to machines and baking soda (given that you rinse your mouth and/or brush your teeth afterwards to prevent acid damage to your teeth).

    • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=729887692 Sara Hatfield

      i think lemon juice is acid. it would acidify, which is the opposite of alkalize. same with vinegar and apple cider vinegar.

      • Paula

        For what I’ve heard lemon juice turns alkaline when digested, unlike vinegar (any kind). So yes it does alkalinize water. 

        • barbarabrussels

          Nobody seems to be able to explain how or even if this is actually true. I would love to hear a breakdown of this process from someone who’s knowledgeable. Can anyone on the NF team debunk this? Thank you.

  • DrDons

    A study by Remer et al. in 1995 evaluated the effects of food consumption on the urine by giving food the night before and checking whether the urine was alkaline or acidic the next morning. (reminds me of when we were checking urine glucose to control diabetes). He showed that citrus resulted in mild alkalinizing of the urine so it does have a mild effect in that direction. Grains interestingly have a mild acidic load on the body…. much higher were meats, eggs and cheeses whereas plants with the exception of grains were alkalinizing. Baking Soda is much stronger. As a medical doctor I’m not aware of the studies which support the timing, agents and best approach to oral hygiene. I was unable to find any links specifically to “teeth” or “dental caries”. Maybe Dr. Greger and his team can keep an eye out for some good articles in the prevention of dental caries and gum disease for future videos. They could be added to some of the other excellent videos on “oral health”… see http://nutritionfacts.org/video/apthous-ulcer-mystery-solved/ for a fairly common self limiting condition that I used to see in patients and was unable to offer much except reassurance until 2009… now I can… thanks again to NutritionFacts.org.

  • acrigler

    What about Potassium Bicarbonate which is found in club soda?  Would club soda be alkaline?  

    • DrDons

       Yes Potassium Bicarbonate added to water makes it alkaline. However carbonated water is acidic so sodium or potassium bicarbonate are often added to reduce the acidity. Whether enough is added to make the product alkaline would depend on the amount so would vary from product to product. You of course want to avoid sodas which often contain benzene which is a carcinogen… see http://nutritionfacts.org/video/is-sodium-benzoate-harmful/. And if your goal is to lose weight you are best off not to “drink your calories” as one study showed that drinking a 100 calories of fruit juice before your meal actually increased the amount eaten. Recent data has helped sort out the best drinks see… http://nutritionfacts.org/video/better-than-green-tea/. There are a variety of healthy drinks see.. http://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-healthiest-beverage-2/. The best way to maintain a more alkaline diet is to avoid the more acidic foods such as cheese, dairy, meat and eggs and stick with plants which have an alkaline effect of the body with the exception of grains which are mildly acidic.

  • http://twitter.com/3BumbleBie Deborah Hearne

    I have a alkaline water filter that costs way less than the Kragen one and does not need chemicals added to it. It acts as a reverse osmosis filters also. If you were to buy a filter, I suggest getting an alkaline water filter. There is a difference between water that has been flowing down a river or in a lake (living water) and water held in a tank for redistrubution (tap water).

  • http://www.facebook.com/odolly1 Olina Dolly

    I actually own a Kangen water machine. I have had it for the last two years. Everyone should try the water for themselves and see the difference in their health. Educating oneself while drinking the water (which is free) will help anyone to figure out what to believe. People can say what they want, but when you experience your own health problems disappearing (or not), that will give you a definitive answer.

    • givemeabreak

      Olinda Dolly – Past 3 years Independent Distribute for Kangen Water Machines.

  • matt

    $6000-1$=5999$ not 5999.99$….just sayin’

  • DennisL
  • http://www.facebook.com/jefflswanson Jeff Swanson

    You’d obviously not want to consume a high pH water with food.
    My question: When is it optimal to ingest the bicarbonate water? Bedtime?
    Tip: “Ener G” baking soda incorporates calcium and magnesium bicarbonate rather than sodium. So the results might be further improved. http://www.ener-g.com/baking-soda.html
    Legitimate million dollar idea: “Night Time Water”. Enhanced with “Ener G” brand calcium and magnesium bicarbonate.

  • Lucy

    Hello Doctor, I am in the process of buying a a Kangen machine. Why? Because it does do what it is suppose to do and yes it is worth it too! Our bodies are priceless, and so we need to take care of our bodies and we will live longer. My husband had Ulcerative Colitis and after drinking the Kangen water, less than three months, the Ulcerative Colitis was gone. He was on Insulin three times a day. Now it is down to once a day. Attention all readers. The Kangen water does work.

  • Evelyne

    Hi,
    I am presently reconsidering changing direction for my studies in nutrition, after searching a lot… So, an alkaline water have an impact… Well, I would like to know what you think of the AAADIET (Acid-alkaline-association diet)…”alkaline forming food”, is it fake? With the process of digestion that we know and the blood constantly keeping the good PH (or we would die), can we rely on urine PH test? Can the PH of the food we eat actually have an impact on our health? …

  • Bob

    Like others, I still have difficulty with the idea that drinking mildly alkaline fluids has an effect in the gut environment where the ph is around 2, however the trials confirming the efficacy of such a simple treatment are truly encouraging and here’s hoping that more trials and publicity will follow.

  • Gary

    I have searched your webb site but don’t see anything on the budwig diet. I would really be interested in your opion on this. Joanna Budwig claims that by mixing the flax oil, cottage cheese and ground flax it produces a chemical change and make the flax oil water soluable. This in turn allows the omega 3′s easy access to have a curing effect on cancer. She also claims it has an extremely good effect on heart desease. Would love your opion.
    Thanks
    Gary

    • Toxins

      This sounds more like mystical healing then any actual science. I have not seen any studies on this.

  • Malcolm

    If anyone wants scientific proof of how ionized water works go to thid site
    http://www.ionizedwater.webs.com
    Then when you are ready to buy your machine
    http://www.bowral.enagicweb.info
    thanks

    • Toxins

      You could just present the studies here? using a secondary, or even third source is difficult to make conclusions on.

      • asdf

        He’s not looking to educate, he’s looking to hawk his latest get-rich-quick scheme, obviously.

  • Skeptic

    Not sure if this is necessarily a good idea, but some people add a drop of hydrogen peroxide to a glass of water to alkalize it before drinking. It does increase the pH.

  • John Galt

    I have used a Kangen water machine for nine months. I can no longer drink “tap water” coffee because it tastes so bad. Baking soda may change the ph but I don’t think I would like it in my coffee! Kangendemo.com has a spot where they wash cherry tomatoes (previously washed in tap water) in 2.5 ph water and the water turns tea coloured: they claim this is the pesticides coming out of the tomatoes! They claim the 11.5 ph water works as a degreaser.
    They further claim that several several restaurant and hotel chains use Kangen Water to:
    1. Improve the taste of coffee, water, tea and food,
    2. As a chemical free sanitizer, and
    3. As a chemical free degreaser.

    There are several major commercial floor cleaning equipment manufacturers that actually make and sell alkaline floor cleaning equipment successfully so the water must work!

    It would be nice to know if it really cleaned food (removed the crap from chicken, removed pesticides). Can anyone test for crap removal and pesticide removal???

    • MJ Boylan

      J Food Sci. 2011 May;76(4):C520-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02154.x.

      Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.

      Hao J, Wuyundalai, Liu H, Chen T, Zhou Y, Su YC, Li L.

      Source

      College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., P. O. Box 40, No.17 Qinghuadonglu, Haidian, Beijing 100083, PR China.

      Abstract

      Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition.

      © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #1 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42078. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

    Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice.

    Spulber S, Edoff K, Hong L, Morisawa S, Shirahata S, Ceccatelli S.

    Source

    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Abstract

    Molecular hydrogen has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in mouse models of acute neurodegeneration. The effect was suggested to be mediated by its free-radical scavenger properties. However, it has been shown recently that molecular hydrogen alters gene expression and protein phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to test whether chronic ad libitum consumption of molecular hydrogen-enriched electrochemically reduced water (H-ERW) improves the outcome of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Seven days after the initiation of H-ERW treatment, C57Bl/6 mice received a single injection of LPS (0.33 mg/kg i.p.) or an equivalent volume of vehicle. The LPS-induced sickness behaviour was assessed 2 h after the injection, and recovery was assessed by monitoring the spontaneous locomotor activity in the homecage for 72 h after the administration of LPS. The mice were killed in the acute or recovery phase, and the expression of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was assessed by real-time PCR. We found that molecular hydrogen reduces the LPS-induced sickness behaviour and promotes recovery. These effects are associated with a shift towards anti-inflammatory gene expression profile at baseline (downregulation of TNF- α and upregulation of IL-10). In addition, molecular hydrogen increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration and promotes the extinction of neuroinflammation. Consistently, molecular hydrogen modulates the activation and gene expression in a similar fashion in immortalized murine microglia (BV-2 cell line), suggesting that the effects observed in vivo may involve the modulation of microglial activation. Taken together, our data point to the regulation of cytokine expression being an additional critical mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #2 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Cytotechnology. 2012 May;64(3):357-71. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

    Suppressive effects of electrochemically reduced water on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities and in vitro invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells.

    Kinjo T, Ye J, Yan H, Hamasaki T, Nakanishi H, Toh K, Nakamichi N, Kabayama S, Teruya K, Shirahata S.

    Source

    Division of Life Engineering, Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581, Japan.

    Abstract

    It has been demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is directly associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression in several cell lines. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW), produced near the cathode during electrolysis, and scavenges intracellular H(2)O(2) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. RT-PCR and zymography analyses revealed that when HT1080 cells were treated with ERW, the gene expression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1 MMP and activation of MMP-2 was repressed, resulting in decreased invasion of the cells into matrigel.ERW also inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced MMP-2 upregulation. To investigate signal transduction involved in MMP-2 downregulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (MAPK/extracellular regulated kinase kinase 1 inhibitor) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase inhibitor II, were used to block the MAPK signal cascade. MMP-2 gene expression was only inhibited by SB203580 treatment, suggesting a pivotal role of p38 MAPK in regulation of MMP-2 gene expression. Western blot analysis showed that ERW downregulated the phosphorylation of p38 both in H(2)O(2)-treated and untreated HT1080 cells. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of ERW on tumor invasion is due to, at least in part, its antioxidative effect.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #3 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(11):1671-7.

    Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice.

    Yoon KS, Huang XZ, Yoon YS, Kim SK, Song SB, Chang BS, Kim DH, Lee KJ.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon, South Korea.

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), functional water, has various beneficial effects via antioxidant mechanism in vivo and in vitro. However there is no study about beneficial effects of ERW bathing. This study aimed to determine the effect of ERW bathing on the UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. For this purpose, mice were irradiated with UVB to cause skin injury, followed by individually taken a bath in ERW (ERW-bathing) and tap water (TW-bathing) for 21 d. We examined cytokines profile in acute period, and histological and ultrastructural observation of skin in chronic period. We found that UVB-mediated skin injury of ERW-bathing group was significantly low compared to TW control group in the early stage of experiment. Consistently, epidermal thickening as well as the number of dermal mast cell was significantly lowered in ERW-bathing group. Defection of corneocytes under the scanning electron microscope was less observed in ERW-bathing group than in TW-bathing group. Further, the level of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p70 in ERW group decreased whereas those of IL-10 increased. Collectively, our data indicate that ERW-bathing significantly reduces UVB-induced skin damage through influencing pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in hairless mice. This suggests that ERW-bathing has a positive effect on acute UVB-mediated skin disorders. This is the first report on bathing effects of ERWin UVB-induced skin injury.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #4 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(7):1295-9. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

    Mechanism of the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by electrolyzed reduced water–participation of Pt nanoparticles.

    Yan H, Kinjo T, Tian H, Hamasaki T, Teruya K, Kabayama S, Shirahata S.

    Source

    Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) contains a large amount of molecular hydrogen and a small amount of Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs). We have found that ERW significantly extended the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans in a novel culture medium designated Water Medium. In this study, we found that synthetic Pt NPs at ppb levels significantly extended the nematode lifespan and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the nematode induced by paraquat treatment. In contrast, a high concentration of dissolved molecular hydrogen had no significant effect on the lifespan of the nematode. These findings suggest that the Pt NPs in ERW, rather than the molecular hydrogen, extend the longevity of the nematode, at least partly by scavenging ROS.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #45of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Aug;25(8):2730-7. Epub 2010 Feb 26.

    Electrolysed-reduced water dialysate improves T-cell damage in end-stage renal disease patients with chronic haemodialysis.

    Huang KC, Hsu SP, Yang CC, Ou-Yang P, Lee KT, Morisawa S, Otsubo K, Chien CT.

    Source

    Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND:

    T-cell damage by increased oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD) led to the increased T-cell apoptosis and the alteration of surface markers and Th1/Th2 ratio in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Antioxidant electrolysed-reduced water (ERW) was used as the dialysate in ESRD patients undergoing chronic HD to test for improved oxidative stress-related T-cell apoptosis, alterations of surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile.

    METHODS:

    We evaluated apoptosis formation by annexin V, CD25-related surface markers, and cytokine ratio of Th1/Th2 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes and Tc1/Tc2 in CD8(+) T lymphocytes of 42 ESRD patients haemodialysed with ERW for 1 year.

    RESULTS:

    In comparison to 12 healthy individuals, the ESRD patients had more T-cell apoptosis and less CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3(+) phenotypes at baseline. Lower intracellular IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the Th1/CD4(+) and Tc1/CD8(+) cells and higher intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/CD4(+) and Tc2/CD8(+) cells were also noted in the ESRD patients. After a 1-year ERW treatment, the patients had a decrease in T-cell apoptosis and increases in CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell numbers and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3(+) phenotypes in the T cells. The intracellular IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the Th1/Tc1 cells significantly (P < 0.05) increased and the intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/Tc2 cells decreased. Furthermore, the Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine ratios were improved toward a normal status.

    CONCLUSION:

    One-year ERW treatment effectively ameliorated T-cell apoptosis, altered CD25-related surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile in the HD patients.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #6 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Aug;47(8):2031-6. Epub 2009 May 27.

    Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    Tsai CF, Hsu YW, Chen WK, Chang WH, Yen CC, Ho YC, Lu FJ.

    Source

    Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan.

    Abstract

    The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #7 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Mar;32(3):456-62.

    The immunological effects of electrolyzed reduced water on the Echinostoma hortense infection in C57BL/6 mice.

    Lee KJ, Jin D, Chang BS, Teng YC, Kim DH.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Gang Won, South Korea.

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) is widely used for drinking by people in Asia. The purpose of this study was to examine the immunological effect of ERW on the immunity of animals by supplying ERW to C57BL/6 mice infected with Echinostoma hortense metacercariae. In the non-infected groups, interleukin (IL)-4 (p < 0.001), IL-5, IL-10, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) A expression of the group fedERW (ERW group) increased in small intestine compared with the normal control group. In the case of infected groups, the group fed ERW (ERW+E. hortense group) showed the result that IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and Ig A expression increased, but IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) decreased, and the number of goblet cells (p < 0.001) and helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) positive cells increased compared with the group without feeding ERW. However, adult worm recovery rate was markedly increased (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the expression of all the cytokines except IL-10 in spleen was mildly increased but not significant statistically, and there was no significant difference in the numerical changes of white blood cell (WBC). These results indicate that feeding ERW may have influence on the local immune response (Th-1 type cytokines such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) in the small intestine but not on the systemic immune response.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #8 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    iosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Feb;73(2):280-7. Epub 2009 Feb 7.

    Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione.

    Tsai CF, Hsu YW, Chen WK, Ho YC, Lu FJ.

    Source

    Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    Abstract

    Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #9 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2009 Feb;35(2):145-53.

    Effect of several electrolyzed waters on the skin permeation of lidocaine, benzoic Acid, and isosorbide mononitrate.

    Kitamura T, Todo H, Sugibayashi K.

    Source

    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan.

    Abstract

    The effects of several electrolyzed waters were evaluated on the permeation of model base, acid and non-ionized compounds, lidocaine (LC), benzoic acid (BA), and isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), respectively, through excised hairless rat skin. Strong alkaline-electrolyzed reducing water (ERW) enhanced and suppressed the skin permeation of LC and BA, respectively, and it also increased the skin permeation of ISMN, a non-ionized compound. On the contrary, strong acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) enhanced BA permeation, whereas suppressing LC permeation. Only a marginal effect was observed on the skin permeation of ISMN by EOW. These marked enhancing effects of ERW on the skin permeation of LC and ISMN were explained by pH partition hypothesis as well as a decrease in skin impedance. The present results strongly support that electrolyzed waters, ERW and EOW, can be used as a new vehicle in topical pharmaceuticals or cosmetics to modify the skin permeation of drugs without severe skin damage.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #10 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Feb;30(2):234-6.

    Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db/db mice.

    Kim MJ, Jung KH, Uhm YK, Leem KH, Kim HK.

    Source

    Department of Obesity Management, Graduate School of Obesity Science, Dongduk Women’s University, Seoul, South Korea. mijakim@dongduck.ac.jp

    Abstract

    Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db). ERWwith ROS scavenging ability reduced the blood glucose concentration, increased blood insulin level, improved glucose tolerance and preserved beta-cell mass in db/db mice. The present data suggest that ERW may protects beta-cell damage and would be useful for antidiabetic agent.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #11 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Life Sci. 2006 Nov 10;79(24):2288-92. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

    Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice.

    Kim MJ, Kim HK.

    Source

    Department of Obesity management, Graduate School of Obesity Science, Dongduk Women’s University, 23-1 Wolkgukdong, Seoul, 136-714, South Korea. mijakim@dongduk.ac.kr

    Abstract

    Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and is likely involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction found in diabetes. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in two different diabetic animal models. The genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse were used as insulin deficient type 1 and insulin resistant type 2 animal model, respectively. ERW, provided as a drinking water, significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and improved glucose tolerance in both animal models. However, ERW fail to affect blood insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice whereas blood insulin level was markedly increased in genetically diabetic db/db mice. This improved blood glucose control could result from enhanced insulin sensitivity, as well as increased insulin release. The present data suggest that ERW may function as an orally effective anti-diabetic agent and merit further studies on its precise mechanism.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #12 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Sci. 2012 Apr;77(4):M182-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02633.x.

    Transmission electron microscopic analysis showing structural changes to bacterial cells treated with electrolyzed water and an acidic sanitizer.

    Feliciano L, Lee J, Pascall MA.

    Source

    Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

    Abstract

    The effects of various sanitizers on the viability and cellular injury to structures of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were investigated. A food grade organic acidic formulation (pH 2.5) and acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyzed water [AEW (pH 2.7, oxidation reduction potential; ORP: 1100 mV, free available chlorine; FAC: 150 ppm), NEW (pH 6.9, ORP: 840 mV, FAC: 150 ppm), BEW (pH 11.6, ORP: -810 mV)] were used to treat E. coli and L. innocua cells. After 10 min of exposure to the sanitizers, changes to the bacterial numbers and cell structures were evaluated by plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. It was concluded from the results that the sanitizers reduced the E. coli cells between 2 and 3 log CFU/mL. Except for the BEW treatment, reductions in L. innocua population were greater (>1 log CFU/mL) than that of E. coli for all treatments. Data from the TEM showed that all sanitizers caused changes to the cell envelope and cytoplasm of both organisms. However, smaller changes were observed for L. innocua cells. Decrease in the integrity of the cell envelope and aggregation of the cytoplasmic components appeared to be mainly because of exposure to the sanitizers. The organic acid formulation and AEW were the most effective sanitizers against bacterial cells, indicating that penetration of acidic substances effectively caused the cell inactivation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: An understanding of the method in which E-water and an acidic sanitizer cause injury to E. coli and L. innocua would be helpful in selecting an effective chemical agent as a food safety tool. This will allow a scientist to target similar microorganisms such as food borne bacteria with structures that are vulnerable to the sanitizer.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #13 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Prot. 2012 Apr;75(4):765-70.

    Effect of anolyte on background microflora, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on catfish fillets.

    Rajkowski KT, Sommers CH.

    Source

    Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Wyndmoor, PA 19083-8551, USA. kathleen.rajkowski@ars.usda.gov

    Abstract

    Near-neutral electrolyzed water (anolyte), having a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 ± 0.02, oxidation reduction potential of greater than 700 mV, and a residual chlorine level of 10 to 200 ppm, was reported to have a potential use to decontaminate food surfaces. An electrolyzing cell was developed that is capable of producing neutral electrolyzed water containing a chlorine level of greater than 700 ppm in the form of hypochlorous acid (anolyte). Anolyte with a chlorine level of 300 ppm was used to determine its effect on Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes cells after a 3-min contact. Transmission electron micrograph results showed disruption of the outer cellular membrane for both bacteria. The anolyte (300 ppm) was used as a washing solution to decontaminate catfish fillets inoculated with either Salmonella or L. monocytogenes. After a 3-min contact time with the anolyte, there was a 1-log reduction for Salmonella, and after 8 days of refrigerated storage (4°C), this bacterial reduction was maintained. There was no reduction of L. monocytogenes on the catfish fillet surfaces. The anolyte was an effective wash solution for Salmonella reduction on the catfish fillet surfaces.

    • BOYD

      i think most of u r educated idiots, trying to impress either yourselves or us, it must be yourselves u r trying to impress because i m sure like me most of the people who read all that crap with the big numbers and fancy names u cant pronounce, doesnt mean diddly squat. we r all not rocket scientist. so what i would like to see is the kiss principle. KEEP IT SIMPLE STUPID. what most of us i m sure would like to see is reports from people who has tried this and DID IT WORK FOR THEM!!!! period! signed a kiss believer.

      • Thea

        BOYD: Personal attacks are not allowed on this site. I’m deleting your comment.

        • BOYD

          so much for free speech and ones self opinion. BOYD

          • Thea

            BOYD: If you can express your opinion without name-calling, etc, that would be great. In other words, if you can be civil, your personal opinion will be welcome.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #14 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Sci. 2011 May;76(4):C520-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02154.x.

    Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.

    Hao J, Wuyundalai, Liu H, Chen T, Zhou Y, Su YC, Li L.

    Source

    College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., P. O. Box 40, No.17 Qinghuadonglu, Haidian, Beijing 100083, PR China.

    Abstract

    Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition.

    © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #15 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    iomed Res. 2009 Oct;30(5):263-9.

    Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Park SK, Qi XF, Song SB, Kim DH, Teng YC, Yoon YS, Kim KY, Li JH, Jin D, Lee KJ.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon, Republic of Korea.

    Abstract

    Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERW-treated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #16 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    J Food Sci. 2008 Aug;73(6):M268-72.

    Effect of electrolyzed water for reduction of foodborne pathogens on lettuce and spinach.

    Park EJ, Alexander E, Taylor GA, Costa R, Kang DH.

    Source

    Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164-6376, USA.

    Abstract

    The ability of electrolyzed water (EW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens on the surfaces of lettuce and spinach was investigated. Lettuce and spinach leaves were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains each of Escherichia col O157:H7, Salmnonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and treated with acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AK-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water followed by acidic electrolyzedwater (sequential treatment, AK-EW + AC-EW), deionized water followed by acidic electrolyzed water (sequential treatment, DW + AC-EW), and deionized water (control, DW) for 15, 30 s, and 1, 3, and 5 min at room temperature (22 +/- 2 degrees C). For all 3 pathogens, the same pattern of microbial reduction on lettuce and spinach were apparent. The relative efficacy of reduction was AC-EW > DW + AC-EW approximately = AK-EW + AC-EW > AK-EW > control. After a 3-min treatment of AC-EW, the 3 tested pathogens were reduced below the detection limit (0.7 log). DW + AC-EW and AK-EW + AC-EW produced the same levels of reduction after 5 min when compared to the control. AK-EW did not reduce levels of pathogens even after a 5-min treatment on lettuce and spinach. Results suggest that AC-EW treatment was able to significantly reduce populations of the 3 tested pathogens from the surfaces of lettuce and spinach with increasing time of exposure.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #18 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Int J Food Microbiol. 2008 Mar 31;123(1-2):151-8. Epub 2008 Jan 30.

    Efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) for reducing microbial contamination on minimally-processed vegetables.

    Abadias M, Usall J, Oliveira M, Alegre I, Viñas I.

    Source

    IRTA, Centre UdL-IRTA, XaRTA-Postharvest, 191 Rovira Roure, 25198-Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. isabel.abadias@irta.cat

    Abstract

    Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 10(8), 10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1), depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted NEW (containing approximately 50 ppm of free chlorine, pH 8.60) against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, L. innocua and E. carotovora on lettuce was similar to that of chlorinated water (120 ppm of free chlorine) with reductions of 1-2 log units. There were generally no significant differences when treating lettuce with NEW for 1 and 3 min. Neither inoculation dose (10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1)) influenced the bacterial reduction achieved. Treating fresh-cut lettuce, carrot, endive, corn salad and ‘Four seasons’ salad with NEW 1:5 (containing about 50 ppm of free chlorine) was equally effective as applying chlorinated water at 120 ppm. Microbial reduction depended on the vegetable tested: NEW and sodium hypochlorite treatments were more effective on carrot and endive than on iceberg lettuce, ‘Four seasons’ salad and corn salad. The reductions of indigenous microbiota were smaller than those obtained with the artificially inoculated bacteria tested (0.5-1.2 log reduction). NEW seems to be a promising disinfection method as it would allow to reduce the amount of free chlorine used for the disinfection of fresh-cut produce by the food industry, as the same microbial reduction as sodium hypochlorite is obtained. This would constitute a safer, ‘in situ’, and easier to handle way of ensuring food safety.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #19 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Comparison of the Microbicidal Activities of Superoxidized and Ozonated Water in the Disinfection of Endoscopes

    Authors: Urata, M.; Isomoto, H.; Murase, K.; Wada, A.; Yanagihara, K.; Hirakata, Y.; Takeshima, F.; Omagari, K.; Mizuta, Y.; Murata, I.; Kohno, S.

    Source: The Journal of International Medical Research, Volume 31, Number 4, July 2003 , pp. 299-306(8)

    1The microbicidal activities of superoxidized water (electrolysed strong acid water [ESAW] or electrolysed weak acid water [EWAW]), ozonated water, 0.05% chlorhexidine and 2% glutaraldehyde were tested against seven strains of clinical micro-organism isolates. Following incubation of bacterial suspensions in ESAW and EWAW for 10 s, the number of micro-organisms was reduced below the detection limit. The microbicidal activities of ESAW and EWAW were similar to that of glutaraldehyde, and superior to ozonated water and 0.05% chlorhexidine. The microbicidal activities of ESAW, EWAW and ozonated water were markedly diminished in the presence of albumin. Microbial contamination of upper gastrointestinal endoscopes was detected after 90 endoscopic procedures, but treatment of the endoscope with ESAW, EWAW or ozonated water eradicated the microbes. These results indicate that ESAW and EWAW are effective disinfectants after mechanical cleaning of upper gastrointestinal endoscopes, and can, therefore, be used in the endoscopy unit

    http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/field/jimr/2003/00000031/00000004/art00007

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #20 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Park SK, Qi XF, Song SB, Kim DH, Teng YC, Yoon YS, Kim KY, Li JH, Jin D, Lee KJ.

    Source

    Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon, Republic of Korea.

    Abstract

    Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERW-treated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #21 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Cytotechnology. 2005 Jan;47(1-3):97-105. doi: 10.1007/s10616-005-3759-2.

    Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation.

    Nishikawa R, Teruya K, Katakura Y, Osada K, Hamasaki T, Kashiwagi T, Komatsu T, Li Y, Ye J, Ichikawa A, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Xu Q, Shirahata S.

    Author information

    Abstract

    In the two-stage cell transformation theory, cancer cells first receive initiation, which is mainly caused by DNA damage, and then promotion, which enhances transformation. Murine Balb/c 3T3 cells are widely used for transformation experiments because they lose contact inhibition ability when transformed. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), which is produced near a cathode during electrolysis of water, is an alkaline drinking water that is beneficial to health. ERW contains a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with a small amount of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (Pt nps) derived from Pt-coated titanium electrodes. Pt nps stably disperse in aqueous solution for a long time, and convert hydrogen molecules to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen) that can scavenge ROS. Therefore, ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps is a model strong reduced water. This is the first report that ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps strongly prevents transformation of Balb/c 3T3 cells. ERW was prepared by electrolysis of 0.002 M NaOH solution using a batch-type electrolysis device. Balb/c 3T3 cells were treated with 3-methyl cholanthrene (MCA) as an initiation substance, followed by treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) as a promotion substance. MCA/PMA-induced formation of a transformation focus was strongly suppressed by ERW supplemented with Pt nps but not by ERW or Pt nps individually. ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed transformation at the promoter stage, not at initiation, suggesting that ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed the PMA-induced augmentation of intracellular ROS. ERW supplemented with Pt nps is a potential new antioxidant against carcinogenesis.

  • MJ Boylan

    Here is #22 of 22 abstracts with citations for peer reviewed work on reduced and oxidized water for your consideration.

    Electrolyzed-reduced water increases resistance to oxidative stress, fertility, and lifespan via insulin/IGF-1-like signal in C. elegans.

    Park SK, Park SK.

    Author information

    Abstract

    Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) scavenges reactive oxygen species and is a powerful anti-oxidant. A positive correlation between oxidative stress and aging has been proved in many model organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans, many long-lived mutants showed reduced fertility as a trade off against longevity phenotype. We aimed to study the effect of ERW on oxidative stress, fertility and lifespan of C. elegans. We also investigated the genetic pathway involved in the effect of ERW on resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan. We compared lifespan and fertility of worms in media prepared with distilled water and ERW. ERW significantly extended lifespan and increased the number of progeny produced. Then the effect of ERWon resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan of long-lived mutants was determined. ERW increased resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan of eat-2, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but had no effect on those of age-1, which is involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-like signal. In addition, knockdown of daf-16, the downstream mediator of insulin/IGF-1-like signal, completely prevented the effect of ERW on lifespan. These findings suggest that ERW can extend lifespan without accompanying reduced fertility and modulate resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan via insulin/IGF-1-like signal in C. elegans.

  • MJ Boylan

    The benefits in reduced water produced by electrolysis is in its anti-oxidant properties.

  • fineartmarcella

    Could it be the sodium/salt that created the affect and not the ‘alkaline water’? We need sodium for health, it is one of the main conductors of cell energy, we would be dead without it. In school, it was explained to me that if you drink something alkaline than your stomach just produces a little more hydrochloric acid to bring it to the right pH. Your stomach dumps at a certain pH level. At the end of the stomach into the duodenum there are buffers produced and injected into the slurry as the food leaves the stomach to reduce this acid, so what would alkaline water have to do with anything? I would think it was the baking soda itself, not that fact the water is more alkaline

  • Han

    The results are interesting, but on the other hand a plant based, low fat diet does much better.

  • http://www.alkaway.com Ian Blair Hamilton

    I think you really need to check out Tyler LeBaron’s site at http://www.molecularhydrogeninsitute.com to understand the difference between alkaline water and the ‘real thing’ with real and numerous scientific studies – 350 and growing for over 80 specific health conditions.

  • KangenWaterborne

    Doctor, I urge you to read Dr. Hiromi Shinya’s Book, the Enzyme Factor, then research what you know nothing about. I did not see an RD after your MD, so I assume you have maybe the minimum nutrition classes behind you to become a Dr. (3 Units?) Do you even know of Dr Shinya? You might look up his credentials before commenting on something you know nothing about. Research before opening your mouth. I for one, am a survivor of BIG C and would not be here w/o it. I’d be 6′ under. The USA is not the #1 nation for longevity in the world. Why? Due to people like you. Think then insert Foot!