Image Credit: Michelle / Adobe Stock. This image has been modified.

The Benefits of Vinegar Beyond Weight Loss

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study found that body weight and belly fat were significantly reduced by adding just a single tablespoon of vinegar to one’s daily diet. Is there any benefit to vinegar consumption if you’re not overweight? Well, the subjects’ triglycerides normalized, and, for those taking the larger dose of two tablespoons per day, there was a dip in blood pressure. Those effects may have just been because of the weight loss, though. Other than taste, is there any benefit to normal-weight individuals sprinkling vinegar on their salads? What about vinegar for controlling blood sugar? That’s the topic of my video Can Vinegar Help with Blood Sugar Control?.

If you feed people a half cup of table sugar, as their blood sugars spike, their artery function can become impaired. The higher the blood sugars go, the more the arteries take a hit. There’s a drug, though, that can block sugar absorption. By blunting the blood sugar spike with this drug, you can prevent the arterial dysfunction. This demonstrates that it’s probably good for your heart if you don’t have big blood sugar spikes after meals. In fact, how high your blood sugars spike after a meal is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality. So do people who eat lots of high glycemic foods, like sugary foods and refined grains, tend to have more heart attacks and strokes? Yes. They also appear more likely to get diabetes—but maybe people who eat lots of Frosted Flakes and Wonder Bread have other bad dietary habits as well?

The diets that have been put to the test in randomized controlled trials and proven to prevent diabetes are the ones focusing on cutting down on saturated fat and ramping up the consumption of fiber-rich whole plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, without specific regard to lower or higher glycemic loads. The drug has been put to the test, though, and blunting one’s mealtime blood sugar spikes does seem to reduce the risk of developing diabetes, as well as reduce the risk of heart attacks and high blood pressure. So is there any way to prevent these blood sugar spikes without having to take drugs? Well, one way would be to not sit down to a half cup of sugar!

Yes, the drug can slow the progression of your atherosclerosis. You can see in my video Can Vinegar Help with Blood Sugar Control? how the arteries going to your brain narrow somewhat more slowly with the drug than without it. But wouldn’t it be better to eat a diet that actually reverses heart disease and diabetes? The healthiest diet to prevent the meal-related blood sugar and fat spikes—the oxidation and inflammation—is a diet centered around whole plant foods. But what if you really want a bagel? Instead of spreading drugs on it, spreading on some almond butter may help blunt the blood sugar spike from refined carbs. Another option is to dip your baguette in some balsamic vinegar.

“The consumption of vinegar with meals was used as a home remedy for diabetes before the advent of pharmacologic glucose-lowering therapy”—that is, before drugs came along—but it wasn’t put to the test until 1988. After all, how much money can be made from vinegar? Well, according to The Vinegar Institute, millions of dollars can be made! But a single diabetes drug, like Rezulin, can pull in billions—that is, until it was pulled from the market for killing too many people by shutting down their livers. The drug company still made out like a bandit, though, having to pay out less than a billion to the grieving families for covering up the danger.

There’s no liver failure from schmearing peanut butter on a bagel, though, and it cuts the blood sugar response in half. Similarly, drinking four teaspoons of apple cider vinegar diluted in water gives the same blunting of the spike—with the additional advantage over the peanut butter of lowering insulin levels in the blood. This is something peanut butter apparently can’t do. But putting peanut butter on your bagel is presumably better than having a bagel with lox because fish causes triple the insulin response. Red wine also increases insulin levels, though not as much as fish does, and also shoots up triglycerides. Non-alcoholic red wine, however, doesn’t cause the same problem.

What about vinegar? Not only may a tablespoon a day tend to improve cholesterol and triglycerides over time, vinegar can drop triglycerides within an hour of a meal, as well as decrease blood sugars and the insulin spike, potentially offering the best of all worlds.


Was that bursting with information or what? It’s because of everyone’s kind support that I was able to hire more than a dozen researchers to help me plow through the literature. I’m extremely grateful so many of you were able to see the potential and help NutritionFacts.org become what it is today. Onward and upward!

What’s that about belly fat being reduced? Check out other videos in my series on vinegar:

Did I say reverse diabetes? Reverse heart disease? For examples, see:

Sharing information that can help people prevent and reverse common diseases is my life’s work. Check out the full story in my series of introductory videos.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

 

Discuss

Michael Greger M.D., FACLM

Michael Greger, M.D. FACLM, is a physician, New York Times bestselling author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues. Dr. Greger has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, and the International Bird Flu Summit, testified before Congress, appeared on The Dr. Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous "meat defamation" trial.


74 responses to “The Benefits of Vinegar Beyond Weight Loss

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  1. With the plethora of vinegar based health improvements on NF.org here, when will we see a tab added to the Daily Dozen?? ;-)

    Keep up the amazing work guys!

    1. It is much more efficacious to drink kombucha than vinegar, since it contains acetic acid plus scores of other beneficial substances. And you can drink much more than a teaspoon at a time too.

      Purchase pound lots ($20-30 ea.) of powdered berries and combine them. Whisk a teaspoon-full into your kombucha for a synergistic concoction of liquid health.

      If you want to be healthier still, add powdered Turkey Tail and Reishi mushroom powder as well.

      1. I was looking at the turkey powders yesterday.

        I have been eating whole packages of organic mushrooms with my lentils the past few nights.

        Expensive either way.

        I found organic Lions Mane mushrooms at whole food tonight and bought a package but I am afraid of them and didn’t throw them in with my forbidden rice and lentil and mushroom dish. They are fuzzy in a way that looks scary. I will have to talk myself into eating them tomorrow.

        Hooray for organic mushrooms!

        1. Is it fuzzy logic to be afraid of a mushroom which looks like a fuzzy brain. It reminds me of a rabbit’s foot or something. Something creepy. It doesn’t look like a lion’s mane. Definitely a fuzzy brain.

          I am a believer in the creation and when I see a design like that, I suspect it really will help my fuzzy brain. If I could just get myself to close my eyes and eat some.

          1. It had to be a mushroom salesman who called it Lion’s mane mushroom.

            Little dead white mouse mushroom might have been already taken.

    2. Unrelated question to above blog. What can you tell me about SCD Specific Carbohydrate Diet. A book about this is Breaking the Vicious Cycle by Gottschall (?). Couldn’t find any reference to it in your website. What’s your opinion? Thanks for any info. Love your website.

      1. john, haven’t been able to find studies on it, just anecdotal evidence. Have had some patients with IBD benefit from it. Maybe worth a try.
        I do believe the gums that are in a lot of processed foods are a problem for some people. Gluten, or sometimes just wheat can irritate the gut. Had one lady whose almost daily migraines stopped completely after she cut out gluten.
        Everyone is different, be willing to see what works for you.

        1. Thank you for getting back to me. I was asking the question for an acquaintance, not myself. She is having some type of gut problems, IBD or something. I looked it up online and saw what they call the ‘legal–illegal’ foods. Foods they allow and disallow. Since it is not a vegan or plant based diet, my gut (?) feeling is that even though it’s gluten free, and that could be causing the problems, the reality is it allows all kinds of animal stuff. It seems like to me if she went strictly plant based for a trial run, it would be worth a try. I’ve been eating plant based for years and only had any problems when I fell off the wagon (vegan) once about 7 or 8 years ago. Developed all kinds of problems when I put Salmon, grass fed dairy back into diet after about 6 months. All problems cleared up within 2 to 3 months of resuming vegan diet. Doctor wanted to schedule me for a (routine) , to him, catheterization and implant a stent. I ran out of his office, threw all that stuff away, never looked back. Big fan of Dr. Gregor and his work. Keep spreading the good word. Peace

      2. As you’re probably aware, there are tons of books that come out on diet and many of them are not based on good research, which may be why you won’t find mention of it on this website. Does the book cite credible sources? research? When I checked on PubMed, there were only 2 articles on Specific Carbohydrate diet https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29651370/
        Effect of the Specific Carbohydrate Diet on the Microbiome of a Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Ulcerative Colitis Patient.
        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655069/
        Specific carbohydrate diet for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in clinical practice within an academic IBD center.
        Both of these studies were very small and referenced pediatric patients. If you want to learn more about restricting carbohydrates you might check research about FODMAP
        https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28846594/
        Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis.
        Glad to learn you’re doing well on whole food plant based eating and you’ve developed some skepticism about all the wild nutritional claims out there

  2. I am very athletic and sometimes my knees ache a bit, creak.. I do sprint Triathlons, several a year and work out at the gym 5 days a week.. I eat exactly as you prescribe, I am super healthy, and energetic..Yes, a vegetarian .. Never have had any joint problems.. How can I protect my knees for the next 15 years?? Everyone in my family have lived into their 90s.. I am 72

  3. I am very athletic and sometimes my knees ache a bit and creak. I do several Sprint Triatjlons a year and work out 5 days a week at the gym. I eat just as you prescribe and I am a vegetarian. I am super healthy and energetic and healthy. I never have had joint problems.. Everyone has lived into their 90s I want to keep my knees happy for at least another 15 years!! Suggestions? I am 73

    1. Linde, you say you work out 5 days a week. Hope you are rotating muscle groups. Body needs time to recover. Also, don’t take ibuprofen type drugs. They decrease inflammation, but they also prevent healing. So, over time, they can cause joint damage.

      1. It also turns out that NSAIDs also inhibit muscle recovery.

        Here’s an overview by my “go to” sports doctor on exercise: http://www.drmirkin.com/fitness/recovery-the-key-to-improvement-in-your-sport.html

        * “Do Not Take NSAIDs to Relieve Muscle Soreness* Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can block gains in strength and endurance (*PNAS*, June 27, 2017;114(26):6675–6684; *Med & Sci in Sports & Ex*, April 2017;49(4):633–640). The processes that heal damaged tissue in your body use the same immune cells and chemicals that fight infections. Certain prostaglandins that heal damaged tissues are the same prostaglandins that cause muscle soreness. These prostaglandins can hasten healing of muscles damaged by vigorous exercise by increasing production of stem cells to replace damaged muscle cells. They also increase endurance by increasing blood flow to damaged muscles, widening blood vessels and increasing the ratio of blood capillaries to muscle fibers. Taking NSAIDs hinders this process and can prevent the gains in endurance that you would expect to get from your exercise. Earlier studies in humans showed that taking NSAIDs can reduce the gains in endurance from aerobic exercise by restricting the ratio of blood capillaries to muscle fibers and decreasing the number of strength fibers in muscles (*J Physiol Pharmacol*, Oct 2010;61(5):559-63). NSAIDs include: celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Cambia, Cataflam, Voltaren-XR, Zipsor, Zorvolex), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), indomethacin (Indocin), ketoprofen (Ketoprofen), naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn), oxaprozin (Daypro), piroxicam (Feldene).”

    2. Hi I’m a RN health support volunteer AND a triathlete myself :) I’ve done the ironman. If you are doing sprint triathlons at 73, WOW! You must be doing something right.

      If you are already following Dr. Greger’s daily dozen, you may be doing all you can do with diet. As one athlete to another, if your knees are aching, you may need to lower the impact on them a bit. A little more biking and swimming and less running when they hurt. Even following a great diet, your knees have had 73 years of impact on them. They may ache from time to time and it’s not an indication that you are doing anything wrong. Strength training- especially the hips and glutes is essential for knee pain. Most runner knee injuries are due to the legs being stronger than hips and gluteus muscles. These muscles support the knee joints. I’m 39 and my joints ache sometimes after hard workouts. Maybe I should be taking advice from you :)

      Here is some information Dr. Greger has on athletics:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/video/foods-to-improve-athletic-performance-and-recovery/
      https://nutritionfacts.org/video/preventing-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-with-watercress/
      https://nutritionfacts.org/video/vegetarian-muscle-power-strength-and-endurance/

      NurseKelly

    1. I’m wondering if it is acetic acid or simply some acidity in the diet? I love using squirts of lime or lemon juice in some of my food instead of vinegar.

      1. Tim Ferris, the 4-Hour Body madman, reported that vinegar did nothing much for him but lemon juice worked very well. Different bodies. Only way to know is get out your meter and do some tests. Embrace you inner guinea pig ;)

    2. Hello Judy. Thanks for your comments

      Dr. Greger has also made his review on balsamic vinegar. According to him, balsamic vinegar seemed to protect the arteries from the effects of the fat.

      >> https://nutritionfacts.org/2019/01/10/vinegar-wine-and-artery-function/

      Also

      >> https://nutritionfacts.org/video/vinegar-artery-function/

      For all the videos Dr. Greger has made on this topic go to: https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/vinegar/

      Hope it helps

  4. Ty for the articles Dr Greger, .. great information. I avoid peanut butter (and all nut/seed butter) because of the calories, the AGE’s, the inflammatory omega 6 levels, and it causes my cholesterol levels to rise. Good to know though that perhaps using a viniagrette dressing on a salad will help lower the rise in blood sugars from the piece of bread you eat with it, or the donut you have for dessert (kidding!) I do wonder though if the baking soda and vinegar leavening I use in vegan baking would cause a lower blood sugar spike ?

    1. Don’t know the answer to your question, but beans and lentils help.

      They help even the meal after – even the next morning.

      The second meal effect video is inspiring.

      I have been giving my brother beans or lentils with every meal that I make.

      I have also been doing resistant starches with the beans, lentils, rice and potatoes cooked the day ahead of time and reheated for his lunch.

      I am not so sure I am giving him enough foods which promote butyrate production. Propionate and Resistant starch are in there. Not sure I am making enough of the superfood vegetables.

      I have been more focused on making sure he gets filling meals, which are flavored properly.

      I got another “It is good” today. Working on my string of pleasing foods.

      If I can find 10 pleasing meals, he might have a shot of getting all the way over to WFPB.

      Enchilada casserole will be next.

      Again, I need to figure out how to get the veggies in, but main courses are starting to go well.

      1. I haven’t done the 5 bean casserole yet. That one has vinegar and brown sugar. I am wondering if I could switch some of the brown sugar to date sugar.

        Either way, I need some of it to not be the same spices.

        1. I also got a new helper elf and put out feelers for other helper elves.

          I know that having him taste enough variety will help him.

          I feel like I will succeed at getting him to know that he can survive without animal products.

          I still have to do a vegan pizza.

          Pizza is one of the things he isn’t giving up.

          1. By the surgery, I will have a word file with his name on it with maybe 30 recipes.

            I can grade them from “Not bad” to “really good” based on his response.

      1. Have you read the medical mediums books? You would understand where he is coming from and why is it we need scientific evidence when often that evidence is twisted by big pharma.

    1. And it makes sense to me, when he points out that the liver has to work so hard when you give it fermented products especially vinegars and alcohols, lemon juice does a much better job and would give you more health benefits than vinegars.

      1. Again, sunnyveg, I’m not interested in books with fabulous claims. I’m only interested in what the science says. A lot of marketing ploys sound good, but if they aren’t backed by scientific evidence, that’s all they really are – marketing ploys, not facts.

  5. I am 60 years old, but I am very lean and reasonably athletic. I run 10-14 miles every Saturday and a few miles during the week. I do push ups squats, stretching and some mild weight lifting.

    Although I am able to use will power to perform these activities. I am always tired and
    run down. My immune system seems incredibly poor and I have a lot of sinus infections and colds.
    Some of biggest issues are aching muscles, inflammation and a constant feeling of shivering and low grade fever. All of these are nagging and chronic, so that I am not in excruciating pain, but is enough to make me generally uncomfortable and it interferes with my sleep.

    On the suggestion of a friend (retired radiation oncologist) I have eliminated dairy and cut out much of my intake of meat and animal fats. I have purchased your book How Not to Die (which is fantastic). I realize that I am not a teenager any more, but I would like to regain my health and to continue running and living an active lifestyle as long as possible. If you have any suggestions, I would be grateful.

    1. Lloyd,

      For immune system, water fasting or mimicking fasting is what I recommend so highly. You get a brand new immune system within a week and get rid of bad mitochondria and lower your viral, bacterial and fungal load. Dr. Alan Goldhamer True North has videos on water fasting. Dr. Longo has videos on Mimicking fasting, which is basically extreme calorie restriction, but you can eat soup. Prolon is the name of the box of foods, which they give. It is outrageously expensive, but I bought it because my brother has cancer.

      1. After water fasting, look under the topic immune system there are videos on broccoli receptors, blueberries and cardamom, for instance. Up your intake of the vegetables, especially the super foods.

      2. Thank you Deb. I’m willing to give that a shot. I like the idea of generating a new immune system. I’ll look into Dr. Goldhamer’s material. Thanks again.

        1. Lloyd,

          My dog was diagnosed 7 months ago with Hemangiosarcoma – what the called, “The biggest tumor he had ever seen.” He called it a basketball-sized tumor on the spleen, plus signs of other tumors. He was given a “100% chance of death, most likely this weekend” type of prognosis and I was told that even if I did the $10,000 surgery, the dogs still die between 2 weeks and 35 days when it is that big.

          Whole Food Plant Based stabilized him quite a bit, and I got all of his labwork back to normal within the first 3 months, but I couldn’t figure out what to do with the infections he kept getting.

          Two months ago, I water fasted him for 2 weeks. He probably only needed 1 week, but this is new territory. I got a whole new dog by the end.

          You probably don’t need to do a whole week. 5 days would be enough. Even 48 hours would have good benefits. They even had benefits after 24 hours.

          1. It was Dr. Fung who said 7 days, but that is because people who overeat can have undigested food for a few days.

            If you have been doing WFPB and are eating enough enzymes, plus what your body is producing, you will have a new immune system by 5 days.

          2. That is a wonderful tale (tail) Deb! Did the tumor resorb and is gone or is it still there and dormant? Must be a big dog to carry one that big!!!

            1. Geoffrey,

              I tried to get another scan, but the vet didn’t want to do it.

              His annual appointment is in March and I will try again then.

              He looks so good and is playful.

              He couldn’t get up off the floor a few months ago. Now, he is asking to go outside every few minutes (because he wants a snack when he comes back in)

              I still have him on calorie restriction, but not very low calorie anymore.

        2. Lloyd, please consider getting tested for LYME. I know several people who have similar concerns as you do. (You spend considerable time outdoors and you may have had a tick bite—-you do don’t have to see or feel it. Or have a pet.).

          1. That’s a great suggestion! People are often unaware they have Lyme – no tick found and no telltale red mark…can affect just about any system in the body.

          2. Ruth, excellent suggestion. I know several people who had Lyme & didn’t know for a long time. It can be a real stinker to get rid of!

    2. You seem to have symptoms of overtraining, resulting in a prolonged catabolic state. Prolonged overtraining can be serious if taken to an extreme, requiring long periods of rest to recover. The 10-14 miles on the weekend could be more than what you can recover from in a week, especially given other exercise. You might try detaining for a period by cutting back and then building up slowly to your current level. People differ with respect to recovery abilities. At 72 and exercising
      every day including interval training, strength training and regular aerobics, I find recovery my biggest struggle.

      Final thought, are you getting enough nutrient dense calories to support anabolism?

    3. Over training and Lyme disease are good suggestions. Presumably you have also checked your B12 and iron levels and considered whether you get sufficient Iodine and vit D.
      B12 and iron in the diet isn’t always enough as various things can reduce absorption.

        1. Marilyn, I agree. That’s why I suggested getting iron level checked. I didn’t mention the hemo thing as too hard to spell and the check would reveal it.

    4. Hello Lloyd. Many thanks for your comments

      Trying to improve your health through WPFB nutrition is always a smart choice. And I bet you have already started to see changes and feel better. Besides eating better, it’d be also a good idea to check for your vitamin status, as a Registered Dietitian, I’d suggest checking for your vitamin B12 status.

      Bye!

  6. For some reason, I found this one harder to read than normal.

    Usually, I leave the blog applauding. Today, I had to read it three times.

    I think it needed more transition sentences.

    The sugar intake interests me. I have some people who have a sugar addiction.

    Is ice cream with peanut butter better than ice cream without peanut butter?

  7. All this positive information about vinegar is great but what about it’s dark side? Are the benefits worth these potential risks? Dr. Greger can you please address the claims below from another plant based health site: (links to these medial studies are also available if you’d like more info)

    “The basic component of vinegar (including apple cider vinegar) is diluted acetic acid, which is a toxic waste product in the human body. This acid is an irritant to the stomach and causes a loss of the protective mucus in the intestinal tract, setting the stage for ulcers, gastritis, vitamin deficiencies (especially vitamin B12), and/or infection with Heliobacter pylori. In fact, vinegar is one of the 3 most common dietary causes of gastritis in the U.S. today, along with aspirin and alcohol.

    Vinegar interferes with digestion, and consequently the body receives less nourishment and impurities enter the bloodstream.

    Vinegar also promotes changes in the stomach lining cells, which can increase the risk of stomach cancer. The consumption of vinegar is also now recognized as a factor in the development of cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Acetic acid stimulates the thyroid gland to pull phosphorous from the adrenal glands to negate the effects of acetic acid in the system. Depleted phosphorous results in impaired function of the adrenal glands.

    The use of vinegar has been shown to be harmful to the liver and to the kidneys.

    Vinegar is also an irritant to the central nervous system.

    Regular consumption of vinegar can cause low potassium levels and lower bone density.

    Studies have shown that vinegar contributes to Candida overgrowth.

    Fermented foods, such as vinegar, contain high amounts of tyramine. Tyramine can contribute to high blood pressure, joint pain, urticaria, irritable bowel syndrome, and headaches.

    The process of producing vinegar involves fermentation. The fermentation process produces acetaldehyde, which has a negative effect on the body and the brain.

    Acetaldehyde causes a deficiency in vitamin B1 – an important nutrient for brain and nerve function.

    Acetaldehyde also causes the membranes of red blood cells to become stiff, making it difficult for these oxygen-carrying cells to pass through narrow capillaries. When this happens, many of the body cells do not receive the oxygen they need.

    Acetaldehyde indirectly promote the atrophy of nerve cell dendrites through its effect on tubulin. Tubulin is a protein in the body that chemically changes into long filaments that form microtubules, which transport nutrients and provide structural support for nerve cells. Acetaldehyde reduces the ability of tubulin to change into these supportive structures, causing the degeneration and death of nerve cell dendrites. There is a connection between dendrite degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease.”

    1. Melanie

      Please provide a source/link for those quotes. Otherwise it’s just more random stuff from the internet.
      Since there is no evidence provided to back up any of those statements their credibility must be considered dubious at this point.

      1. Hello and thanks for replying! Here is the list of studies citied. I’m not fully convinced about the issue but I know I don’t want to regularly consume something that has the potential to do any of these things!

        Nobuhara Y, Takeuchi K, Okabe S. Vinegar dietary irritant to the rat gastric mucosa. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1986 May;41(1):101-8.
        H. Yu, J. Y. Hwang, J. Ro, J. Kim, and N. Chang. Pickled vegetables associated with the risk of breast cancer. Nutr Cancer, 62(4):443{453, 2010.
        L. Jian, D. H. Zhang, A. H. Lee, and C. W. Binns. Cancer risk increases with intake of pickled vegetables, Br. J. Cancer, 90(9):1792{1795, 2004
        Kazuhiro Tokuda, Yukitoshi Izumi, Charles F. Zorumski Neurol Clin Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 Jul 1. Acetaldehyde Contributes to the Effects of Ethanol on Neurosteroids and LTP in the Hippocampus
        Pomorski L, Bartos M, Matejkowska M, Kuzdak K. The influence of a single acetic acid and lactic acid injection on rat normal thyroid tissue. Cesk Patol. 2002 Jul;38(3):107-12.
        De la Monte SM, Kril JJ. Acetaldehyde and neuropathology. Acta neuropathologica. 2014;127(1):71-90. doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1233-3. & https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/acetaldehyde
        Gambon DL, Brand HS, Veerman EC. Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2012 Dec;119(12):589-91. Dutch.
        https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+40
        Lhotta K, Höfle G, Gasser R, Finkenstedt G, Hypokalemia, Hyperreninemia and Osteoporosis in a Patient Ingesting Cider Vinegar. Nephron 1998;80:242-243
        Ke L., Yu P., Zhang Z.X. Novel epidemiologic evidence for the association between fermented fish sauce and esophageal cancer in South China. Int. J. Cancer. 2002;99:424–426. doi: 10.1002/ijc.10293.
        Chen C.S., Pignatelli B., Malaveille C., Bouvier G., Shuker D., Hautefeuille A., Zhang R.F., Bartsch H. Levels of direct-acting mutagens, total N-nitroso compounds in nitrosated fermented products Mutat. Res. 1992;265:211–221. doi: 10.1016/0027-5107(92)90050-C.

        1. You didn’t provide a link to the original source for those quotes.

          The internet is full of dodgy sites that make sensational claims and cite impressive sounding scientific articles that do not in reality support the website’s claims. This appears to be one of them. The links between fish sauce and pickled vegetable consumption and cancer, for example, are usually attributed to the very large amounts of salt in those products not to vinegar.

          I really wouldn’t suggest ignoring human trials demonstrating significant health benefits from consuming small amounts of vingar because of lab studies of rat stomachs exposed to toxic amounts of vinegar, as this site sees to suggest we do..

          1. Mr. Fumblefingers, I tried to post the link but it is flagged as spam and won’t show up here. The woman who posted this is actually someone I know and she has done a lot of research on this topic. I’ll try again and hopefully it will work this time. The problem is that no matter what study you find, there always seems to be other credible studies that back the exact opposite view. Does the information about Acetaldehyde concern you?

            https://jenniferskitchen.com/health-information/how-vinegar-can-damage-your-health

            1. Melanie

              Drinking too much water is unhealthy and so is drinking too much vinegar.

              There is no evidence to my knowledge that consuming the small amounts of vinegar discussed in these blogs is harmful. The evidence cited here demonstrates quite the opposite – it provides measurable health benefits.

              None of the links you have provided quote any actual evidence that consuming small amounts of vinegar has adverse effects. It’s all vague sensational claims based on ‘it must be unhealthy because of X’ arguments. Drinking water contains trace amounts of all sorts of things which are unhealthy so that must be bad for us using that argument.

              Of course, it’s up to you. If you don’t want to use vinegar, don’t. Personally though I find all the stuff you have quoted/linked here to be hugely unconvincing. Have a look at eg WebMD for its assessment
              https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-816/apple-cider-vinegar

              1. Thanks for taking the time to look into this. I appreciate being able to discuss these matters with other like-minded people. :) Have a blessed weekend!

    1. Pedro, there is a lot of disagreement but nearly all of it comes under one of two categories 1) B.S. from financial interests or 2) minutia, the small details that don’t mean all that much in the big picture. The big picture is very clear! Don’t eat crap, Eat like a grownup i.e. eat real food, not manufacture hyper flavored, calorie enhanced, high sugar/fat/salt fake foods, don’t eat extracted parts of foods. Eat the whole food, in a form as close to the way it comes from nature as practical. Eat mostly plants. And yes, absolutely, enjoy the heck out if it.

      1. Hello Pedro, and Geoffrey,
        Thanks for your reply, Geoffrey. Pedro, please look at this video by Dr. Greger about how the food industry wants and needs the public confused about nutrition:
        https://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-food-industry-wants-the-public-confused-about-nutrition/

        The data are actually pretty clear that whole food plant-based nutrition has very clear benefits over animal foods and processed foods. So, because the meat/milk/egg/fast-food industries want you to keep buying their un-healthy foods, all they need to do is to get people so confused that they throw up their hands and say exactly what you said — just eat whatever makes you happy.

        FYI, this is exactly the same strategy that was used by the tobacco industry in the 1960’s, after there were thousands of studies showing the many ways in which smoking is bad for your health; and it’s the same strategy used by oil companies today who try to confuse people about the incontrovertible evidence about climate change. Here is a link to a great 19 minute video by Dr. Greger which draws the parallels between smoking in the 1960s and diet today:
        http://www.ideacity.ca/video/dr-michael-greger-not-die/

        I hope this helps. I am a family doctor with a private practice in lifestyle medicine, and am also a volunteer for this website.

        Dr.Jon
        PhysicianAssistedWellness.com
        Health Support Volunteer for NutritionFacts.org

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