Vinegar & Artery Function

Vinegar & Artery Function
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Sprinkling vinegar on greens may augment their ability to improve endothelial function.

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There was a famous study from Harvard published back in ’99, which found that women who used oil-and-vinegar salad dressing about every day went on to have fewer than half the fatal heart attacks compared to women who hardly ever used it. Less than half the risk of the #1 killer of women.

They figured it was the omega-3’s in the oil that explained the benefit, but I know what you’re thinking. Those who use salad dressing every day probably also eat salad every day. But no, they were able to adjust for vegetable intake; so, it didn’t appear to be the salad, but why does the oil get the credit and not the vinegar? If only there was a way we could test that. Well, what about creamy salad dressing? They’re also made from omega-3 rich oils like canola—in fact, even more so than oil and vinegar dressing. So, if it’s the oil and not the vinegar, then creamy dressing would be protective too. But it’s not. They found no significant decrease in fatal heart attacks or nonfatal heart attacks for that matter. Now, it could be the eggs or butterfat counteracting the benefits of the omega-3’s, but maybe the vinegar is actually playing a role. But how? 

Well, if you were paying close attention in the vinegar weight loss video, the title of that paper was “Vinegar Intake Enhances Flow-mediated Vasodilatation Via Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity.” In other words, vinegar enhances arterial function by allowing our arteries to better dilate naturally by boosting the activity of the enzyme in our body that synthesizes nitric oxide, the open sesame signal to our arteries that improves blood flow. If you remember, acetate is cleared out of your blood within a half hour after consuming a salad with a tablespoon of vinegar in it, apparently not enough time to boost the AMPK enzyme but within just ten minutes, those kind of acetate levels can boost the activity of the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme within human umbilical cord blood vessel cells in a petri dish, but what about in people? They measured the dilation of arteries in the arms of women after they had a tablespoon of rice vinegar, a tablespoon of brown rice vinegar, or a tablespoon of forbidden rice vinegar, in other words, vinegar made from black or purple rice. All the vinegars appeared to help, but it was the black rice one that mostly clearly pulled away from the pack.

Black rice contains the same kind of anthocyanin pigments that make some fruits and vegetables blue and purple and may have independent benefits. For example, if you give someone a big blueberry smoothie containing the amount of anthocyanins in a cup and a half of wild blueberries, you get a nice spike in arterial function that lasts a couple hours. Thus, the higher maximum forearm blood flow in the forbidden rice vinegar intake group might be attributed to an additional or synergistic effect of anthocyanin with the acetate. But it could also just be the antioxidant power of anthocyanins, in which case balsamic vinegar, which is made from red wine, may have a similar effect, as it was shown to have remarkably higher free radical scavenging activity compared to rice vinegar.

Enough to counter the artery-constricting effects of a high fat meal? We’ve known for nearly 20 years that a single high fat meal – Sausage and Egg McMuffins with deep fried hash browns – can cripple our artery function, cutting the ability of our arteries to dilate normally in half, within hours of it going into our mouths, compared to Frosted Flakes. Even with that massive, unhealthy sugar load, there was no effect on the arteries, because there was no fat. And not just animal fat; a quarter cup of safflower oil had a similar effect. In fact, the very first study to show how bad fat was for our arteries basically dripped highly refined soybean oil into people’s veins. But extra virgin olive oil isn’t refined. We know some whole food sources of plant fat, such as nuts, actually improve artery function, whereas oils, including olive oil, worsen function, but they didn’t specify extra virgin here. You can see, smell, and taste the phytonutrients still left in extra virgin olive oil—are they enough to maintain arterial function? No, a significant drop in artery function within three hours of eating whole grain bread dipped in extra virgin olive oil. And the more fat in their blood, the worse their arteries did.

Ah, but what if you ate the same meal but added balsamic vinegar on a salad. That seemed to protect the arteries from the effects of the fat. Now, balsamic vinegar is a product of red wine. Would you get the same benefits just drinking a glass of red wine? No. No improvement in arterial function after red wine. Why does balsamic vinegar work, but red wine not? Maybe it’s because the red wine lacks the benefits of the acetic acid in vinegar or, maybe it’s because the vinegar lacks the negative effects of the alcohol. And a third option might be that it was the salad ingredients, and had nothing to do with the vinegar. To figure out this puzzle, all we’d have to do is…. test non-alcoholic wine. And non-alcoholic red wine worked! So, maybe it was the grapes in balsamic vinegar, not the acetic acid. And indeed, if you eat a cup and a quarter of seeded and seedless red, green, and blue-black grapes with your Sausage and Egg McMuffin, you can blunt the crippling of your arteries. So, plants and their products may provide protection against the direct impairment in endothelial function, unless those products are oil or alcohol.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to katyjay via 123RF.

There was a famous study from Harvard published back in ’99, which found that women who used oil-and-vinegar salad dressing about every day went on to have fewer than half the fatal heart attacks compared to women who hardly ever used it. Less than half the risk of the #1 killer of women.

They figured it was the omega-3’s in the oil that explained the benefit, but I know what you’re thinking. Those who use salad dressing every day probably also eat salad every day. But no, they were able to adjust for vegetable intake; so, it didn’t appear to be the salad, but why does the oil get the credit and not the vinegar? If only there was a way we could test that. Well, what about creamy salad dressing? They’re also made from omega-3 rich oils like canola—in fact, even more so than oil and vinegar dressing. So, if it’s the oil and not the vinegar, then creamy dressing would be protective too. But it’s not. They found no significant decrease in fatal heart attacks or nonfatal heart attacks for that matter. Now, it could be the eggs or butterfat counteracting the benefits of the omega-3’s, but maybe the vinegar is actually playing a role. But how? 

Well, if you were paying close attention in the vinegar weight loss video, the title of that paper was “Vinegar Intake Enhances Flow-mediated Vasodilatation Via Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity.” In other words, vinegar enhances arterial function by allowing our arteries to better dilate naturally by boosting the activity of the enzyme in our body that synthesizes nitric oxide, the open sesame signal to our arteries that improves blood flow. If you remember, acetate is cleared out of your blood within a half hour after consuming a salad with a tablespoon of vinegar in it, apparently not enough time to boost the AMPK enzyme but within just ten minutes, those kind of acetate levels can boost the activity of the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme within human umbilical cord blood vessel cells in a petri dish, but what about in people? They measured the dilation of arteries in the arms of women after they had a tablespoon of rice vinegar, a tablespoon of brown rice vinegar, or a tablespoon of forbidden rice vinegar, in other words, vinegar made from black or purple rice. All the vinegars appeared to help, but it was the black rice one that mostly clearly pulled away from the pack.

Black rice contains the same kind of anthocyanin pigments that make some fruits and vegetables blue and purple and may have independent benefits. For example, if you give someone a big blueberry smoothie containing the amount of anthocyanins in a cup and a half of wild blueberries, you get a nice spike in arterial function that lasts a couple hours. Thus, the higher maximum forearm blood flow in the forbidden rice vinegar intake group might be attributed to an additional or synergistic effect of anthocyanin with the acetate. But it could also just be the antioxidant power of anthocyanins, in which case balsamic vinegar, which is made from red wine, may have a similar effect, as it was shown to have remarkably higher free radical scavenging activity compared to rice vinegar.

Enough to counter the artery-constricting effects of a high fat meal? We’ve known for nearly 20 years that a single high fat meal – Sausage and Egg McMuffins with deep fried hash browns – can cripple our artery function, cutting the ability of our arteries to dilate normally in half, within hours of it going into our mouths, compared to Frosted Flakes. Even with that massive, unhealthy sugar load, there was no effect on the arteries, because there was no fat. And not just animal fat; a quarter cup of safflower oil had a similar effect. In fact, the very first study to show how bad fat was for our arteries basically dripped highly refined soybean oil into people’s veins. But extra virgin olive oil isn’t refined. We know some whole food sources of plant fat, such as nuts, actually improve artery function, whereas oils, including olive oil, worsen function, but they didn’t specify extra virgin here. You can see, smell, and taste the phytonutrients still left in extra virgin olive oil—are they enough to maintain arterial function? No, a significant drop in artery function within three hours of eating whole grain bread dipped in extra virgin olive oil. And the more fat in their blood, the worse their arteries did.

Ah, but what if you ate the same meal but added balsamic vinegar on a salad. That seemed to protect the arteries from the effects of the fat. Now, balsamic vinegar is a product of red wine. Would you get the same benefits just drinking a glass of red wine? No. No improvement in arterial function after red wine. Why does balsamic vinegar work, but red wine not? Maybe it’s because the red wine lacks the benefits of the acetic acid in vinegar or, maybe it’s because the vinegar lacks the negative effects of the alcohol. And a third option might be that it was the salad ingredients, and had nothing to do with the vinegar. To figure out this puzzle, all we’d have to do is…. test non-alcoholic wine. And non-alcoholic red wine worked! So, maybe it was the grapes in balsamic vinegar, not the acetic acid. And indeed, if you eat a cup and a quarter of seeded and seedless red, green, and blue-black grapes with your Sausage and Egg McMuffin, you can blunt the crippling of your arteries. So, plants and their products may provide protection against the direct impairment in endothelial function, unless those products are oil or alcohol.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to katyjay via 123RF.

Doctor's Note

This is the second video in my vinegar series. If you missed the previous one, see Does Apple Cider Vinegar Help with Weight Loss?.

Next up are:

We are only as healthy as our arteries. For more videos on what may help or hurt, see:

Note that there is a level of sugar intake that can adversely impact artery function. I discuss this in my video How to Prevent Blood Sugar and Triglyceride Spikes After Meals.

Surprised about the alcohol data? For more on wine, see:

You may also be interested in my video on how pigmented rice may beat out brown rice: Brown, Black, Purple and Red (Unlike White on) Rice.

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

137 responses to “Vinegar & Artery Function

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  1. Thank you for ‘Dressing Down’ the literature. But here’s to ‘dressing up’ our salads with balsamic vinegar’s and such!




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      1. I am confused, as well. I think I am hearing that we can get the arterial benefits in several ways – adding balsamic vinegar and the like to salads, but also nibbling on grapes and (maybe) other similar whole foods throughout the day? And we do not necessarily need to be sipping vinegary drinks to promote arterial function, although based on yesterdays video, http://nutritionfacts.org/video/apple-cider-vinegar-help-weight-loss/ , that may help with visceral fat, which is also a risk factor for heart disease. So my question boils down to, why would not just having balsamic or similar vinegars on salads and other food items do the same thing for visceral fat – potentially killing two birds with one stone?




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        1. Because how much nutrition does vinegar deliver? There are side effects that are not healthy if you have any mold or yeast allergy. Acetic acid is not so healthy for the brain. Billy Crook, MD, Bruce Semon, MD/PhD and many other people have research that teaches this about vinegar.




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      2. Eat grapes and/or eat vinegar, it’s your preference! But change it up because your body like variety. Cheers!




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      3. Not me. I have had enough people describe what acetic acid does to the brain and I know from first hand experience what it does to my breathing. I am allergic to mold and yeast, and vinegar with all other fermented products.




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    1. I believe the source of the confusion so many of us are reporting is this-
      The study concluded that “…fruits, vegetables & their products appear to provide some protection against the direct impairment in endothelial function produced by high fat foods, including olive oil.” So why does Dr. G then conclude: “…unless those products are oil…”?

      In this video after laying out the research showing that
      -100ml of Balsamic -about 6.5 Tablespoons- offsets the deleterious endothelial effects from 50g of EVOO. -about 4 Tablespoons of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.
      -1.25 Cups of grapes can offset the deleterious effects of a Sausage & Egg McMuffin with deep fried hash browns meal.
      -1 glass of wine with the alcohol removed can off set …can’t find the details on how much of what.

      Where the conclusion that these findings don’t apply to oil is the mystery. Maybe he means oils other than EVOO? -But surely the McMeal had loads of oils, none of them EVOO.

      Eating WFPB for a few years now, I still enjoy the occasional teaspoon of super fresh, carefully stored, high polyphenol EVOO as a raw condiment. It seems to me that this research confirms that as long as I’m having 2 teaspoons of balsamic vinegar with that meal, that this should have only positive health effects.

      I’m also guessing that 1/4 teaspoon of toasted sesame oil in my soup or sauce could be offset by 1/2 C of grapes or a teaspoon of balsamic vinegar.

      To my palate, these small amounts of highly flavorful oils take some meals from good to great. Most meals can be made with just nuts, seeds or avocado as the healthy fat, but for the few that I still use small amounts of oil as a condiment, I see no reason not to implement this “off setting” research to continue to do so.

      Please show me where I’m wrong. I’m willing to change my ways if there is a health consequence that I’m missing here.




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  2. Once again amazing!!
    I have one question on NITRIC OXIDE aparantly in dermatitis the NO works opening the arteries and making it worst so the skin gets more red (the same principle that save lifes , dilating arteries)so there creems that block the activity of NO in the skin and the patients skin get better.. so are there outside studies on diets that produces high levels of NO and skin allergies?
    I just advice to a friend with eczema that was already vegan to eat WFPB plus turmeric no procxes fats and kiping the skin with sunflower oil.. but his skin it is a bit worst.. (he experience and improvment in the pain of the joins in the fingers only) i know is not one solution but any advice is wellcome!




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  3. There’s a store called the olive oil connection, they have lots of different vinegars that you can taste before you buy. They are mostly delicious, but I am curious. The store says there is no sugar added or anything added but the fruit, but they they taste sweet. Apple cider vinegar is not sweet. But these vinegars, grapefruit, fig, peach, etc taste very sweet.




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    1. If it tastes sugary then it is sugar. Fructose from sugar is still sugar. The problem with eating a lot of fruit when you are a vegan is that you can get to much fructose, and fructose can make your triglycerides go up. You want to keep your triglycerides at 150 or below. Everyone should closely monitor their cholesterol panels: total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides. It’s like looking at the dip stick on your car to check the engine oil. When you know your cholesterol panels then you can be motivated to make adjustments to do the right thing in your diet. Also, when you see that your cholesterol panels are within normal limits, you can feel good about yourself, and you can feel a degree of security in your health, and you know that what you have been doing is working.

      Another thing you can do to monitor your arteries besides having your cholesterol panels checked out every 3 months, is to get a stethoscope and listen for bruits over your carotid arteries, listen for abdominal aortic aneurysm over your belly, check for pulses in your feet. If you do not know how to do this, just go to YouTube and there will be a dozen or so doctors who will show you how to do this simple technique.




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    2. I don’t care for plain vinegar but I found a red wine vinegar I use with olive oil that I like. It’s Mario Bartoli, ssay’s from sangria wine.




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  4. A livestrong article on apple cider vinegar says that it is not recommended for those with low bone density because it may reduce potassium (due to being acid?) and make the problem worse. Any thoughts?




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    1. I’ve just started drinking one teaspoon of apple cider vinegar per glass of water because I read it had great benefits to help detox the liver and boost liver function. Also that it improves stomach acid if drunk 30 minutes before a meal? Everything is so confusing. Good for one thing and bad for another. What to do?




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      1. Look up kudzu recipes. Look up Traditional Chinese Medicine and kudzu. Look up The Book of Kudzu by William Shurtleff. He graduated from Stanford U. and the book is 30 years old and he is an expert on soy, a close relative of Kudzu.




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          1. Many articles are published by scientists about the research of kudzu to detox the liver. Kudzu does not take away from the brain or the lungs like vinegar does. I wrote Murder on the Silver Comet Trail in 2004. The sleuth in the book is a woman named Charmaine!




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            1. I shall have to find a copy of Murder on the Silver Comet Trail! Thanks for the information about kudzu. Wishing you well Charlotte :) Buona fortuna…but I recently read that is not the correct expression. What I should say, I read, is “In bocca al lupo” :)




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      2. Look up kudzu recipes. Look up Traditional Chinese Medicine and kudzu. Look up The Book of Kudzu by William Shurtleff. He graduated from Stanford U. and the book is 30 years old and he is an expert on soy, a close relative of Kudzu.




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    2. I found no research to support that and even if it were the case it probably comes down to a balance issue. Anything in excess can be detrimental, but if you are consuming adequate amounts of potassium then I don’t see any merit in the claim. If someone else has access to a study on this I’d be excited to read more about the topic.




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    3. Acid taken internally never put anyone into remission for anything. Vinegar is in all condiments and it hasn’t made the USA a super race of people (mixed albeit). No one talks about alkalinity, mold/yeast allergies (which can be severe) and breathing with people who have COPD or asthma. I have personally had more than one attack from fumes like gas, vinegar, (please tell me if you are wiping windows or mopping with vinegar!) and some perfumes. Pollution, particulate pollution can send me to an ER too. In other words, all of this stuff could kill me.




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    4. Acid taken internally never put anyone into remission for anything. Vinegar is in all condiments and it hasn’t made the USA a super race of people (mixed albeit). No one talks about alkalinity, mold/yeast allergies (which can be severe) and breathing with people who have COPD or asthma. I have personally had more than one attack from fumes like gas, vinegar, (please tell me if you are wiping windows or mopping with vinegar!) and some perfumes. Pollution, particulate pollution can send me to an ER too. In other words, all of this stuff could kill me.




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  5. This one was jam packed so I had to watch it twice. What I got is that it’s not so much the vinegar but the grapes in the balsamic vinegar that is protective against a high fat meal. Probably other fruit like berries and oranges work too.




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    1. see my note above about chokeberry jam!! Ha ha! 16 of the top 20 polyphenol sources are berries – OH and number 2 source is COCOA POWDER!!! Hooray! Enjoyed my morning smoothie today made with blueberries, unsweetened cocoa powder, banana, vegetarian protein powder, unsweetened almond milk, two handfuls of power greens, 1/4 of an avocado, stevia, and ice. YUM! And, perhaps healthy!!!




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      1. I used to eat cocoa powder until I watched a number of videos on YouTube that said that cocoa products have bromine and that bromine is a poison to the brain cells and is addictive. This is a controversial subject, and there have been those who have shown documentation that the small amounts of bromine in cocoa is non sequential, but, I just stay away from it to be on the safe side. Besides, isn’t there a lot of fat in cocoa?




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        1. John: Cacao contains an organic compound called theobromine. It contains no bromine (It is made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen), nor does it have anything to do with bromine. If you buy pure cacao, you don;t have to worry about bromine.




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        2. George and midnighteye are correct – there is no bromine in cacao. But most cocoa powder products in the supermarkets have added fat and sugar. They are also usually made made using the Dutch process which involves high heat and chemical extraction processes. Look for “raw” cacao powder – the temperature in the extraction process is not allowed to exceed 40C.

          Cacao is only 11% fat (by weight) so I do not see the fat content as a problem. I take it as a drink – I tablespoon per mug – in place of coffee. It can be a little bitter so I sometimes add beetroot powder or berry powder. However, if you like smoothies, that is an even easier way to take it.

          This is what I buy but I am sure that you can find equivalent products in N America and the UK
          http://www.powersuperfoods.com.au/cacao/cacao-power-raw-powder-origin.html#tab_nf




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  6. As Wegan noted in another comment, this video is packed with info. I had to watch it twice and read the transcript. I then browsed the cited references. Unless I’m misinterpreting something, it seems that the arterial function benefits are a result of the polyphenols and flavonoids in the grapes rather than the acetate or other vinegar ingredients. And as one of the cited references states, a similar benefit to arterial function can be obtained from the flavonoids in blueberries. So does this mean we can skip the vinegar and just eat grapes and blueberries to get the arterial benefits?




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    1. It does appear that polyphenols may be the stars of the show. I read https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pirjo_Mattila/publication/5565435_Dietary_intake_and_major_food_sources_of_polyphenols_in_Finnish_adults._J_Nutr/links/00b4952946d88e5b52000000.pdf a few years ago, and it highlights the top 20 sources of polyphenols – 16 of the 20 are from berries (ever hear of Chokeberries? I have, they were widely grown in Montana, my father’s childhood home. ) We had a LOT of chokeberry jam when growing up!




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      1. I think I remember Dr G mentioning Chokeberries in a video several years ago or maybe it was in a comment. That’s cool that you had access to the fresh Chokeberry as a child. I have never had the opportunity to eat one. I do eat a lot of colorful berries in my green smoothie every day. (Although I use a lot of greens like Arugula (for the nitrate) in the smoothie, with all the berries, it no longer looks green :-)




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    2. Yes…I think you can if you are looking for the arterial expansion aspect ONLY, but don’t forget from the previous video vinegar helps you to lose weight. So, if you are losing weight, you are losing fat, and carrying around extra fat is not healthy. So, I would continue to take vinegar for that one reason alone. I am also thinking that if you are losing fat, then maybe you are dissolving some of the plaque in your arteries also, and if you are dissolving plaque in your arteries then you are improving arterial function. So, in conclusion I would continue taking 2 table spoons full of Braggs Apple Cider Vinegar each day. It can only help.




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      1. I’m already a normal weight so don’t need vinegar for weight loss. But thanks for your comment. I’m WFPB and I do use vinegar on salads, but don’t take it purposefully every day. Maybe Dr G will point out some other benefits in an upcoming video.




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    3. Do the articles state which particular phytonutrients are most responsible? Is it the anthocyanins, as Dr. G mentions at some point? I suppose I could read the articles myself but since I got hooked on this website, my husband has become very jealous.




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    4. Hal — my interpretation of this video (after seeing Dr. G’s subsequent video about vinegar mechanisms and side effects) is that the acetate alone has the effect of increasing nitric oxide release — which dilates arteries; AND the polyphenols/anthocyanins have a separate beneficial effect. In Dr. G’s words: “Thus, the highest maximum forearm blood flow in the forbidden rice vinegar intake group might be attributed to an additional or synergistic effect of anthocyanin with the acetate.”




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  7. Funny, I went looking for info how to make malt vinegar, and found out I can also easily make beer vinegar, all kinds of fruit and wine vinegars, even add herbs/spices, etc. to already made vinegars. Then I come here for more vinegar info! What next? :)




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  8. So it sounds like it’s not really the vinegar itself, if so, is there any merit to apple cider vinegar in this application? Apples are great but I never thought of them as ‘polyphenol’ sources. I guess the take away here is if you don’t want to eat a cup and a half of grapes you can just drizzle some vinegar, but really it seems to have the same effect.




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      1. Lisa, thank you for providing the link to Dr. Johnson’s vinegar research. I watched her video but did not find a collection of Apple Cider Vinegar studies. It’s gratifying to realize that the proper application of vinegar can help people manage diabetes. What intrigues me is the idea that vinegar (acetic acid) blocks the digestion of starch in the small intestines, thereby preventing the formation and release of glucose. My ‘open’ question is whether or not this process is desirable in non-diabetic people? It’s one thing to slow down the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, quite another to block it completely, if in fact that’s what occures. I hope someone can clarify this question. Thank you.




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    1. Improvement in endothelial function would probably help with workouts regardless of whether they are NO mediated or not.




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    2. That’s what I’m interested in, too! I was thinking of putting some vinegar on my arugula before my workouts for a double dose of NO!




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  9. I am confused. Dr. G says: “So, maybe it was the grapes in balsamic vinegar, not the acetic acid.
    And indeed, if you eat a cup and a quarter of seeded and seedless red,
    green, and blue-black grapes with your Sausage and Egg McMuffin, you can
    blunt the crippling of your arteries.”

    What is the most effective way to help my arterial function? The above sentence indicates it is eating grapes, NOT putting balsamic vinegar on my greens.

    Can someone weigh in on this? Thanks!




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    1. The take-away is eat grapes regardless of form, except as wine. So eat fresh grapes, dried grapes (raisins), or grape vinegar (red wine or balsamic) but not wine and you will be protecting your arteries from insults such as those caused by high fat foods. The wine doesn’t work because the artery stiffening effects of the alcohol overwhelm the beneficial effects of the rest of the wine. It wasn’t mentioned in the video, but I would have to imagine that purple grape juice would also have a protective effect since it should have all of the protective elements of wine but none of the alcohol.

      All that said, I would think that fresh grapes and probably raisins would be the best choice since they are whole foods and thus have everything that grapes contain, like fiber, not just whatever comes out in the juice like juice, vinegar and wine would have. But there is no reason to not have both the whole grapes/raisins and vinegar.

      It would be interesting to see the relative effectiveness of an ounce of raisins or an ounce of balsamic vinegar on arterial functioning.




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      1. Jim: Lots of people have been asking this question. Thank you for supplying such a nice clarification for people.

        I just happened to have had some raisins last night. I’m feeling pretty good about that this morning! :-)




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      2. I follow Dr. Esselstyn’s diet to prevent and reverse heart disease and he says to “anoint” our greens with balsamic vinegar to improve our arteries. I don’t really like balsamic vinegar alone, it is so acidic without oil, so that is why i asked the question. I wonder if there is a study like the one you mentioned, putting raisins or grapes head to head with balsamic vinegar. I would much prefer to eat grapes than always put balsamic vinegar on my salad or at least have an alternative.




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          1. I do something similar, but with silken tofu. I blend balsamic and Dijon mustard into a box of extra firm silken tofu (now there is an oxymoron for you). The amount of balsamic and Dijon can be varied a lot based on how much you like those. Also a 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of real maple syrup can take a little of the edge off the vinegar and mustard if you like the flavor of larger amounts of vinegar and mustard, but the result is a bit too sharp.




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        1. I think this specific video was intended to show what
          elements of vinegar have a protective effect on our endothelial cells. In the
          process he used several studies to illustrate how the particular element works
          or does not work in certain situations to frame the conclusion. Yes you could
          argue that he could have added a bit more to summarise at the end but the message
          is still there.

          So in the previous video Dr. Greger is saying vinegars-
          especially from dark fruit and grains – whose acetate drives a reduction in
          triglycerides in our blood, is good for that reason alone, but additionally it
          comes with antioxidants that protect out blood vessels too. So Balsamic vinegar
          and Black rice vinegar come with a one- two punch… … and he’s not finished yet.

          To reverse CHD you should be doing a lot more
          than including vinegar in your diet as you know from Dr Es’s work. There are
          many ways you can add a vinegar to your diet that blunts its sourness – several
          whole foods have a naturally sweet character, cashews, parsnip and sweet potato
          to name a few,and the cooking of others such as braised red cabbage require vinegar in the cooking. You need to be getting 20 different wholeplant foods a day into you so you have loads of opportunity.




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        2. If you are not going to add oils, then you may like to add a little bit of Walnut or avocado or similar to aid absorbtion of salad nutrients.




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      3. Jim: Raisins don’t have a lot of polyphenols unless it’s golden raisins, which have been sulfured. Nor do they have any vitamin C because the drying process destroys the vitamin C. Their fiber content is low, given the high sugar content. One thing going for raisins is that they’re strongly alkalizing. So I don’t know what the net nutritional benefit of raisins is. (I use them to sweeten my breakfast cereal, so I’m interested in knowing the answer.)




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        1. Taking the ORAC of currants and rasins at 8,000- 10,000 units per /100g that places them in the top 10 which isn’t bad by any means,- if the ORAC rating is reflective of what they could contribute in vivo. That’s above blackberries, raspberies and fresh pomegranate.

          The strength of their alkalizing depends on how they are dried so you will see wild swings in values.
          I suggest you continue adding to your cereal (the ones that have not been slathered in oil) and at any other opportunity, not forgetting their “grape sugar” contribution of course, so in modertion is best.




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    2. Grapes are good sources of polyphenols and anthocyanins, protective bioactive compounds. This we know. Also helpful, according to today’s video, is basalmic vinegar, a grape product which is also fermented. Arterial function is promoted from grapes (not wine). Purple grape juice is considered an additional source of polyphenols, which we could surmise is protective.




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  10. Perhaps balsamic vinegar’s benefits derive entirely from the anthocyanins from the grapes but what role might fermentation play here?




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    1. Cathy, it is a good question, and one which is tough to “tease” out. In my simple view of things, while I value the mechanism of action, it becomes enough for me to understand that the polyphenols in basalmic vinegar are the superstars. We know that fermentation serves an important role in other foods; for example, with tofu and tempeh, soy contains protease which is a trypsin inhibitor that can interfere with proper protein digestion. They are not completely deactivated during ordinary cooking but are eliminated during the process of fermentation. In precipitated products, like tofu, the enzyme inhibitors concentrate in the soaking liquid rather than the curd. I’m not sure what effect fermentation does have on the grapes, but it most likely improves its absorption and assimilation.




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  11. Hello, I am a dietitian and volunteer moderator for Nutrition Facts. I just love this video today – so interesting in its analysis of the existing literature. Appreciate all of your comments and questions!




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  12. Probably the best video yet. Definitely worth seeing a few times.
    Although I must have missed something when he says “unless those products are oil or alcohol”, having just mentioned a salad with balsamic vinegar and whole grain bread dipped in EVO protected arterial function. Any insights??




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      1. transcript: “You can see, smell, and taste the phytonutrients still left in extra
        virgin olive oil—are they enough to maintain arterial function? No, a
        significant drop in artery function within three hours of eating whole
        grain bread dipped in extra virgin olive oil. And the more fat in their
        blood, the worse their arteries did.

        Ah, but what if you ate the
        same meal but added balsamic vinegar on a salad. That seemed to protect
        the arteries from the effects of the fat.”
        Not with a balsamic vinegar salad included apparently…. …




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        1. Oh you know what – you’re right, I misread the transcript.

          So bread and EVO is bad, but bread, EVO, salad, and vinegar are good – but then again how do we know if it’s the salad or the vinegar, and on top of that, it just shows that the vinegar and/or salad negate the apparent negative effects of EVO, not that EVO is effective..




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          1. I think we are culturally prone to seek a panacea and can
            easily become blinkered in our view and fail to see the big picture Dr. Greger
            is painting when we get mired in the detail of a specific video.

            His previous one in this series focused primarily on a
            reduction in serum triglycerides in the over- weight which is thought to be
            driven by acetate activation of AMPK. Whereas this one is focusing on what
            aspect of the vinegar positively impacts the cells lining our blood vessels. In
            the broader scheme of things if the vinegar consumed has to work on
            counteracting the negative effects of EVO, then drop the EVO and just take the
            benefits of the Balsamic. Balsamic vinegar (or those made from darker fruit) provide weight management advantages as well as cardiovascular protection.

            He is not saying Whole grain + EVO + Balsamic vinegar with Salad
            is good. Remember most of our degenerative diseases take time to develop and
            are systemic. If you keep challenging your system with oil there will be many
            occasions where the quantity of polyphenols may not be a sufficient
            counterbalance. Eventually constant dripping wears the stone.

            The need to continue the SAD diet and Mediterranean
            diet is just in our heads. Pure MM.




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            1. Ya that’s what *I* was trying to say…I thought your original question was why does he single out oil and alcohol if he said EVO is good for artery function when it seems like he didn’t say that at all..




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                1. Put he never said EVO is good for arterial function, where do you see that? The transcript says “are they enough to maintain arterial function? No, arterial function drops”




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                  1. Correct. I should have elaborated my point in my first post..
                    My interpretation of the video and the final sentence of the transcript is that plants and products derived from plants appear to protect the endothelial cells lining bloods vessels with the exception of products that contain phytonutrients with oil or phytonutrients with alcohol. In particular red grape products and darker grains like black rice. So better avoid EVO and wines no matter how high in phytonutrients. However when you communicate to an audience that already likes their oil & vinegar dressings that the presence of vinegar was enough to be protective, after just eating a endothelial damaging whole grain dipped in EVO, they will find justification for continuing as before.
                    It is a very common combination especially in Italian cuisine and believed to be very healthy.




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  13. I read an article that said that grapes are sprayed mercilessly with pesticides. The article also said that cheap wine has levels of arsenic that are above the accepted norm. I think it was Mercola that had the article on wine and grapes. Anyhow, here is my “rant”. We can put a man on the moon. We can send probes to Mars, but doctors cannot come to a consensus on what is the healthiest foods for us to eat because many of them are just pawns of Big Pharma and are lobbied by the food industry. The knowledge of a whole plant food based diet is not rocket science. Pritikin who was not an MD did his own research way back in the 1940’s and discovered the benefits of a vegan diet. He was a genius on the scale of Tesla. He had many inventions to his name. So, this knowledge has been around for a while….and STILL….and STILL…..the masses of sheeple are ignorant about how to achieve optimum health because I don’t think the powers that be want them to have this knowledge. They want to keep the money flowing into their accounts. I wonder if karma will kick in one of these days, and those who know the truth, but keep the truth from the masses of people will get a taste of their own medicine.




    1
    1. Hi John! I would have to agree that Big Pharma has too much power and it’s quite frustrating. It amazes me that very few people have across the WFPB diet, but they have come across and have tried the low carb diet, Paleo diet, low fat diet and etc. More power to Dr. Greger for making this website! Hopefully this website will continue to go viral and save some lives!




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    2. Sadly it’s not just Big Pharma that we have to battle, it’s also animal-agricultre. They are hugely influential and wealthy and pull a lot of strings. The fight to get the many truths out there continues…




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  14. Omega threes are critical for health. The modern diet is filled with Omega 6s. These are very dangerous. Food sourcing suggests our diets are getting unhealthier. The body needs more Omega 3s then it is getting on the western diet.




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  15. Dr. Greger, i was wondering if you could recommend any plant based nutrition courses which I could take to become an accredited dietician which most closely follows whole foods plant based nutrition scientific research? There are a lot of “nutritionist / dietician” courses which teach completely outdated and sometimes flat out incorrect information and i would like to avoid any of these. Sorry to be off topic!!!




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  16. Does coconut vinegar have this effect? And do you still get the benefits described from a cup or even a 1/4 or half a cup of wild blueberries? Definitely can’t afford a cup and a half of wild blueberries everyday.




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  17. The Mediterranean diet was shown to be very beneficial to heart patients and they use extra virgin olive oil regularly, so it can’t be that bad for artery function… Can anyone explain this?




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    1. It is relatively easy to make any diet look good as long as you compare it to an even worse diet.

      For example, the Mediterranean diet was shown to be very beneficial relative to a control diet which was simply people’s normal diet plus ADVICE to reduce fat consumption.
      http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1200303

      A Mediterranean diet has not been compared to, eg, the Esselstyn diet or the Ornish Diet. Or a whole food plant based diet in general. Dr G has a number of interesting videos on this broad topic
      http://nutritionfacts.org/?s=mediterranean




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    2. Correlation does not equal causation, and the mediterranean diet studies are prime examples of the dangers of assuming causation where there very well could just be a correlation. So yes, compared to a standard western diet, possibly the worst diet known to man, the mediterranean diet is healthier, and the amount of olive oil in a mediterranean diet is higher than the reference diet. So there is definitely a correlation there. But before you can say that the mediterranean diet is healthier because of olive oil, there is a lot more work to be done. You have to show:

      a) That other components of the diet, like more vegetables and pulses, or less meat dairy and eggs, are not more strongly correlated with health outcomes, and so aren’t likely to be the source of the improved health outcomes. You can do this by adding a third cohort to the study that for example eats a whole-food/plant-based diet that retains the other potentially advantages components without or greatly reduced amount of olive oil. Barring the addition of a WFPB group, you could try to segregate those eating a mediterranean diet into groups based on the amount of olive oil consumed. If it is the olive oil itself that is the causal factor of the health improvements, the health of those eating more olive oil should be better than those eating less.

      b) Determine a viable biological pathway that consumption of olive oil can improve health. Does it cause reduced cholesterol levels in a dose dependent manner, reduce inflammation, or suppress the action of known carcinogens or of cancer promoters like IGF-1 or vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)?

      c) Show that the positive health effects are stronger than the negative health demoting effects, such as the known negative effect of olive oil on flow-mediated dilation of the arteries (commonly known as hardening of the arteries) for 4-5 hours after eating a meal with added olive oil. There is strong evidence that the resulting stress on the endothelial cells and their eventual death is a primary factor in the progression of heart disease. So the health promoting effects would have to be pretty potent to more than off-set this clinically proven negative effect.

      Only if olive oil can meet these additional requirements, then we can talk about olive oil being a healthy addition to one’s diet. To date the answers to the above are:

      a) No, a truly low-fat (~10% of calories) WFPB with less olive oil appears to be much healthier than a mediterranean diet.

      b) No, I have yet to see a paper showing that the addition of olive oil (extra virgin, cold pressed, or other marketing terms notwithstanding) to a diet improve markers like cholesterol. Nor have I seen biochemical pathways identified by which olive oil could have such an effect. I would be very open to references if I am wrong.

      c) No, since the answer to b) is no and we do know that olive oil at a minimum has negative effects on the vascular endothelium, the known negative biological effects outweigh the positive effects.

      From this we can conclude that olive oil is simply a co-variable in the mediterranean diet and not a cause of the health improvements of the diet. In fact the comparison of the mediterranean diet to other even healthier diets such as those of rural Africa or Asia with no olive oil and very little oil in general gives a strong indication that the olive oil is actually holding the mediterranean diet back and that without the olive oil, it would be even healthier.




      1
        1. Harriet: I briefly reviewed both articles. Both follow the same highly reductive mode of research that look at the health impacts of very specific components of olive oil. Both focus on the health effects of two phenols oleuropein (OL) and hydroxytyrosol (HT). Neither, in my opinion answer the question about whether virgin olive oil (VOO) is a healthy ADDITION to the human diet. Rather these articles only raised questions for me.

          1) Is virgin olive oil a good source of OL and HT?

          These compounds might have all these wonderful health effects discussed in these articles, but if commercially VOO doesn’t contain biologically significant amounts, then these health effects might not have any relevance to the health of people consuming VOO in the small amounts appropriate to a healthy diet low in refined oils and carbohydrates. A quick Google search turned up this comparison

          http://phenol-explorer.eu/contents/polyphenol/677

          It shows that while EXTRA virgin olive oil (EVOO) does have some OL, regular VOO has nearly zero. So VOO is not a meaningful source of at least OL and since HT is a metabolite of OL, it wouldn’t be a good source of HT either.

          2) What are other dietary sources of OL and HT? And do other sources provide more or less of these compounds, especially on an equal calorie basis?

          Again OL and HT might have wonderful health effects, but if we can get them in greater amounts and with lower investment of calories, then why would we want to use VOO as a delivery mechanism. Juicing foods usually results in a reduction of the nutrient content relative the the whole food since by definition juicing leaves the solids behind. In the website listed above the content of OL in whole olives is also given. It appears that olives are the only source of OL, but would it be better to just eat the olives if you goal was to consume a diet with OL to obtain its health benefits.

          The answer appears to be that if you are interested in the health effects of OL, then just eat the olives and skip the olive oil. whole green and black olives contain 300-400 times more OL than EXTRA virgin oil oil per 100 g. And as mentioned above VOO contains almost no OL and so whole olives are an almost infinitely better source of this polyphenol.

          However even for EVOO the 300-400 times advantage of whole olives was on an equal weight basis. On an equal calorie basis black olives contain 3200 TIMES more OL than EVOO and green olives contain 2000 times more. To put this in perspective a single green olive at 4 calories contains as much OL as nearly a liter (904 g) of EVOO.

          So even assuming that OL is health promoting, olive oil is an extraordinarily bad source compared to just eating olives.

          3) But olive oil has more health effects than just this one polyphenol. So even if olive oil were a good source of OL and HT, would the health promoting effects of these two compounds or even olive oil in general outweigh the negative health impacts from other aspects of olive oil? After all olive oil, like any oil is an incredibly concentrated source of calories if nothing else. And olive oil, like any fat has a directly measured negative effect on endothelial health (as measured by the brachial artery test), so the oil part of olive oil has a negative impact on cardiovascular health.

          On the whole these two articles represent nearly everything that is wrong in nutritional research.




          1
          1. Thank you, Jim. What concerns me about olives is that they’re cured with lye, salt, or oil to get rid of the bitter taste–a taste that, I’ve read, is attributed to OL See http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodtip&dbid=149. Maybe that’s why the Phenol Explorer data on polyphenol content of olives is so variable. Perhaps the solution is to emphasize olives cured in red wine or vinegar such as Kalamatas from Greece–which seem to be rich in HT. See http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf903405e Your thoughts? Funny, how we’ve meandered back to the original topic–vinegar.




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      1. Extra virgin olive oil has many antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties and when consumed in small amounts with vegetables, it increases the absorption of their vitamins and phytonutrients. There are definitely benefits to consuming small amounts. Whether those benefits are outweighed by negative effects to the arteries, personally I think that’s the case in small occasional amounts but I do think that’s something to consider for people with heart issues. I think that it can be a healthy addition in small amounts, for the skin and other things. And even if the Mediterranean diet is better by comparison (vastly so), it’s still known as one of the healthiest diets in the world and it regularly uses and even cooks with extra virgin olive oil, so it can’t be all that detrimental to health… I think replacing animal fats and/or oils high in omega 6 with EVOO, it can be life saving. I guess adding it is arguable, I have good experiences with it but use it in small amounts. I appreciate its benefits while enjoying it. Most people use some sort of fat, be it butter, margarine, vegan margarine, etc. and that’s because we generally enjoy it and I think we should enjoy eating (cruelty free) and enjoy life, the Mediterranean diet clearly shows you can do this with still, tremendous health benefits and honestly, I suspect that some of the healthfulness of the Mediterranean diet ARE due to the EVOO being a regular part of the diet. I don’t think science has it completely figured out nor do I think they ever necessarily will and we have to just go with the information at hand and use our own judgement and experiences.




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        1. EVOO might have many different antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, but the real question is do they have much? And are there better sources for the ones that it does have? Harriet Sugar Miller in a reply to the same post of mine that you are responding to asked me to review a couple of articles reporting on the health benefits of the polyphenols oleuropein and its metabolite hydroxytyrosol which is contained in olive oil. I did some research and it turns out that for this particular polyphenol that even assuming that OL has positive health effects that whole olives contain between 2000 (green) and 3200 (black) times more OL on an equal calorie basis than EVOO. Turned around a single green olive (at 4 calories) contains as much OL as is contained in 900 grams of EVOO (almost exactly a liter)

          So even if the phytonutrients in olive oil are healthy, it is doubtful that olive oil is a healthy way to get those phytonutrients into your diet.

          And yes the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) are absorbed better if there is some fat in a meal. The question is who much fat and what is the best source of that fat. The answer as best I know it is not much and from whole foods. So I think it is much better to put some nuts on my salad rather than extracted oil to aid absorption since the nuts are a much better source of micronutrients than extracted oils. And remember that it is the fat in the entire meal that counts, so if the main dish has say some cashews in it, that probably takes care of all of the fat you need in order to absorb the vitamins in the salad.

          All that said, a little EVOO on a salad isn’t going to flush your nutrition down the toilet, but there is nothing to suggest that it is doing your healthy any good compared to the other sources of fat that you could have in your diet.




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  18. Maybe slightly off-topic but… Vinegar + Bicarbonate. My mother insists in taking this formula everyday. I would really like to be more sure that it can help her improve her health or prevent flus, like she says. She uses apple cider vinegar. Any info you can share on this?




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    1. Rodrigo: bicarbonate (HCO3-) is a base, which can buffer acid. (Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate — NaHCO3). Your mother’s formula sounds just fine. If you drink too much vinegar — which is slightly acidic (from the acetic acid), it could cause some indigestion, especially if one suffers from reflux. So taking bicarbonate with the vinegar would neutralize some of the acid (H+), and leave you with acetate (CH3CO2-). It’s the acetate that apparently causes the release of nitric oxide, which dilates arteries. Apple cider vinegar is a good type, according to Dr. G’s videos.




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  19. A word about olive oil. Many (most?) brands of imported XV olive oil are fraudulent. They are “watered” down with cheaper types of olive oil – and sometimes soybean oil with chlorophyll added to give a green tint . Apparently there are no FDA standards as to what’s called XV oil.

    There’s a very good XV brand, California Olive Ranch, which is genuine. A bit pricey but is the real deal.




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    1. And if you just avoid all extracted vegetable oils, then you don’t have to worry about olive oil fraud at all. And skipping the oil means you also don’t have to worry about the micro-nutrient free calories in the oil displacing nutrient dense foods like leafy greens, whole grains, legumes, and colorful vegetables from your diet as you have to do to keep your total number of calories constant. Another plus is that once your taste buds wake up from their oil induced coma, you can actually taste all the wonderful flavors that were drowning in all that oil. The only downside is that restaurants greases up food to the point that it is floating on an oil slick in order to appeal to the grease-eaters, so what used to be that wonderful full mouth feel when I too was a grease-eater, now feels like I am just chugging a grease high ball. Gack!




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  20. I may have missed it, but what is the absolute best? Apple Cider vinegar, Balsamic vinegar, or just regular. If I were to take 1 Tablespoon a day, what would be the best?




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    1. Thanks for your question Karl!

      Taking into account both videos Dr Greger posted, I personally would say, depends on context. The current video demonstrates how using balsamic vinegar (in one of studies mentioned, they used 100mls balsamic vinegar, i.e. approximately 6.6 tbsp) is beneficial for endothelial function, whereas the previous video shows how apple cider vinegar (1-2 tbsp per day) can be used as a weight loss strategy. Therefore, both appear to be healthy in different ways.

      Hope this answer helps!




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    2. The best is whatever you will use.

      But your missing the entire point of health if you think there is any one silver bullit/superfood/magic pill or potion or scientific study that will bring you health.

      Health is achieved only through the totality of a great diet (such as a McDougall/Esselstyn/Ornish/Pritikin program) combined with various lifestyle factors (no smoking, little/no alcohol, keeping a low BMI, moderate exercise, etc…) AND accomplished consistently over the course of a lifetime. You want health, its pretty easy really, you just got to do it…vinegar or not, there ain’t no shortcuts…




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    1. On a simplistic level I believe it would largely depend on whether the effect is due to a heat-sensitive component (favouring grapes) or a non-heat sensitive nutrient (concentrated and hence favouring raisins)…




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  21. Dr. Greger ends his video with the statement: “So plants and their products may provide protection against the direct impairment in endothelial function UNLESS THOSE PRODUCTS ARE OIL OR ALCOHOL.”

    But simultaneously on the very same page, he displays the following summary of his video: “Dietary fruits, vegetables and their products appear to provide some protection against the direct impairment in endothelial function produced by high fat foods INCLUDING OLIVE OIL.”

    So which is it? Do they provide protection against high fat foods UNLESS the products are oil or alcohol, or do they provide protection against high fat foods INCLUDING olive oil?




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    1. William, there is a lot of information in this video, and it can get a little confusing. But there is no contradiction here. The ending statement says that plants/plant products, including grapes, blueberries, and “Forbidden Rice Vinegar” — all of which contain anthocyanins, protect against the impairment in endothelial function produced by refined high fat foods, including olive oil, which is a refined high fat food. He shows in the video that wine (which is a plant product) does not protect against the impairment in endothelial function. And, of course, plant oils by themselves CAUSE the impairment, so they can’t protect against it.
      The second quote you mention says exactly the same thing. He’s saying that olive oil is a high fat food, not that olive oil is a plant product which provides protection against impairment in endothelial function. Hope this helps.




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  22. Does fruit-juice-made-from-grapes have the same effect? In Austria, where I live, most “Balsamico Vinegar” are made from fruit juice plus acetic acid. Real balsamico vinegar starts at about € 20 for 50 ml, without upper limit (just like red wine).




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  23. Is there any advice for a natural way to deal with cold hands and feet. I have read that Stinging Nettles and B3 help.




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    1. Thanks for your question Charlotte!

      Dr Greger discusses the side effects of vinegar on his most recent video. In regards to helping people with respiratory problems, I could not find any research for it therefore I have no definite answer. On the other hand, WebMD has listed the contraindications for the use of vinegar that may help you.

      Hope this answer helps!




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      1. There may be research for vinegar hurting people with respiratory problems, which is what I suspect having gone to the ER before because of vinegar fumes. No one wants a train to crash with vinegar or ammonia spills, believe me! Thank you for the information about the video of side effects of vinegar. I am wondering if people with mold allergies or candida suffer because so much has been written about them suffering. I also wonder about enamel and even brain health with vinegar.




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  24. I am a 62 year old active male. Over the last 12 years I have had 2 heart attacks, and 8 stents due to blocked arteries from plaque. I have tried several statins, with a lot of side effects and presently take Vytorin 10/40. My cardiologist says I am doing all I can with diet, exercise, (4 – 5 times a week at the gym with weights and cardo), but my cholesterol is genetic. Currently my HDL is 34, LDL is 75, overall is 149, Tris are 120, Fasting Blood work is 96. I eat lean red meat about once a week which is 90%+ fat free. The rest of the time is chicken or fish. Never anything fried, no caffine, no desserts, occasionally a piece of angle food cake. Usually 8 oz of red wine 4 times per week. What do I need to do to raise the good, lower the bad, to eliminate plaque build up in the arteries ??




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    1. webaker: I’m sorry to hear you have had 2 heart attacks and 8! stents. Fear not, your doctor appears to be unaware of the research regarding heart disease. There is a lot of hope for you. Dr. Esselstyn took patients who had had more heart attacks than you and whose doctors had given them up. For those patients who stuck with the diet 100%, they never had another heart attack. This is documented in at least two studies published in peer reviewed journals.
      .
      The diet that Dr. Esselstyn promotes is generally consistent with the information here on NutritionFacts. Dr. Esselstyn has a book explaining what to do as well as a set of recipes to get you started. If you are interested, the book is titled How To Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease. Here it is: http://www.amazon.com/Prevent-Reverse-Heart-Disease-Nutrition-Based/dp/1583333002/ref=sr_1_1_twi_pap_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1463971449&sr=1-1&keywords=prevent+and+reverse+heart+disease It could be the best 10 dollars you ever spent.
      .
      Note: Based on the description of your current diet, I am guessing that you will be learning a lot of new information about what it means to eat a healthy diet. (I know you are trying hard already. It’s just you have been given false information.) Diet change can be hard. But it is a *lot* easier than heart surgery! And way better than death… You sound motivated. That means you can do it if you want. In other words, you will still be able to eat satisfying, delicious meals. The thing is that these meals will be a bit different than the kind of food that you are used to. If you decide to give it a try and need some help or tips beyond what is in Dr. Esselstyn’s book, let us know. We are full of both here on NutritionFacts. :-)




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  25. Balsamic vinegar is made from typically trebbiano, a white grape varietal. Raisins are dark too but are also white grapes. So the idea of it having the same effect as red wine is mute.




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  26. I found this recipe many years ago. They termed it a relish but I use as jelly or jam. It’s red grapes, blueberries,sugar, vinegar and ginger. Pretty healthy for jelly and it has some fiber.. I think the grapes should be organic. Blueberries I usually have to use frozen. Vague measurements. In pot the grapes are usually pkgd. at 2 lbs. The berries I add until the mix looks fairly balanced. The sugar 1/4 to 1/3 c. The ACV is braggs and light pour around the pot, then 1 Tbl. of powdered ginger. Heat. Raise to 10 min. boil scraping sides and bottom to avoid sticking. Then cool. Use an immersion blender for ease or ladle into a blender. I freeze about half. This isn’t canned or shelf stable. Refrigerate or freeze.




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