Benefits of Flax Seeds for Inflammation

Benefits of Flax Seeds for Inflammation
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Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory, aging-associated oxylipins can be normalized by eating ground flax seed.

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Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

Previously, I’ve explored the potent antihypertensive effect of dietary flaxseed in hypertensive patients. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial where they disguised ground flax seed in baked goods, versus like flax-free placebo muffins, and got an extraordinary drop in high blood pressures. As you can imagine, the flax seed industry was overjoyed, praising the impressive findings, as was I. After all, high blood pressure is the single largest risk factor for death on the planet earth. Yes, we give people medications—lots and lots of medications, but most people don’t take them, as in 9 out of 10 people take less than 80 percent of their prescribed blood pressure pills. Just 8 percent.

It’s not difficult to understand why. “Patients are asked to follow an inconvenient and potentially costly regimen, which will likely have a detrimental effect on [their] health-related quality of life to treat a mostly asymptomatic condition.” So, they may feel worse instead of better, due to the side effects. The answer, then, is to give them more drugs to counteract the effects of the first drugs— like giving men Viagra to counteract the erectile dysfunction caused by their blood pressure pills.

How about using a dietary strategy instead, especially if it can be just as effective? And indeed, the drop in blood pressures they got in the flax seed study “was greater than the average decrease observed with the standard dose of anti-hypertensive [drugs].” And, flaxseeds are cheaper too, compared to even single medications, and most patients are on multiple drugs. And it has good side effects beyond their anti-hypertensive actions—but not all good. Taking tablespoons of flax seed a day is a lot of fiber for people who have been living off of cheeseburgers and milkshakes their whole lives, and it can take a little while for your gut bacteria to adjust to the new bounty. So, people who start out with low-fiber diets may want to take it slow at first.

Not all studies have shown significant blood pressure-lowering effects. There have been over a dozen trials by now, involving more than a thousand subjects. And yes, put them all together, and overall, there were significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures—the upper and lower numbers—following supplementation with various flax seed products. None were as dramatic as that six-month trial. The longer trials tended to show better results, and some of the trials just used flax seed oil or some kind of flax seed extract. The thought is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. “Each of the components of interest within flaxseed, [the omega-3’s, the cancer-fighting lignans, all the soluble fiber and plant proteins,] all contribute towards [the] blood pressure reduction.” Okay, but how? Why? What’s the mechanism?

Some common blood-pressure medications, like Norvasc or Procardia, work by reducing the ability of the heart to contract, or slowing the heart down. And so, it’s possible that’s how flaxseed works too. But no. “Dietary flaxseed reduces…blood pressure without cardiac involvement but [rather,] through changes in plasma oxylipins.” What are oxylipins?

“Oxylipins are a group of fatty acid metabolites” involved in inflammation, and as a result, have been implicated in many pro-inflammatory conditions including cardiovascular disease and aging. “The best characterized oxylipins in relation to cardiovascular disease are derived from the long chain omega-6 fatty acid [known as] arachidonic acid, found preformed in animal products, particularly chicken and eggs,” and can be made inside the body from junky omega-6 rich oils, such as cottonseed oil. But, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory oxylipins in older subjects are normalized by flax seed consumption.

That’s how we think flax seed consumption reduces blood pressure in patients with hypertension: by inhibiting the enzyme that makes these pro-inflammatory oxylipins. I’ll spare you from the acronym overload, but basically, eating flax seeds inhibits the activity of the enzyme that makes these pro-inflammatory oxylipins, called leukotoxin diols, which in turn may lower blood pressure. “Identifying the biological mechanism adds confidence to the antihypertensive actions of dietary flaxseed.”

But that’s not all oxylipins do. Oxylipins may play a role in the aging process. But we may be able to beneficially disrupt these biological changes associated with inflammation and aging with a nutritional intervention like flax seed. Older adults (around age 50) have higher levels of this arachidonic acid-derived oxylipin, compared to younger adults (around age 20). “These elevated concentrations of pro-inflammatory oxylipins in the older age group…may [help] explain the higher levels of inflammation in older versus younger individuals.” As we get older, we’re more likely to be stricken with inflammatory conditions like arthritis; and so, this elevation of pro-inflammatory oxylipins may predispose individuals to chronic disease conditions. But what if you took those older adults and gave them muffins—ground flax seed-containing muffins?

Four weeks later, their levels dropped to here, down to like 20-year-old levels, demonstrating “that a potential therapeutic strategy to correct the deleterious pro-inflammatory oxylipin profile is via a dietary supplementation with [flax].”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Petra via pixabay. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

Previously, I’ve explored the potent antihypertensive effect of dietary flaxseed in hypertensive patients. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial where they disguised ground flax seed in baked goods, versus like flax-free placebo muffins, and got an extraordinary drop in high blood pressures. As you can imagine, the flax seed industry was overjoyed, praising the impressive findings, as was I. After all, high blood pressure is the single largest risk factor for death on the planet earth. Yes, we give people medications—lots and lots of medications, but most people don’t take them, as in 9 out of 10 people take less than 80 percent of their prescribed blood pressure pills. Just 8 percent.

It’s not difficult to understand why. “Patients are asked to follow an inconvenient and potentially costly regimen, which will likely have a detrimental effect on [their] health-related quality of life to treat a mostly asymptomatic condition.” So, they may feel worse instead of better, due to the side effects. The answer, then, is to give them more drugs to counteract the effects of the first drugs— like giving men Viagra to counteract the erectile dysfunction caused by their blood pressure pills.

How about using a dietary strategy instead, especially if it can be just as effective? And indeed, the drop in blood pressures they got in the flax seed study “was greater than the average decrease observed with the standard dose of anti-hypertensive [drugs].” And, flaxseeds are cheaper too, compared to even single medications, and most patients are on multiple drugs. And it has good side effects beyond their anti-hypertensive actions—but not all good. Taking tablespoons of flax seed a day is a lot of fiber for people who have been living off of cheeseburgers and milkshakes their whole lives, and it can take a little while for your gut bacteria to adjust to the new bounty. So, people who start out with low-fiber diets may want to take it slow at first.

Not all studies have shown significant blood pressure-lowering effects. There have been over a dozen trials by now, involving more than a thousand subjects. And yes, put them all together, and overall, there were significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures—the upper and lower numbers—following supplementation with various flax seed products. None were as dramatic as that six-month trial. The longer trials tended to show better results, and some of the trials just used flax seed oil or some kind of flax seed extract. The thought is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. “Each of the components of interest within flaxseed, [the omega-3’s, the cancer-fighting lignans, all the soluble fiber and plant proteins,] all contribute towards [the] blood pressure reduction.” Okay, but how? Why? What’s the mechanism?

Some common blood-pressure medications, like Norvasc or Procardia, work by reducing the ability of the heart to contract, or slowing the heart down. And so, it’s possible that’s how flaxseed works too. But no. “Dietary flaxseed reduces…blood pressure without cardiac involvement but [rather,] through changes in plasma oxylipins.” What are oxylipins?

“Oxylipins are a group of fatty acid metabolites” involved in inflammation, and as a result, have been implicated in many pro-inflammatory conditions including cardiovascular disease and aging. “The best characterized oxylipins in relation to cardiovascular disease are derived from the long chain omega-6 fatty acid [known as] arachidonic acid, found preformed in animal products, particularly chicken and eggs,” and can be made inside the body from junky omega-6 rich oils, such as cottonseed oil. But, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory oxylipins in older subjects are normalized by flax seed consumption.

That’s how we think flax seed consumption reduces blood pressure in patients with hypertension: by inhibiting the enzyme that makes these pro-inflammatory oxylipins. I’ll spare you from the acronym overload, but basically, eating flax seeds inhibits the activity of the enzyme that makes these pro-inflammatory oxylipins, called leukotoxin diols, which in turn may lower blood pressure. “Identifying the biological mechanism adds confidence to the antihypertensive actions of dietary flaxseed.”

But that’s not all oxylipins do. Oxylipins may play a role in the aging process. But we may be able to beneficially disrupt these biological changes associated with inflammation and aging with a nutritional intervention like flax seed. Older adults (around age 50) have higher levels of this arachidonic acid-derived oxylipin, compared to younger adults (around age 20). “These elevated concentrations of pro-inflammatory oxylipins in the older age group…may [help] explain the higher levels of inflammation in older versus younger individuals.” As we get older, we’re more likely to be stricken with inflammatory conditions like arthritis; and so, this elevation of pro-inflammatory oxylipins may predispose individuals to chronic disease conditions. But what if you took those older adults and gave them muffins—ground flax seed-containing muffins?

Four weeks later, their levels dropped to here, down to like 20-year-old levels, demonstrating “that a potential therapeutic strategy to correct the deleterious pro-inflammatory oxylipin profile is via a dietary supplementation with [flax].”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Petra via pixabay. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video

226 responses to “Benefits of Flax Seeds for Inflammation

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    1. Probably not.

      For example, less than a third of the total fat in peanuts is polyunsaturated (omega 6). The main type of fat in peanuts is monounsaturated.
      https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/legumes-and-legume-products/4448/2

      Also, consumption of peanuts and other types of nuts appears to lower inflammation not increase it. There is clearly a lot more to nuts and seeds than just their omega 6 content.
      https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/104/3/722/4564733?sid=6396a542-96a5-4835-b1ba-e037b4a4a90e

      Another example: flaxseeds have omega 6, yes, but they have way more omega 3 fat than omega 6 fat – which itself may also be a factor in reducing inflammation.
      https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/nut-and-seed-products/3163/2

      1. Fumbles,
        Also, keep in mind that nuts/seeds do not contain preformed AA unlike animal foods, and the negative press against all omega 6 fatty acids seems quite unjustified (I have a vague recollection you even mentioned this in some other post).

        https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/no-need-to-avoid-healthy-omega-6-fats

        “The main charge against omega-6 fats is that the body can convert the most common one, linolenic acid, into another fatty acid called arachidonic acid, and arachidonic acid is a building block for molecules that can promote inflammation, blood clotting, and the constriction of blood vessels. But the body also converts arachidonic acid into molecules that calm inflammation and fight blood clots.

        The critics argue that we should cut back on our intake of omega-6 fats to improve the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6s. Hogwash, says the American Heart Association (AHA). In a science advisory that was two years in the making, nine independent researchers from around the country, including three from Harvard, say that data from dozens of studies support the cardiovascular benefits of eating omega-6 fats (Circulation, Feb. 17, 2009). “Omega-6 fats are not only safe but they are also beneficial for the heart and circulation,” says advisory coauthor Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

        ****It turns out that the body converts very little linolenic acid into arachidonic acid, even when linolenic acid is abundant in the diet***.”

      2. Mr Fumblefingers,

        If you go to the video where Dr Greger says he won’t overload us with acronyms, there is a chart. That flow chart has plasma ALA (omega 3) directly below dietary flaxseed which would suggest the effect is attributable to the omega 3 content in flaxseed.

        1. Hi George.

          Not really. My understanding is that the body easily handles the amounts found in a tablespoonful or two of flaxseed per day per day. And in any case the substances are detoxified by cooking … eg by cooking it in oatmeal or baking it in muffins. Consequently I’ve never considered it an issue.

          I did see a paper on this topic by the Canadian Flax Council which might help – although you’d expect them to put the best possible gloss on the facts
          https://flaxcouncil.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/FlxPrmr_4ed_Chpt8.pdf

    2. ben,

      No. Nuts and omega-6 rich seeds are shown to be anti-inflammatory. Omega-6 is not evil, in fact, it’s essential. Without omega-6, we can’t even grow hair properly. It’s an essential fatty acid. What matters is the form we get it in. Getting omega-6 from whole plant foods is not only nothing you need to worry about, but is one of the many essential nutrients found in an abundant variety of whole plant foods. There’s also GLA, a type of omega-6, that is known for being anti-inflammatory and this is found in hemp seeds and some other places, but hemp is the only way I know how to get it from an actual whole plant food as opposed to oils such as borage.

      Just remember it’s the whole package that matters and not a singular isolated nutrient in that package. That’s why it’s better to pay attention to what the science shows actually happens from ingestion of a type of food rather than obsessing over singular compounds.

    1. I can’t taste the flax meal, to be honest. But I also add black strap molasses, raisins, cinnamon and soy milk. I love my oatmeal cookie breakfast!

    2. Why would anyone want to eat eggs knowing they have a deleterious effect? Turmeric can counteract SOME of the deleterious effects of smoking, that doesn’t mean people should keep smoking and add turmeric just to make it mildly less harmful while still extraordinarily harmful.

      Not to mention there is no need to consume eggs–obviously as they are very harmful to us–and the chickens and baby chicks are literally tortured in ways that people are too disturbed to even hear about let alone learn and look at, so just eat a flax muffin and leave the eggs to the mothers who lay them.

      1. Joda, the ‘details’ were given at several points in the video, and mentioned in comments, below. Check minute 1:58 in the video for example. 30 to 45 grams of flax daily is a lot of flax. 1 tbsp weighs 7 gm approx. Some of the studies mentioned are available under sources tab, but some are behind a paywall :(

        1. Barb, I took notice of the weight given in the video for a Tbs of flax seeds. Imagine my surprise when I measured out a Tbs of the variety of flax seeds that I have (brown) and that weight/Tbs came to exactly 11g…
          just an FYI that the weight of flax seeds per Tbs is apparently variety dependent.

          1. Thank you very much Anthony for taking the trouble to weigh them. Were they ground up ? The NF commenter who weighed ground flax last week got 7 grams per tbsp, but I imagine it does vary with moisture content too!

            1. Not a problem… I was interested to see the results of how many Tbs it would take to get 30-45 g of flax seeds. No, I weighed them as whole seeds. The variety that I have are labeled as “Brown Flax Seed”… I ground them after weighing then added them to my smoothy… :-)

          2. The standard conversion ratio is about 10+ g/TBL unground. Your measuring device accuracy and how you pack the seeds would, it seems to me, have more of an effect than variety or concerns about water content.

            1. The greatest determination on the weight of 1 Tbs of flax seeds appears to be whether they are whole seeds or ground… I determined the weight of whole flax seeds to be ~11g/Tbs and ground flax seeds to be ~6.5g/Tbs…
              again all things being equal except the packing constant.

              1. Anthony,

                I just weighed the ground flaxseed I buy (Bob’s Red Mill, Golden) and got about 2.1-2.2 gm per teaspoon. Which would be about 6.3-6.6 gm per tablespoon. So my measurements agree with yours.

                Kitchen chemists at work. I love it!

    1. I think Dr. Greger recommends 1 tablespoon of ground flax seed per day, as part of a healthy diet. This is probably much less flax than was used in the anti-inflammatory study, but is a level that seems definitely safe. Check out Dr. Greger’s other videos on flax that explain the 1 tablespoon limit.

      1. He does recommend 1 tbsp per day, it’s my understanding this is because that is the amount studied for safety. He does have a recipe on this site that uses 3 tbsp in a dish. He used to recommend people take 2 tbsp of ground flax everyday and I continue to do so.

    2. In the two studies I checked the amount was 30g ground flax per day. There’s 6.6 grams in a TBL of ground flax, so that’s about 4.5 TBL (and that’s about 167 calories).

      It would be nice to know if less might be as effective.

      1. “It would be nice to know if less might be as effective.”
        – – – – –
        I’m thinking a LOT less would be as effective.

        So who helped fund this study…….Big Flax?

      2. The study was likely done on folks eating SAD, so eating WFPB we would likely need less, but it would be nice to have a recipe so I could make these magic muffins for my SAD husband with HP

        1. I use flax “eggs” when I make banana muffins, one tablespoon ground with 3 tablespoons of water. Divided up among the muffins, and insignificant amount. I have been reluctant to add more because I don’t know what would happen to the recipe. Anyone have any idea?

          1. Mary, I’ve doubled the ground flax seeds with no problem. Also, I just stir it in with the dry ingredients and then add a few tablespoons of water to the wet ingredients. Saves washing an extra ‘egg’ bowl.

        2. I agree, Mary. And I also agree it would be nice to have the recipe! I assume they’re vegan. Probably not too hard to figure out good tasting, flax muffin recipe, though… but first I would have to know how to MAKE a muffin.

      3. I wonder if they might be weighing the cooked weight of the flax seed. A tablespoon of dry seed would weigh quite a bit more when cooked with liquid. I would think you would be getting too much phosphorous from 4.5 Tbs. of dry seed. I would say you would need a fraction of that on a WPBD.

        1. Marcy, phosphorus is fine to get from plants, our bodies do not absorb it so readily like from animal products or phosphoric acid as a food additive.

  1. To me, there is nothing appealing about dry, powdery, ground flaxseed. I have used it daily for the last 50 years though cooked along with oatmeal/hot cereal mixtures, thrown into whole meal bread, or muffins and will continue to do so.

    No problem getting a tbsp per day, but these studies used a lot! An NF commenter weighed a tbsp of ground flax to be 7 grams. Some of the studies used 30 to 45 grams which would be over 1/4 cup.

    1. Barb,

      I add ground flaxseed to my sourdough whole grain bread as well. But I wondered what you meant by “whole meal bread?”

      I also add seeds to my bread (most recently, sunflower, sesame, chia, and flaxseed, which I toast in the frying pan first), and I’m thinking of adding some whole wheat grains as well (which I plan to pre-soak first). I recently learned that most farro sold in this country is pearled, meaning that the bran (seed coat) and germ (baby plant) are removed, making it quicker to cook but not a whole grain, and therefore less nutritious.. (Just like white rice and pearled barley.) But I also learned that farro can be either spelt, emmer, or kamut wheat (i think it’s called large, medium, and small farro, resepectively, in Italian), and that most farro in this country is pearled emmer wheat. So I plan to buy some whole grain emmer wheat. (I wondered what folks did with it; now I know!) I already have and bake with spelt and kamut wheat.

      We also add ground flaxseed to our morning cereal, steel cut oats or granola or muesli.

      But I wish I’d been using it for 50 years! You were obviously a lot more knowledgeable about nutrition than I was! I’ve been a vegetarian for almost 50 years, but that was for sustainability and environmental reasons. I actually wondered whether this way of eating was healthy, since I so frequently encountered questions like: “But where do you get your protein?!!” “How can you survive on just plants?” Or comments: “That can’t be healthy for you!” And I didn’t come across anything to the contrary. Until…recently!

      1. Dr J, your bread sounds delicious! I am not a bread baker, though I used to bake quite a bit, and tried making oatmeal molasses bread a few times. Our local bakery sells a dense, chewy, grainy loaf of bread that almost has the appearance of old fashioned hot cereal (like Red River). It’s excellent.
        The health food store does sell grains in bulk also. I have tried the emmer, spelt, and the kamut, and they look like whole grains to me. (but I could be wrong! ) They take varying lengths of time to cook but average 30 min. They also sell hulled barley which I highly recommend. It is not refined like pearl or pot barley, and has the outer hull left on. It’s chewy, hearty, and a better product imo.

        Also, if I was a smoothie drinker, I would definitely throw in some ground flax or chia to thicken it up. Lentil loaves and veggie burgers also use flax as a binder so there’s lots of ways to incorporate it.

        1. Ruth,

          I too have found hulled barley, or hull-less, both of which are whole grains. Not easy, though; I order hull-less barley online from Bob’s Red Mill. (I like this company in part because it’s now employee owned.)

          And you sound like you have good sources of great bread and whole grains. My access is very limited, which is the only reason I now bake my own bread and buy whole wheat grains online.

          I started baking bread with white flour and yeast using the No Knead method — so easy!! With a long overnight ferment — and gradually moved up to sourdough (I started my own culture 6 years ago now!) and whole grain flour (which I grind at home). But LOL!! I never thought of cooking whole wheat grains until I started reading about farro online. It’s amazing how the oblivious I can be to the obvious.

          Oh, and I originally bought chia seeds to make my own vegan dog food in my Instant Pot. My daughter’s 2 younger dogs apparently love it, but I have to puree it for my little old toothless mutt, who is now vegan: I feed him vegan kibble from V-dog, topped with home-made vegan dog food or pumpkin or squash puree.

    2. 30 grams is 2 tablespoons or 1/8 cup. I think that is doable over a day, a tbsp at breakfast and another at lunch or dinner Agreed, nothing palatable about sprinkling dry ground flax over a salad, but I like in breakfast savory oats or added to vegan stews, chili. Although I admit, I often forgot the evening dose. Something better than nothing in my book.

      1. Claire, try a smoothy… 1 ripe banana, 1/2 cup coconut milk and ~45g flax seeds… blended… I was surprised at how absolutely delicious it was. I imagine one could substitute yogurt for the banana, but I find the flavor of the banana quite pleasing in combination with the nuttiness of the flax seeds.

        1. Anthony,

          My concern about coconut milk is that it is high fat, and most of the fats are saturated fatty acids. It also has very low protein.

          I like soy milk for a number of reasons. One is that it’s easy to make, so I make mine at home, but don’t filter it; that way, we get the whole bean, rather than a filtrate of the cooked ground soybeans, which is what soy milk is.

            1. Anthony,

              I make soy milk by using 1 gm soybeans to 10 ml water. I actually use a SoyaJoy soy milk maker (it can make other plant milks as well), so I end up using about 135 g dry soy beans (which I pre-soak at least 8 hours before use, usually in the fridge) to about 1.35 liters of water. Then after it cools down, I pour it into a pitcher that I can mix, because the milk is very thick and the solids settle out, and that fits into my fridge. Right now, it’s a plastic pitcher; I’d love to find a glass one. And we use up the milk, on/in our morning cereal and in baking and cooking, in about 5 days.

              Soy milk is basically ground cooked soybeans. Most people filter it out; the stuff left on the filter (often a mesh screen) is called okara and can be used in cooking and baking, but I’m lazy. Also, my home made soy milk, even filtered, does not make good yogurt, so I make my own from commercial soy milk, usually Edensoy or WestSoy, made from only 2 ingredients, water and soybeans, and nothing else.

              1. “…..usually Edensoy or WestSoy, made from only 2 ingredients, water and soybeans, and nothing else.”
                – – – – –

                Those are the brands I buy for my breakfast Pig-at-the-Trough (bowl of cooked whole grains).

          1. So you eat a WFPB diet, make your own bread, soy milk, and vegan dog food. That’s a lot of kitchen time. I’ve also done this but gave up on the soy milk as too much work. Now we drink Silk unsweet. Natural Balance has good vegan dog food. I feed some along with my home made.

            4 cups beans, 4 cups rice, 2 cups barley, 2 cups flax meal, 4 pounds collards, 3 pounds okra, 1 large can pumpkin, 1 large can tomato paste, 1 tbsp salt.

            1. Blair,

              It’s wonderful that you feed your dog(s) vegan dog food!! I only learned about it early this year. Much to my surprise, dogs can not only survive but also thrive on vegan food. I switched my little old rescue mutt over to vegan kibble starting in February, and my daughter switched her much younger — and bigger — two rescue dogs at the same time. One of her dogs has been plagued with problems, often intestinal but also allergies, which seemed to have decreased on the vegan dog kibble.

              And I only make certain items out of desperation: I can’t find good whole grain bread, and not real sourdough whole grain bread (I’m now addicted to the flavor of my own bread). I can’t find unfiltered soy milk (is unfiltered soy milk healthy? I’ve no idea; I just wanted to eat the whole soybean). I can’t find any soy yogurt without lots of additives — and it’s not cheap. The dog food is just a treat, “gravy” for the top of vegan kibble.

              And my husband and I know all 5 vegan restaurants in our whole state. Luckily, one is within walking distance of us. Plus, there are some very good salad bars at grocery stores. This all helps.

              Oh, and my husband does the dishes. That helps, too. (Those navy vets really know how to clean! Especially the submarine service vets.)

              1. Dr. J., does your husband read the nice comments you make about him so often? If not, why not? :-)

                Howdy there, Dr. J.’s husband! *waves hand*

              2. Dr. J
                I’m sure unfiltered soy milk is excellent. A whole plant food. Commercial soy milk; not so great. Agree, it’s hard to find commercial bread with an ingredient list that I will eat. Surprisingly, one just showed up at Walmart that looks pretty good. Called “Dave’s Killer Bread”.

                We’ve had vegan dogs for a few decades now. When we lived in Upstate NY there was a regional dog food brand called “Dad’s'”. They had a version called “Lean & Fit” IIRC that remarkably was vegan. Though not marketed as such. Besides the Natural Balance and home made dog food, our dogs also eat a lot of potatoes, corn meal, beans, and oatmeal. Same as us.

                In our state, I’d say rather than 5 vegan restaurants, more like 5 vegans.

          2. The saturated fat in coconut is mostly medium chained, which though it raises your LDL, it is only the large molecules of LDL, which do not contribute to hardening of the arteries. What is more, medium chained saturated fat reduces inflammation, actually reducing clogged arteries. That said, soy is even better, as it balances your hormones and protects against environmental synthetic hormones.

            1. Marcy,

              “Coconut oil is just as fattening as other oils in terms of total, belly, or butt/thigh fat and may have adverse metabolic effects. …two tablespoons of coconut oil a day …[resulted in] a worsening of insulin resistance*…Coconut oil hawkers claim coconut oil is special because it contains medium-chain triglycerides, but MCTs only make up about 10 percent of the product*. Cholesterol-raising saturated fats like those found in beef tallow make up the bulk of coconut oil*. (“How Not to Diet,” p 162, *citations)

        2. Thanks Anthony, for the tip. I got burned out on smoothies after years of eating them. Maybe time to add back into the rotation. I do find that my wimpy blender appreciates a pregrind of the flaxseeds (or chia) in a dedicated coffee bean grinder first…
          I read somewhere that most of the whole flax or chia seeds can survive the trip thru your digestive tract undigested. To unlock their benefits grinding them before eating helps.

          1. Absolutely! I pregrind my flax and chia seeds with a grinder into a nice fluff before adding them to most all of my recipes… especially smoothies… the husks are impervious to our digestive track without crushing first… the only exceptions are where I add additional whole seeds for salads and baked bread where I want the added crunch.

            I might add that Dr. J cautioned me re my use of coconut milk due to it’s high saturated fat content and low protein… and advised soy milk instead. That may well be good advice, and I will not argue the point…
            but I believe a small amount of fat in one’s daily nutritional intake is a needed dietary component and necessary for good health… aaaaaand… I like the taste of coconut milk far better than soy! ;-D

            1. Anthony – just be aware that coconut milk does not harbor a small amount of fat. 1 cup of coconut milk has 48 grams of fat, 43 of which are saturated. Coconut oil is 85% saturated fat; by comparison cows butter is about 43% saturated. 1 Cup of coconut milk has 445 calories, 403 of which are from fat. This means that the 1 cup of coconut milk is 91% fat. https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/nut-and-seed-products/3114/2
              It is the saturated fat that clogs one’s arteries. The American Heart Association has stated that coconut milk, oil, etc as well as palm kernal, palm oil are not healthy for one’s arteries and suggests not eating those products. I’m sure a little grated whole coconut on a dessert might not harm one.
              My suggestion is to make sure one understands what one is consuming and make an educated decision.
              Dr. McDougall’s wife, Mary, suggests that if one wants a coconut flavor to use soy milk as a base and add coconut extract which does not have the fat in it.

              1. I appreciate your concern, but I disagree with the figures you present…
                the coconut milk that I buy commercially and drink is listed as containing 5g of fat per 1 cup serving.

                  1. And I’m reading the figures off of the side of the coconut milk carton.
                    Which do you think are more correct? I’d dare say without any reservation that the milk carton holds the upper-hand of correctness… just sayin’.

                    1. Anthony,

                      Did your coconut milk come from the refrigerated section of the grocery store?

                      Because I just read that it differs from the canned coconut milk in that it is watered down to make it more drinkable: “To make the refrigerated version more drinkable, palatable, and comparable as a beverage alternative, manufacturers add water. So much so that it dilutes the calories from about 450 calories per cup to about 45.” (https://www.cookinglight.com/eating-smart/nutrition-101/coconut-milk-basics) That would be about 5 grams of fat (which is 9 calories per gram). And what sounds like a 1:10 dilution.

                      I wonder what such diluted beverage contains besides fat? Very little protein or sugar, if nothing but water was added to it. Sounds like expensive water. With some fat. For comparison, whole dairy milk has about 7.9 grams of fat, but also protein and sugar.

                    2. Yes, the coconut milk that I buy does come from the refrigerated section of the grocery store… and I might add that the soy milk that I buy does as well… both list their #1 ingredient as being “water”.

                      I have included photos of both of the containers so that you can see each product’s source, and as well each product’s “Nutritional Facts”
                      statements. There are of course some difference between the two in terms of nutritional contents, but where one or the other may have a slight edge in a specific category, that edge is negated in other categories. I hope this helps settle the debate we seem to be having; and in ending let me make one additional point… that being that I like coconut milk.

                    3. Unfortunately it appears that my photos didn’t attach to my previous reply… not sure how to correct that absence… my apologies.

      2. Mims,
        I am wondering where you got that. When I searched, I got ~7 grams per TBL, including from Mayo. I hope you’re right.

        1. I just weighed my “Brown” Flax Seeds and I got 11g/Tbs… but my weight was determined on “WHOLE” flax seeds. What people are not specifying when they talk about the weight of flax seeds is whether they are weighing them “whole” or “ground”… I believe that there will be a significant weight difference between the two. Again I determined 1 Tbs of Whole (Brown) flax seeds to weigh 11g… the same volume (1 Tbs) of Ground flax seeds may be closer to 7g… just my best guess.

          1. “What people are not specifying when they talk about the weight of flax seeds is whether they are weighing them “whole” or “ground”.

            A pound of feathers weighs the exact same weight as a pound of chicken. A gm of ground flax weighs the same as a gm of whole flax. Weight is not the same as volume, which is a measure of mass.

            1. Thank you, Reality bites, for the correction… What I meant to say was ”
              What people are not specifying when they talk about the *volume* of flax seeds…”

        2. Just as I suspected. I just weighed 1 Tbs of “Whole” Brown flax seeds and the weight was ~11g… Then I ground that same Tbs of flax seeds and I still had ~11g, BUT the volume was almost doubled to near 2 Tbs.

      1. Flax oil: smoke point is 225 degrees F. “Wheat based breads, cakes and cookies are “done” at 190′ f. With the center at 190′ and the bake temp at 400 you get a hard crust and chewy inside. Conversely a bake temp at 350′ will give you an evenly moist cake inside and a thin crust. At a bake temp at 325′ you get a moist cake in and out with virtually no hard crust.” If you are concerned about potential advanced glycation endproducts in the crust, you can cut it off or use a lower baking temperature as suggested above. You might also bake the food in a loaf pan rather than muffin tins, for a lower ratio of crust to interior.

        So I would not worry about flax oil degrading from the heat in a quick bread or muffin recipe, especially if you use the lower temperature for baking. I might be more concerned about baking flax crackers or cookies.

        For anyone who is not familiar with AGEs, see Table 1 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3704564/. The muffin they tested had AGE of 340, which compares favorably to other snacks and desserts. That is much higher than AGE of breads, but less than AGE of biscuits or croissants. Still, there are many, many much worse foods you might eat than a muffin if you are trying to keep AGEs in your diet to a minimum.

        1. Thanks Caroline for the interesting information! I will give flaxseed muffins a trie now and keep the temperature well below that smoke point. My daughter doesn’t like raw flaxseed, maybe I can get her to eat some in the form of flaxseed muffins with some other tasty ingredients.

      2. DAN II,

        Dr. Greger actually has a video on this site explaining that while the extracted oil is extremely delicate, that whole ground flax is actually heat stable in baking and does not get destroyed. And since the study used muffins, it goes to show that you get the benefits when cooked.

    3. Yeah, to me, flax is not so good tasting. But it’s super easy to get my 2 tbsp in and it tastes really good in baked goods used as a flax egg. I only get my tbsps from smoothies or drinking it quickly in a glass of water in which case it tastes fine, I just don’t like it mixed in oats or anything.

  2. I’m convinced but over many studies a muffin recipe was used but never published where is the muffin recipe ? I want to make them! A normal muffin recipe doesn’t work because the amount of flaxseed recommended in a dose far exceeds an amount in a normal recipe.

    1. I would like to know too! Decades ago Prevention Magazine published a recipe for delicious chocolate oatmeal flax muffins, but Google cannot seem to locate it and I lost my copy. It was similar to this one https://www.pastryaffair.com/blog/chocolate-oatmeal-flaxseed-muffins.html but with banana and cocoa powder instead of chocolate chunks. But you are right, even though this recipe appears to contain a lot of flax seed, each muffin contains only 4 grams so you would need to eat seven muffins to get to 30 grams of flaxseed! That’s a meal plan for an endurance athlete, perhaps, but not for the rest of us. Do be aware that traditional muffin recipes contain both oil and eggs so if you are on an Ornish/Esselstyn type diet that forbids these items, you might need to spend time experimenting to find a decent recipe.

    2. Someone reviewing the recipe I linked to at https://www.pastryaffair.com/blog/chocolate-oatmeal-flaxseed-muffins.html doubled the amount of ground flaxseed to one cup, and added an extra half cup of milk (substitute nondairy milk) for a vegan version of the recipe and said that the muffins were delicious. Then you would only need to eat three and a half muffins instead of seven! The caveat with adding extra flaxseed in lieu of flour is that flax does not bind the muffins together as well as flour, and using too much of it may result in crumbly, dense muffins. Another reviewer subbed a mashed banana plus a couple tablespoons of maple syrup for the oil and sugar, since she wished to avoid refined sugar and oil, and said that variation turned out well also. I am far from an expert baker, but perhaps someone with more baking experience can weigh in on what one might add to this recipe if using more flaxseed than one cup. Of course if you are increasing dry ingredients you will need to add extra liquid ingredients to offset the extra dry ingredients as well as possibly more leavener since you will have a greater volume of batter. This could be a time-consuming experiment, possibly with multiple batches of muffins no one will eat. You might try the two substitutions above though for the vegan version free of refined sugar and oil.

      My husband recently took the calcium score test and carotid artery ultrasound and discovered that he has heart disease, so he agreed to an Ornish/Esselstyn diet and thus I don’t need to hide the flaxseed from him in muffins. I take a tablespoon of chia seed and two or three tablespoons of flax seed, grind them up and add to this pumpkin seed and Trader Joe’s multigrain cereal, uncooked, and some pumpkin pie spice. He adds applesauce and eats this without complaint. The purpose of putting flaxseed in the muffins is so that the study participants would not be aware that they were consuming lots of flaxseed. On the Ornish/Esselstyn diets you need to eat flaxseed and chia seed daily for omega-3 since you are not eating fish. Muffins are problematic on the diet due to the sodium content, added oils, refined sugar and eggs in most muffin recipes, not to mention the added calories if you are eating multiple servings in an attempt to reap the health benefits associated with 30 grams of flax.

  3. Love my flaxseeds and will push them harder now to my pals on hypertension medications (and they all are). Flaxseed got me off Saw Palmetto, is great for the gut, and tastes good when fresh. I mix them in with everything, from my oatmeal to my breads. Or just eat them out of the sack with some water. My inflammation/achy soreness all disappeared too, but I also got off animal products and give that the credit for inflammation reduction. Will be interested to see if I can get anyone to listen to this and actually add them to their regime. Flaxseed are important to me, no matter what any study says, or who thinks it is valid or not.

    Signing “Wade TN” now because, although I’ve been active in these comments off/on for 5 years, I saw an old posting recently by a “Wade” that was not me. I’m the 53 year-old Southern Rural Wade (between Nashville and Chattanooga) who is 4.5 years WFPB with rare exceptions, becoming more rare. Yes I’ve had my flaxseed for the day. But I might have more.

  4. I love these videos with a lot of “meat” in them. Really makes you think, and I like to go over things a few times to really let it sink in.
    Thirty grams of flax a day is a lot. I’m happy sticking with the 10 grams a day recommended in the daily dozen, which I put in my morning smoothie.
    I showed my husband the last couple minutes of this video and he’s totally motivated to eat flax every day.

    1. Julie,

      I watched the video this morning, and I noticed my husband, sitting next to me, with his paper in his hand to the side, intently listening. This works like a charm. Because initially he wasn’t really on board with dropping all animal products — he did decide to become a vegetarian when we met 12 years ago, since I do the cooking, and he likes to eat what I cook. But after being exposed to many videos in the same fashion, he’s now all in. Moreover, I sometimes hear him passing on nuggets of wisdom gleaned from listening to the NF videos.

      YAY!!

      (eg: this morning his comment was, after hearing just the title of the video: “But I don’t have any inflammation.” LOL!! I explained what that meant, then watched the video, within his hearing, of course.)

  5. I’ve been loading up on flax seed, garlic, turmeric, plenty of plants, no garbage etc, averaging a 100 mi/week on my bike and still see BP 140/80.
    Flax seed goes into the blender for any smoothie (veggie or fruit). Also included are broccoli and spinach.

    30-45 grams of flax seed is a lot.

    For the uninitiated, my definition of food = all whole plants that can be identified by the eater. All other things that people eat (and digest) = garbage.

    What gives with the BP.

    1. You didn’t say how long you’ve been doing all that … I was frustrated when I switched to WFPB diet, because my BP and weight did not improve. Untilllll NOW! (As Dr. G says!) I saw a few changes immediately but it was a couple years before I started to lose weight (slowly, but at least it’s something) and am now seeing BP going down.

      BTW – did you see his videos on only eating in a window of 10 hours/day? He mentioned that people who ate late in the day saw an increase in BP, while those who ate early saw a decrease. This small change does make a huge difference in BP for me.

    2. Bob – I don’t know if this is helpful or not. . . and you may already be doing this. But Dr. Esselstyne pushes his patients to eat a “large handful of greens” at every meal. He means the greens that create the nitric oxide in your system which heals the endothelium that relaxes the vascular system and lowers blood pressure. I try to eat high nitric oxide foods with every meal, including breakfast. Here is a link to a nice PubMed article that lists the vegg with the highest levels of nitric oxide. Rocket is at the top – rocket is the same thing as arugula, which I put on/in everything.
      I’m sorry to hear you’re having a hard time with your BP, . . I hope this might help a little bit. Please let us know ok? We’re a curious bunch on this site :-).

  6. The best way to eat ground flax seeds, not whole flax seeds) is to put it in soups and salads. Putting it in muffins which are made of wheat flour is like eating your flax with carpenter’s glue. The gluten inhibits the full beneficial effect of the flax. Sort of like trying to impregnate your wife while wearing a condom. It works occasionally but not as well as it should.

    I’m still seeing you people doing everything you can to screw up your dietary intake by rationalizing wheat. When are you going to learn?

    1. John,

      I LOVE whole wheat! I bake my own bread from grains I grind at home and my own sourdough culture. i also add seeds to the bread: delicious!! And now I’m thinking of cooking the whole wheat as a whole grain.

      What is your evidence about gluten inhibiting the full beneficial effect of the flax? Can you provide some citations to research nutrition articles, published in peer reviewed journals? Because the videos on this site provide evidence that whole wheat is a beneficial whole grain to eat. Even the video above states that muffins with ground flaxseeds have positive health effects.

      1. We eat a mixture of whole wheat berries, whole rye berries, and hulless barley for lunch every day. Along with greens, potatoes and beans. Agree, whole wheat is and excellent food.

          1. We eat the same thing for lunch every day. We bulk precook everything except greens. No seasoning in the bulk precooked starches. Chop greens and season with salt, MSG, pepper and liberal amounts of basil, thyme, oregano, marjoram. Microwave in a casserole. Add beans, whole grains, sliced potatoes. Heat. Top with sliced corn meal. Heat again. Serve over fresh greens, Garnish with onion, leek, hot sauce, horseradish, salsa. Cannot be improved upon.

              1. YR,

                Tamari or soy sauce could be used instead of MSG.

                I looked into Bragg’s Aminos — and it contained more sodium per serving than the tamari sauce (reduced sodium) and perhaps even regular tamari sauce. Also, I found the description of the preparation of the aminos hilarious: soy protein is treated with hydrocholoric acid to hydrolyze the protein to free amino acids, then neutralized with sodium bicarbonate, which results in the formation of sodium chloride, resulting in the “salty taste.” Well, no duh: sodium chloride is salt, table salt. Of course it would taste salty.

    2. What works for one person NEVER works for the masses when it comes to allergies or food sensitivities or all of us would be allergic to and avoiding peanuts.

    3. Assuming that you have primary hyperparathyroidism, this link below may be helpful.

      https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/primary-hyperparathyroidis

      John

      When are YOU going to learn that your bizarre Paleo Diet ideology on the topic of grains has no factual basis? The evidence has been presented to you time and time again. You simply ignore it and continue to assert your opinions as if they represent some Higher Truth.

      Perhaps your Higher Truth could have a get together with YR’s Higher Self and discuss whether ignoring facts is a sensible strategy.

      1. Oops … the first part was intended as a reply to Jami below. I must have not have hit the ‘Post’ button before moving on up the comments.

      2. Fumbles, I’m not so sure my Higher Self wants to duke it out with the Higher Self of John (“YouPeople”).

        My HS sets boundaries, doncha know.

  7. Hello

    I absolutely love all the info provided in these videos, so I apologize ahead for the comment that follows, but I do so, assuming that Nutrition.Org is open to criticisms.

    I find the appearance of Dr. Greger bobbing is head among the graphs, research texts, is so distracting that I have difficulty concentrating on the message, and actually quit watching when I see Dr. Greger on every frame. I also think that it cheapens this website as it now looks more like those websites that are targeting sales of health products. Please go back to giving the straight information without this useless (and frankly annoying) distraction.

    Again, apology for the criticism, and (as I am short of time) for wording it less than diplomatically. However, although it’s a bit of a (raw) nut shell, this is my true honest feeling, as I much prefer the previous style of videos, and would like to continue watching.

    1. Interesting … I enjoyed the video, because I felt like I was sitting in front of him while he explained it to me. Just goes to show, everyone’s different.

      1. One of the reason I like so much Dr. Greger’s videos is the transparency of the information provided as he includes the “actual sources of the research”. I don’t know another site that is so transparent. So in response to your suggestion of just listening to the video to avoid Dr. Greger’s face in every frame, that is just not an option, as it defeat the purpose, if one wants the unique info he provides c/ numerous graphs, pictures, and the sources, etc… Besides, I often stop & go the video to read the text, when wonderful Dr. Greger speaks too fast.

        As an aside, it actually might be good for Nutrition.Org to keep in mind that not all viewers are as proficient in English, and the least distractions the better. The fast delivery of the info doesn’t help and now neither does this added distraction of our good Dr. Greger in every frame. We love you Dr. Greger, but it was better when you stayed in the background. We still know who you are, and still love you.

    2. My thoughts exactly.
      Dr. Greger’s verbal delivery is already a little quirky but, once you get used to it, really does help convey meaning. Not so his visual delivery. It draws attention away from the text of the studies which, I have always thought, is one of the major strengths of these videos.
      My opinion: this innovation is NOT an enhancement!

        1. Dr. Greger makes eating flax so good that I will double down on continuing my regimen. I put half a tablespoon of flax in warm water along with the same amount of turmeric and a sprinkle of black pepper. I wonder if the pre-ground flax seed meal I use should really be fresh ground to have any affect / effect?

    3. MM – I’m with you. I prefer not to have Dr. G – or anyone – in the video as I like to read the research as Dr. G narrates. It’s sort of like trying to read a book with your kids hands flashing in front of the page. Fairly distracting. As much as I love and appreciate this work, – and I do, . . a LOT, . . – I agree with your comments.

      1. I’m a fast reader and am usually three lines ahead of the speaker, who is still emoting and gesturing away (Dr. G. in this case). So just the transcript works for me.

    4. MM,

      Dr Greger has already been receiving feedback on this issue and he already has posted on the site that he is open to criticism about the issue.

      Many people find the format distracting, but other people prefer to see Dr Greger’s head bob into frame now and then.

      I think the biggest consensus was that Dr Greger and the graphs and charts is where his presence gets distracting.

      Future videos may show a change, but that might be months down the road because these videos were already made before the feedback started.

      1. I think the hands moving and head moving are not distracting in TED Talks.

        They are dynamic in TED Talks because it is a much wider shot and a bigger audience. Well, smaller, technically but the TED audience online maybe makes that one bigger again. Not sure, but TED Talks ate shot with both a present audience and an internet audience in mind.

        They have more far shots which grounds the internet audience in the sense that they are in a large audience so he can move all he wants.

        I think the video people haven’t figured out the audience experience yet.

        They are working on it.

  8. Wouldn’t it be great to make flax chips taste as good as potato chips so you can’t stop eating them? I’ve tried making flax crackers but they taste awful so I can only force myself to eat one. Might as well make my own capsules and take it as medicine.

    But I’d like to try the flax muffin. Could NF post the recipe please?

    1. Hi Jose, we do not have a flax muffin recipe (the one in the mentioned in the video is just what the researchers were using), however, there are a lot of muffins that use flax in them if you do a Google search. I have used ground flax in baking, but I don’t have a specific muffin recipe to share, unfortunately. Hopefully you find a good one!

    2. One thing i like about cooking muffins is the recipes are very forgiving . So you can take a favorite recipe and just add flax to it and add a little more liquid. Ground flax seed is an excellent egg replacement ; )

      1. Also can use ground flaxseed to substitute for some of the flour, or just add to pancake batter. My kids actually like them better made that way.

  9. There are several different varieties of flax seeds. Which variety is best suited for the health benefits described… and what is the daily dosage recommended??

  10. I love this video and most excellent format! Thank you! I have been buying whole organic flax seeds by the the pound for years! I add them to my morning smoothies. And yes, my Vitamix does an excellent job of grinding the flax seed up.

  11. Just had my first flax seed smoothy… 1 ripe banana, 1/2 cup coconut milk, 45g ground (brown) flax seeds… DELICIOUS!!!~ … and filling! :-)

    1. I might try that. I just made the dough for a flax flatbread: 100grams whole wheat flour, 30grams ground flax seed, 75 grams water, pinch of yeast. Trouble is, that makes a 500 calorie meal and I don’t want to eat that every day!

  12. I just read the chronobiology part of Dr. Greger’s new book, so now I’m wondering if there is a best time of day to eat flaxseed. Both inflammatory processes and blood pressure are tied to the circadian rhythm. Blood pressure meds work much better if taken in the evening. One wonders if foods could be even more effective at certain times of day.

  13. Thanks for another wonderfully informative video. For me, the inclusion of Dr. Greger’s moving picture and gestures is distracting and I find it very difficult to concentrate on the details of the topic he is discussing. This format also makes it harder to see the excerpts from research studies, particularly the tables of data and graphs that I normally try to follow. Large expressive gestures are perfect when speaking on stage to a large audience, but do not lend themselves to the more intimate format of the internet. Possibly my age is a factor and young people may be better able to deal with the distraction. Please consider going back to the old format or maybe putting Dr. Greger’s picture in a smaller sub-window.

    By the way, I just received my eBook copy of Dr. Greger’s new book and I am loving it. It is so great to have carefully researched facts available.

    1. As much as I love Dr Greger and appreciate all his efforts and info, I have to agree with Jim and others about the distraction of the inclusion of Dr Greger on the video. I need to read the captions so I can totally understand what he’s saying, so I can’t just listen and not look at it.

  14. I have ground flaxseed that is about one-year-old. Can one-year-old seeds still provide anti-inflammatory properties? Do they stay fresher in the refrigerator or freezer?

    1. Your flaxseed must be totally oxidised. Always buy whole flaxseed and grind it just before use. I read somewhere that the oil in flaxseed degrades within 15 minutes.

      1. Flaxseed always smells bad to me – like linseed oil so I’m not sure I’d know when it was rancid. I prefer to eat Chia, but I wonder if what Dr. Greger says here about flax also holds true for Chia (and/or hemp).

    2. Brianne, I buy organic ground flaxseed in a vaccum sealed pack which lasts me about a month. Dr Greger says that even if we left it on the kitchen counter for 6 mos it would be fine, but i keep mine in the freezer (along with other grains and nuts). After each use i roll down the top and secure the whole thing with an elastic. If I ground it myself, I would store unused seed/ground seed in the freezer too.

    1. The consumption of phytoestrogen from flaxseed does not appear to affect sex hormone metabolism in males or females, principally due to the phytoestrogens from flaxseed being lignans rather than isoflavones. Phytoestrogen from flaxseed also has no effect on the female sex hormone estrogen.

      1. I’ve also read that it inhibits thyroid function and since I’m hypothyroid, I’m hesitant to consume it. But I don’t know if what I read is accurate or not.

    2. Post some links so that this audience can look at this issue objectively. I’m 66 years old , have been eating flax seed for a long time and haven’t turned into a girl yet!

  15. So NOW! Now that we’ve determined that there is for argument’s sake effectively a 2:1 difference in weight vs volume between whole verses ground flax seeds… Given that 1 Tbs of whole flax seeds weighs ~11g… and 1 Tbs of ground flax seeds weighs ~6.5g… What is the recommended daily intake of flax seeds determined to provide the stated benefits? How about we put that daily recommended amount in weight instead of volume? Ya Think!~?

    1. I answered this already in another reply. The two studies cited I looked at used 30g/ d ground. At 6.5g/ TBL, that’s ~4.5 TBL/d. Also almost 170 cals…

  16. Flax seeds have lots of benefits, but if the goal is to lower blood pressure, I’d wonder if the foods in the dietary nitrates video wouldn’t be more effective (via nitric oxide which is a vasodilator)–dilating blood vessels and lowering blood pressure by that mechanism.

    1. Who knows, but why use only one nutritional ‘tool’? Really anyone with a BP problem should experiment and see what works best for them.

  17. Thank for this info, I recommended it today to my niece, who has a blood pressure of 140/? and takes pills to lower it. She immediately went to shops to buy a coffee grinder and a bag of whole flaxseed and will give it a try. Is 30 grams the recommended dose?

    1. I hope people don’t go running out to buy flax and start consuming 30 grams right away! Especially if they haven’t been eating wfpb for a while. 30 grams could cause significant stomach distress. Please watch the video again Dan and to hear Dr Greger urge beginning very slowly if new to flax. btw, it did nothing for my blood pressure.

    1. If you go back and read what he said, you will fond there seems to be little risk.

      “There has to be some amount of flax that takes you over the limit, though. So, they tested nine tablespoons, and 15 tablespoons too. Remember, we start to worry at around 20 to 40. Three and a half teaspoons of raw high-cyanide ground flax on an empty stomach? Hardly a blip. Seven teaspoons at a time? Same thing. Fourteen teaspoons (****four and a half tablespoons****) and there’s that six.

      Okay, but what about a little over nine tablespoons—that’s over a half-cup at a time—and that does start skirting toxicity. And finally, what about a whole cup? I don’t even know how you’d eat a whole cup at once, but that *is* too much, putting you in that potential toxic range for about three hours.”

      On the other hand, I would not take it all at once and certainly not on an empty stomach.

      It’s also possible a lower dose would be effective. Studies like this show that some amount is sufficient for an effect, not that it’s necessary.
      Personally I would not take 4.5 TBL per day unless I confirmed it was necessary to significantly lower my BP.

      1. You are referring to the toxicity immediately after consuming. At the end of the video (or last paragraph if you are looking at transcript) he talks about “chronic” toxicity, which is eating it every day. That is when he recommends not more than 1.5 TB. Granted, the method used to get to that number is incredibly conservative. But he still recommends it. There is a contradiction here.

        1. Very good point!
          I interpret it this way. If one has blood pressure, rather than use medication, it might be effective and safer overall to try 30g/d ground flax. After all the WHO recommendation is extremely conservative. On the other hand, in the context of someone without high blood pressure, that much ground flax would be overkill. After all, besides any risk, it would amount to about 170 calories and result in a less well diversified diet.
          In the latter case, limiting the a daily amount to 1.5 TBL would be wise.

          Since he does not come right out and make a recommendation contradicting WHO (indeed, it would seem irresponsible to me) but leaves it up to the consumer of his information to decide, it is not an outright contradiction.

          But it is confusing and rightly appears to be mixed messages.

          1. Sounds rational to me. I agree, “contradiction” was definitely not the right word to use. Regretted that after posting but no way to edit.

  18. I have just been diagnosed with hyper parathyroidism and am hoping that there is another way to cure/reverse this condition through food. My doctor doesn’t believe that food is medicine and the information on the internet states that surgery is the ONLY cure. Is that true or can a whole food plant based diet do the job?

    1. Flax Crackers

      2 cups flaxseed meal
      1 cup water approximate
      1 tsp onion powder
      1 tsp garlic powder
      1/2 tsp salt

      Mix all dry ingredients in bowl. Add less than the whole cup of water and mix to asses the mixture. It should make a fairly firm dough. Add water slowly to make it so. Roll dough 1/8-1/4 inch thick between wax paper or parchment. Pull irregular parts and add to corners etc to make a rectangle. remove top paper and score tablespoon sized squares with dull knife. Bake on baking sheet 375 F for 45 minutes or more. Allow the cool fully before storing.

      These crackers actually taste good. They can leave a bit of tenacious flax bits in your teeth but following them with a few walnuts clears the palate well.

      This recipe halves just fine. Many who reject flaxseed meal enjoy these crackers.

    2. Jami, I am not knowledgeable on your condition and the specifics of the diagnosis, but my belief is that not only is food medicine, but that you should get a new doctor. My best best wishes for your recovery and continued good health.

    3. Jami – here is a link to an article on hyperparathyroid and magnesium. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12105390 Also, get and read the book “The Magnesium Miracle” by Carolyn Dean, M.D., ND. When she finished medical school she went straight to naturopathic school. She has a website – google her – and she will “see” you via internet.
      Also – a friend of mine’s wife had terrible heart palpitations. The doc wanted to destroy her thyroid and then put her on synthroid the rest of her life to regulate her heart beat – even though they didn’t know what was wrong with her heart rate. She and husband went to numerous docs and they all had the same solution. Finally she went to a nutritionist and her magnesium was extremely low. Supplements solved her entire problem and saved her thyroid. It turns out that this woman was a strict meat-N-potatoes eater; no vegetables, no greens. So she had no magnesium in her system. This is a great example of how the medical doctors do not know/understand how nutrition can affect the body.
      Let us know how things turn out.

  19. Dr. Greger, you are very entertaining on stage but very distracting in these science fact videos. It should not be about you but about the information that you are trying to convey to the audience. Your image is a distraction. Appreciate what you do. Don’t need a face. Your interesting voice says it all. Thank you.

  20. I take flaxseeds daily because it reduces benign prostate gland enlargement. I take one tablespoon a day and I can pee at normal speed.
    If I skip two days I’ll notice the change. So I try not to ever skip it!

    I first read about using it to treat my prostate from https://nutritionfacts.org/2013/10/03/flaxseeds-for-prostate-cancer/ with a follow up here. https://nutritionfacts.org/video/was-it-the-laxseed-fat-restriction-or-both/

    I tell all men I know about this, even though it’s embarrassing to talk about. I feel it’s a huge benefit to quality of life. My doctor didn’t have much else to offer for this problem, so I told HER about it!

    1. And will it straighten out my big toe that I broke a coupla years ago while not concentrating as I was bouncing away on my rebounder? Catapulted onto the floor. :-(

    1. Why should one grind a big batch and store it in the fridge risking oxidation? Just grind the amount needed just before consumption. Takes 30 seconds.

  21. Hey team at NutritionFacts!

    I’m just wondering what is the best way to eat flaxseeds to get the most out of them? I’ve heard that if you eat them whole they do not digest and if you blend them the nutrients escapes very quickly.

    Would like some advice as I want to get my parents on to them ASAP.

    Ricky :)

    1. Hi, Ricky! Flax seeds need to be either ground or thoroughly chewed in order to get optimal nutrient absorption. When people are fed whole flaxseeds, some may not be chewed up and can pass right through you, so ground flaxseed may be best overall (https://nutritionfacts.org/2013/10/15/flaxseeds-for-breast-cancer-prevention/). Dr. Greger encourages everyone to incorporate one tablespoon of ground flax seeds into their diet each day as part of the Daily Dozen (https://nutritionfacts.org/audio/daily-dozen-checklist/).

  22. I know it’s another topic but I have two questions…

    I have amenorrhea for over 8 years now, does anyone have some advice to get my period back?

    And second question..
    after eating too many pumpkins I now have carotenemia, what is the quickest remedie to get my normal skin color back? are there certain foods that can help?

    Sending lots of love!

    1. Demi…..wha-a-a-a-t? No period for over eight years? Haven’t you been going to medical specialists to find the cause of this (although I truly find it hard to believe)? I’ve watched video interviews of ex-vegans who said they’ve lost their periods while on the diet and I doubt if any of them put up with it for very long. You said nothing about what you eat in a day.

      https://www.webmd.com/infertility-and-reproduction/guide/absence-periods

      As for remedying your yellow skin, why not search the ‘Net for answers:

      http://www.naturalcurefor.com/treatments/carotenemia

      1. Hi!

        Yeah,i lost my period when I was 16 years old… I have been struggling with anorexia and orthorexia for over 8 years, so that is the cause. Im WFPB vegan now for 2 years and I absolutely love it. The only thing im struggling with is what the best way is to gain weight… (of course wpb vegan, but which foods etc – eg. More fats?)

        And the yellow skin is something I cannot find a lot info about unfortunately, are there certain foods that can help getting my normal skin colour back sooner?

        1. Congrats on your success going WFPB vegan! Just to clarify, though, unlike the legitimate and very serious disorder that is anorexia, orthorexia isn’t a real disorder (there are videos on orthorexia on this site), but an eating disorder manifesting in eating “perfect” to an unhealthy and obsessive degree is absolutely possible so I’m not undermining anything you’ve gone through. It is just that the person who made orthorexia was unqualified (to say the least) and the definition of his made up term of orthorexia and the basis of diagnosis is actually quite literally insane to the point where we would all fall under the category.

          If you have yellow skin, you should get your liver checked if you haven’t because that can be serious. So you want to rule that out if you haven’t already.

          From what I gather so far from Dr. Greger’s presentation on “How Not To Diet,” It seems that if you’re trying to gain weight then a few things could be helpful… High calorie foods are obviously going to be helpful because you’re going to want to consume more calories than you burn in order to store fat, but you also want to absorb the calories optimally. So it would be good to have things like nut butters (when they’re blended like this, you absorb more of the fat and more of the calories) and smoothies would likely be very helpful. And probably not a good idea to have vinegar with every meal if trying to gain weight. Also staying away from a lot of spicy food while trying to gain weight is likely helpful because the capsaicin in hot peppers puts you in a state of thermogenesis which causes your body to burn more energy.

          1. Hi Shaylen,

            Thank you so much! Yes, I saw that video. It started first with anorexia for a couple of years but after that there was a period that I “allowed” myself to eat certain foods, but I was so scared of it that I only ate 10 kinds of foods or so for a year long (every day the same)… because I wanted to be as healthy as possible, but because I red so many things online 0 this is good this is bad and so on I skipped almost everything (even most of the fruits etc). But because of that scarcity mindset, I ate for a whole year long pumpkin every single say (yeah I know it sounds crazy but yeah….) so I know the yellow skin is probably a consequence of that distorted eating pattern.

            I have received how not to diet today , can’t wait to read it. But my question, if im going to eat more fats like nut butters, won’t I then store a lot more fat (instead of muscle)? I am doing very moderately some weight exercises each day for 20 min or so but not too much because I don’t want to lose weight…

            Sending lots of love

    2. I seemed other commenters have provided some good advice to you, Demi, but as a volunteer and nurse on this site, I want to stress that you DO want to check out that lack of menstruation now that you are eating a healthy whole-food diet. Here is a general article that will help you be prepared when you consult a physician on that issue https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amenorrhea/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20369304/
      On the issue of wanting to get back to a less orange tone, treatment for carotenemia does not focus on any medications or treatment other than stop eating so many orange vegetables. I wish for your sake I could’ve found a simple antidotal food recommendation, but there does not seem to be one:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534878/ Carotenemia. And once this condition is resolved don’t give up on those carrots–just don’t over indulge.
      I see you asked another question later expressing concern that to gain weight adding nut butters might be hazardous to your health. Again, use common sense and just don’t overindulge. If you’re eating a variety of healthy grains, fruits and veggies, beans, etc. adding 2 servings of nut butters or handfuls of nuts and seeds will give you the calories plus the nutrients that will help you gain weight while not adding too much fat. Here is another article on healthy weight gain: https://www.nomeatathlete.com/gain-weight-vegan/

  23. I love hearing good news about flaxseed. I put 2 tablespoons of ground flaxseed (grind them up on-the-spot with my coffee grinder) into a green smoothie 5 days a week. Sometimes I add some chia seeds to the mix. My favorite “green” to add is broccoli sprouts. Baby arugula is 2nd favorite green.

    1. Yes, absolutely! I’ve been doing a minimum of two tbsp ground flax per day for consecutive years. Most flax is eaten raw, but it’s stable to cook as well and makes an incredible egg replacement in pretty much any baking recipe (1 tbsp ground flax combined with 3 tbsp water, sat for 15 minutes = a flax egg).

      Just make sure to grind them first or buy them pre-ground otherwise they will just pass right through you and you won’t absorb any of their goodness.

  24. Off topic, but I AM SO FRUSTRATED!!!!!!! Dr. Greger talks about how common cyanocobolamin is, but every single brand of cyanocobolamin I have found either has gelatin or beeswax in it and is not vegan. Every single effing VEGAN B12 supplement, even when specifically searching the internet for vegan CYANO B12, is freaking methylcoblamin!!!!!!!!!!! The best of I’ve found has been vegan safe that at least uses a combination of methyl and the other natural form our body needs and is in dark bottles protected from light, seems to work well to me but is expensive! So THANKS stupid companies for only making the lesser researched form of B12 available to those in this for the rights of innocent lives.

    So, does ANYONE here know of any VEGAN cyanocobolamin brand or brands?

    1. Dr Guest, please read the “Doctor’s Notes’ for related linked videos that answer your questions. Also, peruse the comment section because related topics of dosage, serving suggestions and toxicity were all discussed.

  25. My comment is for Nutritionfacts.org from a professional performer. I felt that the speeding up of Dr. Gregor in this video (probably done post-production because the high science content of the video was making it get long) detracts from Dr. Gregor’s humanity and believability, which has been an important factor in the success of his work. Presentation counts! Flax seed looks great, I’m going to have to increase my intake. 30 grams a day is a lot! Maybe I’ll aim for 20–

    1. I’m of the “if in doubt, don’t” school of thought. I’ll stick to my half tablespoon of flaxseed meal in my morning gruel. Along with some chia seeds and raw organic pumpkin seeds. Enuf already!

  26. I noticed several people posting mentioned feeding their dog vegan diet. Canines must have B12/taurine etc or it can be devastating results in a few years. Vegedog makes a supplement but unfortunately, as with alot of their products, soy is used alot and the supplements are not natural. Soy is hard for dogs to digest. Personally I would get a rabbit etc if I only want to feed vegan. I feed my dogs a vegetarian diet which is safer but do give occasional meat too for their health.

    1. I have a pet rabbit which makes for a great companion animal. However, if I had a dog I would definitely feed it vegan, and feed it a high quality vegan dog food.

  27. Hello, I would like to know what is the minimum amount of fat that a healthy diet should contain. I’m currently eating a low fat whole foods plant-based diet that contains only 1 tablespoon of ground flaxseed per day as a source of fat. I do not eat nuts and oils becouse I don’t like them. I eat lots of fruits, veggies, oatmeal, starches, beans and rarely soy products such as tofu and soybeans
    Is it possible to get an omega-6 deficiency long term?

    Thank you

    1. The same question has crossed my mind recently. I think a safe bet on Total fat is not to go below 15% of energy intake. 15% to 20% should benefit CVD. Then the issue is about components of fats. An excessive amount of required omega 3 in the form of EPA + DHA (fish) can cause bleeding (the Inuit have bleeding noses), How much of total omega 3 will depend on total energy needs. But roughly not more than 4 g/day.for 3000+ kcal/day and less for 2000 kcal/day. This is for ALA (flaxseeds) + fish (EPA + DHA). 2g/day of EPA + DHA is max. About 0.5 g of DHA + EPA seems a safe bet. The rest of the omega 3 would come from ALA.
      .
      100 g of flaxseeds contains 28.1 g of omega 3 in the form of ALA, I tbsp (15 g) gives 3.4 g of ALA. That’s why no more than 1 tbsp of flaxseeds is recommended. It can be even lower if we take into consideration the intake of omega 3 from other sources.such as canola oil. 20 g of canola oil would provide 1.5 g of ALA. Intuitively 4 g/day of ALA seems low. .
      But if that ‘s a safe bet than the combination of (flaxseed + olive oil) is best because olive oil has a very low amount of omega 3.
      In general, the distinctions should be made for intake of nutrients to treat some medical conditions where the doses are tipically higher and are not meant for long-term use and for intakes to prevent chronic diseases.

  28. Dr. Greger, Please know, I absolutely love the information you get out to us but it is very hard to concentrate on the information
    when we’re watching you in the video. I much prefer the previous format–all the focus on the information. It’s too distracting
    watching you then trying to grasp the main concepts. It goes almost too fast. Thanks. Please stick with the format of focusing on the research.

  29. I was eating 1- 2 tablespoons ground flaxseed daily for two years on a WFPB DIET and I was feeling well. I am gluten-free and vegan. Then, a few months ago, I developed G.I. issues- cramping, diarrhea daily with lower energy level. I drink plenty of water but was concerned about getting dehydrated. It took me two months of elimination of one food at a time to figure out that it was the flaxseed. I tried a couple different brands but had the same result. Since I stopped eating it a month ago, my gut has been very happy again.
    However, I don’t want to miss out on the benefits of flaxseed. Has anyone else experienced similar affects? If so, I wonder if I stayed off it for a month or two, whether I can slowly introduce it to my diet again. Chia seeds seems to react the same way in my body as flaxseed. I do eat a lot of hempseed without any adverse reactions. Advice would be welcome. Thank you kindly.

    1. Sorry, no advice – but I’ve run into the same issue as you. I got GI issues immediately, though it took me few days to identify flax seeds as the cause. I was adding 5 gm of ground flax to my dal daily, and it hit me pretty hard. If you google “flax side effects”, you’ll GI issues are usually included.

      I put “flax colitis” in the PubMed search https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ and came across PMID: 30095298 Ground flaxseed reverses protection of a reduced-fat diet against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

      So, for me, no more flax for the time being.

      Perhaps NutritionFacts.org could address how to deal with flax GI issues, particularly for those who have IBD and want to reduce inflammation with flax.

  30. Hi there,
    I have been following a plant-based diet for over 2 months now. Although my intake was never high on processed foods, I decided to recently construct the diet to include RDA values of most micro-nutrients.
    The problem I faced was getting all these minerals and vitamins in at their recommended values, maintaining the daily upper limits of 3 gms of Omega 3s (and also keeping a healthy ratio of 1:4 between 3s and 6s).
    I could only manage a 1:8 ratio and was also still not meeting the daily Calcium requirements (since a study linked regular Tofu consumption with cognitive degeneration in old age).
    I tried to turn to Chia seeds for Calcium but that upset the omega3:6 ratios heavily.
    Could you suggest a diet plan that hits all the micro-nutrients naturally without hitting upper limits
    Regards

    1. Are you getting your calcium RDA number from an American source? If so, you might rather follow the WHO RDAs because they aren’t skewed by the corrupt influence of the dairy industry.

  31. Hello?
    I was just thinking if there are any differeten in taking whole flaxseed or grounded?
    I have read it somewhere but dont remember the source.

    Does anyone know?

  32. Good for you, Rickie, to know about the benefits of flax seed, but to get those benefits, you ARE going to need to either ground them yourself (a small electric coffee grinder works fine) or buy them ground. The tough covering on the whole seeds prevents the body from breaking them down (unlike chia sees) and they pass out of the body without the benefits you’d be getting if they’d been ground. Dr. Greger often cites the benefits of flax seeds but you’ll see most references spell out they must be ground. Hope that helps.

  33. I started eating WFPB about a month back. Everything was going well – losing weight and not feeling hungry or deprived.

    Then I added 5 gm of ground flax to my diet, and got GI issues pretty soon after – took me a while to link it to flax, though.

    I googled “flax side effects” and GI issues are commonly mentioned.

    I searched for scientific research on PubMed with the search term “flax colitis”, and found PMID: 30095298 “Ground flaxseed reverses protection of a reduced-fat diet against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.”

    Perhaps NutritionFacts.org could provide some guidance on what to do if you experience GI discomfort after adding flax to your diet?
    For me, I am avoiding flax for now.

    1. Halheirich-Thank you for supplying that research article. (I will forward your concerns and this study (PMID: 30095298 “Ground flaxseed reverses protection of a reduced-fat diet against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.”) to Dr. Greger for review) We need to recognize that while the study you cited was a mice study and focused on subjects that had colotis , it may (or may not) have some relevance to your specific situation, Certainly your decision to avoid flax for now seems to make sense for you, recognizing that bodies have different sensitivities and continuing to take flax seed when you experience recurring symptoms seems counterproductive, even if for the majority flax seed provides benefits. In your case you will want to be expecially diligent in making sure you are getting those needed omega-3s in ways other than through flax seeds.

  34. You are in luck! while flax seeds are indeed high in lignans, many other whole food sources are available. Here’s what one reputable resources cited as alternative possibilities for you:
    Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123251
    Dietary Lignans: Definition, Description and Research Trends in Databases Development
    “The main sources of dietary lignans are oilseeds (i.e., flax, soy, rapeseed, and sesame), whole-grain cereals (i.e., wheat, oats, rye, and barley), legumes, various vegetables and fruit (particularly berries), as well as beverages, such as coffee, tea, and wine…” By eating a whole food plant based diet, you will be eating many lignans. Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123251

    Finally, one other link I looked at cited peas as the next highest after the seeds, and when we consider that you may be eating much more of peas (serving size 1 cup) v seeds, that may be one food you might especially want to include in your diet if you’re focusing on lignan intake, although again just focusing on whole foods listed above should be sufficient

    1. Hi Julia, ground flax (meal) is the best for absorption. You can either buy it like that (I do that and store the whole bag in the fridge to keep them fresh). Or you can buy whole and grind them in a coffee grinder in smaller batches. Hope that helps!

  35. I’ve been doing 30 grams per day of flax seed for about 4 weeks now and I report that it’s working well! I’m finally off my BP meds.

  36. Hi everyone! I am a physical therapist and one of the top questions I get from patients is how to decrease inflammation. From reading your book How Not to Die and these videos I have good info but I am looking to see if there is some already published/created handouts with this information? I would love to be able to give out something to my patients who ask about lowering inflammation.

    Thanks!

  37. I recently switched to a plant-based diet after receiving How Not to Die as a 2019 Christmas gift. I read it and next read How Not to Diet. I am so grateful for this wealth of scientific information! I seem to have a food sensitivity to ground flaxseed, though. After a week of eating 2 Tbsp of ground flaxseed each morning with my oat groats for breakfast, I started feeling fatigued. This happened to me when I tried “The Plan” diet a couple of years ago – I ate the recommended unground flaxseed granola for almost 3 weeks and stopped because I was experiencing marked fatigue. I both cases, once I stopped eating flaxseed, I felt better the next morning. Chia seeds seem to give me a similar problem, although I haven’t tried eating them on a daily basis. Is there a food that you can recommend for me to eat instead of flaxseed and chia seeds? Do you think it would be a bad idea for me to eat flaxseed occasionally, rather than daily, if I indeed have a food sensitivity to it? Note: The allergy tests I had a couple of years ago (when I tried the Plan diet) found no food allergies. I was specifically tested for flaxseed a flaxseed allergy at that time.

  38. I am quite sure I saw a Greger video which contained graphics similar to this one but he was discussing ACE inhibitor BP meds which acted at two biologic sites whose names ended in 1 and 2. One action lowered BP but the other action was detrimental. Flax seed acts only on the beneficial site.

    I cannot find that video.

    There is speculation in JAMA (https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2763803) that the lung sites increased by ACE inhibitors attract sars cov-2 viri.

    The Video may be pertinent to Covid 9 infection if one could replace his/her ACE inhibitor with Flax.

  39. There are multiple studies clarifying the benefits of flax seeds for men’s health (see https://nutritionfacts.org/video/flaxseed-vs-prostate-cancer/
    https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/flax-seeds/
    https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-flaxseeds#section7/ (This last article cites multiple studies). Many studies clarify how phytoestrogens are healthful for both men and women, and several point out how the increased Omega3s improve blood flow which can improve male sexual function. However because you asked specifically about testosterone, I searched in PubMed to clarify flax seeds effect on testosterone I found these 2 encouraging studies, although both were animal studies: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10321385/?from_term=testosterone+and+flax+seeds&from_pos=6
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691512006199 Hope this helps answer your question.

    ,

  40. Which is better, shelled flaxseed or flaxseed with the hull, for inflammatory benefits? And does roasting significantly reduce the benefit? Has anyone put these to the test?

  41. Here are two articles that will answer your questions and provide research studies as you requested.
    http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=dailytip&dbid=18
    Are flaxseeds still nutritious even after they are heated or baked?
    “Research studies have shown that the ALA in flaxseeds and the lignan phytonutrients in this food are surprisingly heat stable. For this reason, we believe that it safe to use flaxseeds in baking and still receive substantial amounts of ALA and other nutrients when consuming the flax-containing cooked foods.” and
    https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-clinic-q-and-a-flaxseed-a-nutritional-powerhouse/ Mayo Clinic Q and A: Flaxseed — a nutritional powerhouse “Unripe and raw flaxseed can have toxins that may be harmful in high doses. “
    Most commercial flax seeds are prepared with roasting. Just avoid any that add oil or salt and do make sure they are dehulled, Meaning they are ground, as intact seeds pass through the body and will provide you no benefit. Hope this helps

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