How Many Calories Do You Burn Chewing Gum?

How Many Calories Do You Burn Chewing Gum?
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What are the effects of gum chewing on hunger and appetite?

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Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

“Horace Fletcher,” proclaimed one of his obituaries in 1919, “taught the world to chew.” Also known as the “Great Masticator,” Fletcher was a health reformer who popularized the idea of chewing each mouthful more than 32 times (“once for every tooth”). It wasn’t put to the test, though, until nearly a century later. People were told to eat pasta until they were “comfortably full,” but were randomized to either “Chew each mouthful 10 times” or “Chew each mouthful 35 times” before swallowing. The subjects were told it was a study about “the effects of chewing on mood” — but that was just a ruse. What the researchers really wanted to know is whether “prolonged chewing reduce[d] food intake.” And, those who chewed more felt full earlier than those who chewed less, such that they ended up eating about a third of a cup less pasta overall.

If chewing in some way suppresses your appetite, what about chewing gum as a weight loss strategy? An article entitled “Benefits of Chewing Gum” suggested as much, but it was written by
“the executive director of The Wrigley Science Institute.” Let’s see what the science says.

Big Gum likes to point to this letter published in The New England Journal of Medicine back in 1999. Mayo Clinic researchers claimed gum chewing could burn 11 calories an hour. Critics pointed to the fact that they didn’t really test typical gum chewing, instead chewing the equivalent of four sticks of gum “at a very rapid cadence.” Specifically, they were “instructed to chew at a frequency of precisely 100 Hz” for 12 minutes. That seemed to burn 2.2 calories, hence potentially 11 calories an hour.

One might have had more confidence in the Mayo scientists’ conclusion had they not lacked a fundamental understanding of basic units. A hundred Hz would mean 100 chews per second—that would be a very rapid cadence indeed. If the 11 calories an hour is true, though, that might mean you could burn more calories actively chewing gum sitting in a chair than you would not-chewing-gum upright at a standing desk.

But chewing one small piece of gum at your own pace may only burn about three calories an hour, which would approximate the calorie content of sugar-free gum itself. But chewing off the calories of a piece of sugar-sweetened gum might take all day. But what about the purported appetite-suppressing effect of all that chewing?

The results from studies on the effects of gum chewing on hunger are all over the place. Some studies show decreased appetite, some showed no effect, and one even showed significantly increased hunger after gum chewing among women. The more important question, though, is: are there any changes in subsequent calorie intake? Again, the findings are mixed. One study even found that while gum chewing didn’t much impact M&M consumption, it did appear to decrease the consumption of healthy snacks. Ah, but they used mint gum, and the healthy snacks included mandarin orange slices; so, this may have just been an orange-juice-after-tooth-brushing effect.

It can take an hour before the residual taste effect of mint toothpaste dissipates. This is bad if it cuts your fruit intake, but what about harnessing this power against Pringles? An international group of researchers had people eat Pringles potato chips for 12 minutes, interrupting them every three minutes to swish with a menthol mouthwash. Compared to those in the control groups (swishing with water or nothing at all) the minty mouthwash group cut their consumption 29 percent. The researchers conclude: “if a consumer finds themselves snacking on too many [chips]…, one potential strategy could be intervening by having a peppermint tea, menthol-flavoured chewing gum, or brushing their teeth to slow down or stop snacking.”

What really matters, though, is weight loss. Even if some tweak like gum chewing can affect the consumption of a single snack, your body could just compensate by eating more later in the day. The only way to know for sure if gum chewing can be used a weight loss hack is to… put it to the test, which we’ll cover next.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: RobinHiggins via pixabay. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

“Horace Fletcher,” proclaimed one of his obituaries in 1919, “taught the world to chew.” Also known as the “Great Masticator,” Fletcher was a health reformer who popularized the idea of chewing each mouthful more than 32 times (“once for every tooth”). It wasn’t put to the test, though, until nearly a century later. People were told to eat pasta until they were “comfortably full,” but were randomized to either “Chew each mouthful 10 times” or “Chew each mouthful 35 times” before swallowing. The subjects were told it was a study about “the effects of chewing on mood” — but that was just a ruse. What the researchers really wanted to know is whether “prolonged chewing reduce[d] food intake.” And, those who chewed more felt full earlier than those who chewed less, such that they ended up eating about a third of a cup less pasta overall.

If chewing in some way suppresses your appetite, what about chewing gum as a weight loss strategy? An article entitled “Benefits of Chewing Gum” suggested as much, but it was written by
“the executive director of The Wrigley Science Institute.” Let’s see what the science says.

Big Gum likes to point to this letter published in The New England Journal of Medicine back in 1999. Mayo Clinic researchers claimed gum chewing could burn 11 calories an hour. Critics pointed to the fact that they didn’t really test typical gum chewing, instead chewing the equivalent of four sticks of gum “at a very rapid cadence.” Specifically, they were “instructed to chew at a frequency of precisely 100 Hz” for 12 minutes. That seemed to burn 2.2 calories, hence potentially 11 calories an hour.

One might have had more confidence in the Mayo scientists’ conclusion had they not lacked a fundamental understanding of basic units. A hundred Hz would mean 100 chews per second—that would be a very rapid cadence indeed. If the 11 calories an hour is true, though, that might mean you could burn more calories actively chewing gum sitting in a chair than you would not-chewing-gum upright at a standing desk.

But chewing one small piece of gum at your own pace may only burn about three calories an hour, which would approximate the calorie content of sugar-free gum itself. But chewing off the calories of a piece of sugar-sweetened gum might take all day. But what about the purported appetite-suppressing effect of all that chewing?

The results from studies on the effects of gum chewing on hunger are all over the place. Some studies show decreased appetite, some showed no effect, and one even showed significantly increased hunger after gum chewing among women. The more important question, though, is: are there any changes in subsequent calorie intake? Again, the findings are mixed. One study even found that while gum chewing didn’t much impact M&M consumption, it did appear to decrease the consumption of healthy snacks. Ah, but they used mint gum, and the healthy snacks included mandarin orange slices; so, this may have just been an orange-juice-after-tooth-brushing effect.

It can take an hour before the residual taste effect of mint toothpaste dissipates. This is bad if it cuts your fruit intake, but what about harnessing this power against Pringles? An international group of researchers had people eat Pringles potato chips for 12 minutes, interrupting them every three minutes to swish with a menthol mouthwash. Compared to those in the control groups (swishing with water or nothing at all) the minty mouthwash group cut their consumption 29 percent. The researchers conclude: “if a consumer finds themselves snacking on too many [chips]…, one potential strategy could be intervening by having a peppermint tea, menthol-flavoured chewing gum, or brushing their teeth to slow down or stop snacking.”

What really matters, though, is weight loss. Even if some tweak like gum chewing can affect the consumption of a single snack, your body could just compensate by eating more later in the day. The only way to know for sure if gum chewing can be used a weight loss hack is to… put it to the test, which we’ll cover next.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: RobinHiggins via pixabay. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video

Doctor's Note

Stay tuned for the thrilling conclusion in my next video: Does Chewing Gum Help with Weight Loss?

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

60 responses to “How Many Calories Do You Burn Chewing Gum?

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  1. Hahaha, ZERO!

    I’m the “patient who doesn’t chew gum”.

    Paraphrase-expansion of thought from the old Dentyne ads selling gum for preventing cavities: “4 of of 5 patients, who chew gum..”. Only chewed it as a kid and then it was all about fake flavors, another source of sugar, blowing bubbles, breaking rules, and gum that goes squirt. yuck.

    Also I find it disgusting to see the fake colors added to the Wrigley’s line, as my mother does chew gum, and Juicy Fruit is now artificially constructed–unlike the old days.

  2. A gum-chewing girl and a cud-chewing cow
    Seem somewhat alike, but different, somehow.
    Ah, yes! There it is! I see it all now!
    There’s a contented look on the face of the cow.

    1. RichardW, comparing a gum-chewing female to a cud-chewing cow seems like a very strong attempt at misogyny, but it’s hard to find offense in the comparison to an incredibly beautiful animal. I think I’m more offended at the fact that the attempt is to use the animal as an insult.

      1. S, I admire your gumption and your love of womenkind and your love of cows.

        Richard is repeating a poem they used to teach in schools to prevent children from chewing gum.

        The schools had to figure out how to get all of those children to not stick gum under the desks.

        I would say that it does sound misogynistic, but they did do a male version of it, sometimes.

  3. He’s doing one on….chewing gum?

    I haven’t chewed gum since I was a kid. Nowadays, I don’t chew gum (it’s considered “processed, yes?) because I’d worry that my jaw might lock or one of my partials would dislodge. Can’t have that going on. :-( And I certainly don’t need to lose weight.

    Gum chewing, rather than “calm” my nerves, would make me nervous instead. Once the flavor is gone, I’d wanna chuck it somewhere. Can’t really do that while out in public unless nobody is around Better not to aim for the sidewalk though; somebody might get the wad stuck on the bottom of their shoe.

    How ’bout chewing tobacco instead? *kidding*

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NYDdMflpQs

    1. YR, How do you ever come up with these appropriate songs so quickly? This one conjures up vile images, but does have a nice rhythm :-)

    2. YR and to everyone who does or may possible chew gum, please NEVER CHUCK IT ANYWHERE except in a trash can. Birds will sometimes eat the gum and it can seriously harm them. So… chew responsibly?

        1. Heck, S, I never intend to chew gum again (as I posted). I was thinking back to when I was a kid. Seems to me we also stuck the wad under a school desk.

          BTW, the “gum-chewing cow” ditty has been around for a long time. I for one don’t see that RichardW was insulting an animal. I think he should have put quotes around it, however, to show that he wasn’t the one who made up the poem.

          1. Yes, Deb graciously pointed that out to me lol. Quotes would’ve helped, I never heard of the poem.

            You reminded me that when I was little me and my brother used to have contests at a restaurant we’d go to. Whoever had the most old stuck gum under their side of the table won.

  4. A very svelte colleague of mine would eat her lunch and then, often, chew a stick of gum. She said she’d had sufficient calories for lunch but didn’t feel like she was “done chewing”. I sometimes feel the same way – I’ve consumed sufficient calories but don’t, yet, feel satiated. I want to chew more. It’s satisfying and calming. Little baby sweet carrots are good solutions for me. But I remember, also, as a child, chewing on the soft ends of wild grasses. I would contend that chewing is an important part of eating-satiation. If the gum didn’t stick to my dental work I would chew it after a meal as well.

      1. I still chew wild ‘grasses which are many times tasty plants. The tartness of three leaved clover is still a fave.

    1. Most people have gum after eating because brushing their teeth is not always possible and they want to not have stank breath.

      1. Reality bites,

        You are right about that. I have some around but haven’t used very much since going WFPB.

        I only used it when I ate things like garlic or when I had a dry mouth. Garlic doesn’t bother me anymore and my mouth is hydrated from drinking more water.

        I no longer have a sense of “bad breath” and maybe I am also not socializing the way I used to.

        I used to pray with people at church and that was when I used gum for a few minutes. I used mints, too, and those didn’t have the disposal problem, but I would always save the wrappers, so disposal wasn’t a big problem.

      2. Most people? I don’t think so.

        At home I just wait a half-hour or so before brushing, but when I eat out with others I pop an “Altoids Curiously Strong Mints.” Wintergreen is my favorite.

    1. Ruth,

      That was interesting.

      Particularly because they fed a 90% fat diet, so it wasn’t semi-Keto, it was genuinely Keto. That 90% fat diet was one which I did consider when my dog got cancer, but he didn’t like oil.

      It will be interesting to learn which cancers can be improved with ketosis and which cancers get worse with fat and whether water fasting would have also made it worse since they spoke about the keto pathway.

      1. This mutation is found in more than 60 percent of melanomas and all of the hairy cell type of leukemia, as well as a subset of colorectal cancers (10 percent) and multiple myelomas (5 percent).

        That is something I will be posting on the Keto cancer sites. They need to know what type of cancer they have.

        1. That is funny!

          Well, then, there were two.

          Thanks for the fresh link.

          The concept that there is something called “cancer plasticity” is going to cause my brain plasticity to have to work harder.

      2. It may be worth remembering too that all cells, including cancer cells, contain cholesterol.

        While our cells can synthesise cholesterol, free cholesterol circulating in our bloodstream may be used to construct new cells. Cancers need to hook into our blood supply to grow (angiogenesis). Our blood supplies oxygen and nutrients to the cancer.

        This may be one reason why blood cholesterol levels in people with cancer often seem to decline – cancers may use the free cholesterol in our blood supply to construct new cells. It would be more efficient that synthesising cholesterol de novo.

        Both dietary saturated fat and dietary cholesterol are known to increase blood cholesterol levels. There is therefore reason to think that keto diets high in animal fats and cholesterol may increase cancer growth (all other things being equal).

        http://www.jlr.org/content/35/11/1993.full.pdf

        1. Tom,

          That is something to think about.

          I will give Dr. Seyfried his few cases where Keto helped and I will give Keto Pet sanctuary their due, but they healed 1 dog and I know that you would say that it could have even been spontaneous remission or whatever.

          We already examined the skeptic looking at Dr. Seyfried and Keto’s success.

          It will be interesting to see if water fasting as a type of Keto does the same thing as the adding fat in type of Keto. If the fat is released from the fat cells, well… I don’t know how to process it yet.

          I am trying to catch up, but the science is so complicated in every area. Can’t wait for the Keto series. Must be coming soon.

    2. That is really interesting. I am wondering if a low fat diet would help. I’ve noticed that since I cut out all added fat sources, (nuts, avocados,) in my diet except for a daily tbsp of flax seed, my complexion has improved markedly. I also dropped 5 pounds which for me is a good thing.

      1. I had a different experience with skin and fat intake. When I was extremely low fat and only consuming flax and chia for fat sources, my skin and hair got HORRIBLE as well as hormonal issues. My hair got really thin and I was having breakouts which I never had in my life. I finally read that not enough omega-6 can cause breakouts due to the type of fat your skin needs and omega-6 is also essential for hair and it’s my understanding that EFA’s are important for hormonal function.

        1. Hi, Shaylen, To be more specific, I had rosacea with little pustules on my face. Those are almost totally gone. I occasionally skip the flax seed and have a nut serving instead. For example, today I had basil pesto (using walnuts instead of any oil,) on bread with huge “slabs!” of fresh tomato from my wonderful CSA. Sometimes I’ll have soup for a meal and grind up some cashews or walnuts to make a creamy soup instead of the flax seed, but since it’s summer, I’m not doing many soups!

          1. That basil pesto tomato on bread sounds awesome. That is so cool to hear that your WFPB diet helped so dramatically with rosacea! Thanks for specifying, you definitely sound more balanced in your fat intake than I was during my extreme period which was derived from the paranoia I got from internet “information” on crazy omega 3:6 ratios depicting omega-6 as evil independent of source. Anyway, that really is interesting about the rosacea, I wonder if they ever put a low fat and/or plant based diet to the test for rosacea.

  5. I used to chew gum, but the problem is that it’s really difficult finding gum made with sugar instead of artificial sweeteners. My issue with this is that I found the sweeteners in gum to be very addictive, as well as inflammatory for mouth tissues and in general. I suspected that the sweeteners also played havoc with the good gut bugs. xylitol is another heavily marketed item with little science to back it up. https://www.cochrane.org/CD010743/ORAL_can-xylitol-used-in-products-like-sweets-candy-chewing-gum-and-toothpaste-help-prevent-tooth-decay-in-children-and-adults

    1. Xylitol Is Toxic To Dogs. … Because it’s such a strong stimulator of insulin release in dogs, it takes just a small amount of xylitol (0.1g/kg) eaten by a dog to cause a dangerous drop in blood sugar (“hypoglycemia”). Mild hypoglycemia will typically cause weakness and a lack of coordination.Aug 10, 2015
      Xylitol: The “sugar-free” sweetener your dog NEEDS you to know …
      https://www.preventivevet.com/dogs/xylitol-sugar-free-sweetener-dangerous-for-dogs

      1. Great info, cp, thanks for sharing!! Terrifying to think about since dogs can easily get into gum. In fact my dog had stolen a pack of juicy fruit out of my mom or one of my aunts purses when I was a kid and he had it stashed under my parents bed. We’d always find him with juicy fruit gum stuck to his fur around his mouth and wonder where the hell he kept getting it until one day my mom found a big chewed up pack of juicy fruit under her bed lol.

    2. Artificial sweeteners undoubtedly suck, with perhaps the exception of erythritol, but I’d also hate to think about chewing on sugar. On that note, it would be nice if there were more science on xylitol since they claim it’s good for your teeth and is actually used in some toothpastes.

  6. Gum-chewing is the most unattractive and repulsive (after slurping at a dinner table) sight, especially when it’s accompanied by sound effect and wide opened mouth. When it comes to calorie-burning, are 3-11 calories/hour worth consuming all those inedible ingredients of gum whether it’s sugary (high fructose syrup) or sugar-free (aspartame). Lose-Lose situation to me…

    1. “especially when it’s accompanied by sound effect and wide opened mouth.”
      – – – – –

      For sure! I always hate to listen to the (usually female) gum chewers on the bus. They like to see how often they can ‘”crack” their gum. Very annoying to fellow passengers. :-(

      1. Elementary manners that people are lacking…
        Only because chewing burns you 3, even 300 calories, it should not be done in public. When people feel bloated after devouring everything within their sight, most of us do not resort to a common way of relieving it in public, do we? It should be as clear as covering your cough, covering your yawn because nobody cares to see the end of your GI tract when you yawn with your siren on and your stretched to the max mouth-dentists’ dream!
        We have to keep in mind that misophonia is a real condition..,

        1. NZ, I do not chew gum and have no desire to chew gum in the future, but your obnoxious comment makes me feel like choking back a pack of gum and chewing it in your face. People can PUBLICLY CHEW GUM IF THEY WANT. Also, PEOPLE CAN YAWN WITHOUT WORRYING ABOUT HIDEOUS JUDGMENTAL PSYCOS LIKE YOU. Coughing is good to cover obviously because of viruses. And you don’t see one’s GI tract when someone yawns. I suggest you do yourself and the world a favor and stay in your house.

          Also–and this is very important–misophonia or anything else doesn’t mean the world should adjust to it. It is a DISORDER and the world cannot and SHOULD NOT adjust to DISORDERS… Imagine if the world’s behaviors revolved around every single condition? Now THAT would be insane.

          Elementary manners… you need to check your freaking thought process.

    2. I don’t find the thought of chewing gum appealing anymore and agree about all those ingredients, but I really don’t think it’s gross or unattractive. The only gross part is the thought of people chewing on all that chemical crap and perhaps smelling the artificial “mint” flavors and so on.

  7. Speaking of gum stuck under tables and desks and sidewalks: One of my first jobs as a kid in my pop’s grocery store, was to scrape up all the gum stuck to the tile and concrete floors. We used the old flat steel box cutters with a razor mounted perpendicular to the handle, not in the regular slot for opening boxes (wonder if those are made anymore). I remember because the gum was always black as I found it-from being tramped upon, but usually revealed some great artificial color, green or purple or pink as it was removed. I might have been 9 or 10 years old, candy bars were a dime and soft-drinks were a quarter-plus deposit.

    1. Wade, that is a charming story. Very sweet.

      Yes, those of us who had parents’ with small businesses learned quickly that there is child labor in America.

      I learned to alphabetize by putting paperwork in order and learned to count while counting parts. I know that they had us doing jobs like that by the time we were 5 years old. The office end of our business started in our house and what I remember the most was that my father would get on long, long, long business calls and we would have to stay quiet the whole time and we would do pretty well for the first half-hour, but my father was a salesman.

      Laughing.

      Yes, I am someone who can have someone dial me as a wrong number and we can get off the phone 2 hours later. If my dear closest loved ones were still alive, they would laugh at that and would ask me who called and I would say, “Oh, wrong number.”

      1. “Yes, I am someone who can have someone dial me as a wrong number and we can get off the phone 2 hours later. If my dear closest loved ones were still alive, they would laugh at that and would ask me who called and I would say, ‘Oh, wrong number.'”

        LOL, that’s so cute.

  8. Hello Mr. Greger,
    more important then how many calories someone burns by chewing a gum is – what happen in the body by chewing for hours but no things swallowing. What happen in the brain, wenn the gum reached the mouth and the tongue give the signal, there comes some “food”. What is with starting producing insulin by the pancreas? What about producing gastric juice in expectation coming food soon? This are the important questions for me…

    Beside, when I was at the Cree right up in the north of Canada once I watched the traditionell work of some woman by making leader from a bison skin. The woman scraped the fresh, streched skin… there has been lying on the ground a lots of skin pieces. One woman gave me one to test and told me, in the historie woman gave this to there children, when they worked at the skin and had no time fpr prepairing food for them. It’s pure protein, the told me, an because it was so tough, children has to chew it for a long time before abel to swallow…. maybe the first chewing gum on the world? ;-)

  9. hello can some1 please get back to me on this as its really stressing me out i just watched Dr Gregors speech on omega ratios and b12 and i really need answers, do we really have to take ground flax seeds.. cant i just stay away from oils? and what foods cause homo-cysteine to raise? cause id rather avoid eating those things than have to take supplements to be healthy.. i mean i wouldnt even drink dirty water to obtain b12 because theres so much water in my fruit that keeps me hydrated.. theres gotta be a more natural way than taking supplements can i please get more info cause im really upset about this.. could mostly eating fruit really cause too much homocysteine? and what about not getting enough vitamin D even in greece in winter cause of the sun angle so eat mushrooms? come on man.. i dont want to eat mushrooms.. i want to just eat fruit.. what if we get enough at other times of the year can it store and get us through? im so stressed out after watching that speech can someone please make me feel better about all this and tell me i dont have to supplement these vitamins? i am a naturalist afterall and i just wouldnt ever rely on these things.. i feel like i should be able to trust my heart and my instincs yano..

    1. Jayden, I suggest you get some medical help. See a dietitian, at the very least.

      (There is no “o” in Dr. Greger’s name.)

    2. Jaden, omega-3’s are important and you need to get enough of them. You can get them from other foods such as hemp, chia, and walnuts and in very small amounts in leafy greens and such. But Dr. Greger recommends a tbsp of ground flax a day for a reason, you really are missing out if you don’t take it. But either way you should definitely make sure you’re getting good sources of omega-3’s in your diet. ALA is very important whether or not you take algae oil supplements for the longer chain omega-3’s DHA and EPA.
      You might also appreciate purslane which I believe has ALA and I know for sure it has EPA which is incredible for a land plant.

      You don’t need to take supplements to be healthy except for B12 which is essential and you could get it how our ancestors got it and how wild herbivores get it–microorganisms in soil and water–but it really isn’t safe to do so nor can you be sure you’re getting enough. You could also eat fortified foods with it but it’s very easy to supplement. Check out his B12 dose recommendations on this site because you can just take it 1 day a week if you’d prefer–can’t get easier than that. Please don’t drink dirty water ever. Antibiotics would likely need to follow.

      You can’t get optimal nutrition from just eating fruit. If you hate mushrooms you don’t have to eat them.

      You don’t need to take vitamin D if you get adequate sun. I don’t think that you can store enough to last through the winter, but it is not unsafe to supplement. You can get D3 from a natural plant source, lichen–check out Whole Earth And Sea vitamin D3.

      Stop stressing, it’s horrible for you! But I get it, it feels overwhelming at first.

      Yes, you can trust your heart and instincts but you also have a mind and don’t let that be taken away with an obsession to be “perfect.” Supplementing with vitamin D in the winter isn’t unnatural as there are plenty of natural supplements out there but if you want to see how you do without it, get your blood levels checked a few times in the winter and choose optimal health over obsessive ideas.
      Vitamin B12 via supplement is necessary due to the industrial era and our indoors-y nature–we can’t handle drinking untreated water like many other animals. And it isn’t unnatural, if you want an incredibly natural B12 supplement, try VeganSafe B12, I like it a lot but it’s more expensive but lasts 60 days so it’s not TOO bad. In my opinion I do not believe you need to worry about ratios of omega fatty acids. This is more for people who eat a lot of processed foods and animal products. But I do recommend flax and it isn’t a supplement, it’s a whole food. Not everyone takes it though, as Dr. Greger even said there are other ways to get high amounts of ALA. Flax is awesome for you though.

      1. I completely get how you’re feeling, though and I might be able to help because I went through it and then some in thanks to having OCD. But I went through it and am a lot smarter and wiser for it.

    3. Hi, Jaden! I am sorry you are feeling stressed out. Vitamin B12 supplements are important, and you should take them. It is not just about homocysteine, but also about your neurological health. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause permanent neurological damage, and it is not worth the risk. Because the bacteria that produce vitamin B12 are no longer as abundant as they once were in our soil and water, even the animals typically raised for food are routinely given B12 supplements. I am not sure why you don’t want to consume mushrooms or flax seeds. While fruit is healthy, a diet of just fruit is unlikely to be nutritionally adequate. The Daily Dozen is a great model for a healthy, whole food, plant-based diet. More on that here: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/dr-gregers-daily-dozen-checklist/ With regard to vitamin D, you may be able to get enough from sun exposure in Greece. It is stored, but stores are depleted over time. If you are concerned, you can have your levels tested. I hope that helps!

  10. One plus about chewing gum is that it seems to make strong jaw bones. My dentist often remarks about my great jaw structure…which is interesting to me because I have osteoporosis. I had the habit of chewing gum while driving to and from work with the hopes it would clean my teeth and make them strong. It seems to have kept my jawbone strong…like weight- bearing exercise.

    1. That makes a lot of sense, Bonnie. Likewise I don’t doubt eating whole foods that we actually have to chew is good for our jaw come to think of it. When I was eating a massive salad not too long ago with lots and lots of chickpea croutons, there was so much chewing required for so long that my jaw was actually getting tired before I finished lol. Now I’m thinking it was a pretty good exercise for my jaw!

      1. Just another reason why I’m not a smoothie person. I’d rather chew the fruits/veggies with my (remaining) teeth than just gulp down a liquid. Definitely better for the jaws.

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