Transcript: Turmeric Curcumin and Rheumatoid Arthritis
According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the Earth’s inhabitants (seven billion) rely upon traditional medicine for their primary health-care needs, in part due to high cost of Western pharmaceuticals. Medicines derived from plants have played a pivotal role in the health care of both ancient and modern cultures. One of the prime sources of plant-derived medicines is spices. Turmeric is one such spice that has been consumed over the years around the world. Turmeric is known around the world by different names, my favorite of which is probably zard-choobag.
Turmeric is the dried powdered root stalks of the turmeric plant—a member of the ginger family—from which the orangish-yellow pigment curcumin can be extracted. The spice turmeric is what makes curry powder yellow, and curcumin is what makes turmeric yellow. The molecule even looks cool. I always thought it kind of looked like crab.
In recent years, more than 5000 articles have been published in the medical literature about curcumin. Many sport impressive looking diagrams suggesting curcumin can benefit a multitude of conditions via a dizzying array of mechanisms.
Curcumin was first isolated more than a century ago, but out of the thousands of experiments, just a handful in the 20th century were clinical studies, involving actual human participants, but since the turn-of-the-century more than 50 clinical trials have been done, testing curcumin against a variety of diseases, with 84 more on the way.
But most of the 5,000 were just in vitro lab studies, which I've resisted covering until they moved more out of the petri dish and into the person. But this study got my attention.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder that causes progressive destruction of the cartilage and bone of joints. The long-term prognosis of RA is poor with as much as 80% of patients affected becoming disabled with a reduction of years in life expectancy. There're lots of drugs one can take, but unfortunately they're often associated with severe side effects including blood loss, bone loss, bone marrow suppression, and toxicity to the liver and eyes.
Efficacy was first demonstrated over 30 years ago in a double-blind crossover study: curcumin versus phenylbutazone, a powerful anti-inflammatory they use in race horses. Both groups showed significant improvement in morning stiffness, walking time, and joint swelling, with the complete absence of any side effects in the curcumin group, which is more than can be said for phenylbutazone, which was pulled from the market three years later for wiping out people's immune systems, and their lives.
Forty-five patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis were randomized into three groups: curcumin, the standard of care drug, or both. The primary endpoint was a reduction in disease activity, as well as a reduction in joint tenderness and swelling. All three groups got better but interestingly the curcumin groups showed the highest percentage of improvement, significantly better than those in the drug group. The findings are significant and demonstrate that curcumin alone was not only safe and effective, but surprisingly more effective in alleviating pain compared to the leading drug of choice, all without any adverse side effects. In fact curcumin appeared protective, given that there were more adverse reactions in the drug group than in the combined drug and curcumin group. In contrast to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin has no gastrointestinal side effects, and can even protect the lining of the stomach.
To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Ariel Levitsky.
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