Which Fruits & Vegetables Boost DNA Repair?

Which Fruits & Vegetables Boost DNA Repair?
4.55 (91.03%) 78 votes

Every hour, there are 800 incidents of DNA damage in our bodies. Which foods help us patch back up: apples, broccoli, celery, choy sum, lemons, lettuce, oranges, persimmons, or strawberries?


In light of strikingly consistent observations from many population-based studies, there can be little doubt that the habitual consumption of diets high in fruits and vegetables helps to reduce the risk of development of degenerative diseases, including many types of cancers. Not satisfied with just telling people to eat their fruits and veggies, scientists want to know the mechanism.

Fruits and vegetables are not just vehicles for antioxidants; they contain innumerable phytonutrients that can boost our detoxification enzymes, modulate gene expression, and even repair DNA.

Until fairly recently, it was generally assumed that functions as important as DNA repair were unlikely to be readily affected by nutrition. But if you compare identical twins to fraternal twins, only about a half to three quarters of DNA repair function is genetically determined; the rest we may be able to control.

It is estimated that, on average, there are 800 incidents of DNA damage in our bodies per hour. That’s 19,000 hits to our DNA every day. And that DNA damage can cause mutations that can give rise to cancer—if not repaired.

Thankfully, the regulation of DNA repair may be added to the list of biological processes that are influenced by what we eat—and, specifically, that this might constitute part of the explanation for the cancer-preventive effects of many plant-based foods.

Any plants in particular? Nine fruits and vegetables were tested to see which was better able to boost DNA repair: lemons, persimmons, strawberries, oranges, choy sum (which is like skinny bok choy), broccoli, celery, lettuce, and apples. Which ones made the cut? Lemons, persimmons, strawberries, apples, broccoli, and celery each conferred DNA protection at very low doses.

Here’s what lemons could do, for example. Cut DNA damage by about a third. Was it the vitamin C? No, removing the vitamin C from the lemon extract did not remove the protective effect. However, if you boiled the lemon first for 30 minutes, the effect was lost.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to lightwise / 123rf, PublicDomainPictures / Pixabay, Evan-Amos / Wikimedia Commons, Olegivvit / Wikimedia Commons, Donnawetta / Pixabay, PublicDomainPictures / Pixabay, kattebelletje / Flickr, Fir0002 / Wikimedia Commons, Popolon / Wikimedia Commons, Selena / Wikimedia Commons and Silberfuchs / Pixabay

In light of strikingly consistent observations from many population-based studies, there can be little doubt that the habitual consumption of diets high in fruits and vegetables helps to reduce the risk of development of degenerative diseases, including many types of cancers. Not satisfied with just telling people to eat their fruits and veggies, scientists want to know the mechanism.

Fruits and vegetables are not just vehicles for antioxidants; they contain innumerable phytonutrients that can boost our detoxification enzymes, modulate gene expression, and even repair DNA.

Until fairly recently, it was generally assumed that functions as important as DNA repair were unlikely to be readily affected by nutrition. But if you compare identical twins to fraternal twins, only about a half to three quarters of DNA repair function is genetically determined; the rest we may be able to control.

It is estimated that, on average, there are 800 incidents of DNA damage in our bodies per hour. That’s 19,000 hits to our DNA every day. And that DNA damage can cause mutations that can give rise to cancer—if not repaired.

Thankfully, the regulation of DNA repair may be added to the list of biological processes that are influenced by what we eat—and, specifically, that this might constitute part of the explanation for the cancer-preventive effects of many plant-based foods.

Any plants in particular? Nine fruits and vegetables were tested to see which was better able to boost DNA repair: lemons, persimmons, strawberries, oranges, choy sum (which is like skinny bok choy), broccoli, celery, lettuce, and apples. Which ones made the cut? Lemons, persimmons, strawberries, apples, broccoli, and celery each conferred DNA protection at very low doses.

Here’s what lemons could do, for example. Cut DNA damage by about a third. Was it the vitamin C? No, removing the vitamin C from the lemon extract did not remove the protective effect. However, if you boiled the lemon first for 30 minutes, the effect was lost.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to lightwise / 123rf, PublicDomainPictures / Pixabay, Evan-Amos / Wikimedia Commons, Olegivvit / Wikimedia Commons, Donnawetta / Pixabay, PublicDomainPictures / Pixabay, kattebelletje / Flickr, Fir0002 / Wikimedia Commons, Popolon / Wikimedia Commons, Selena / Wikimedia Commons and Silberfuchs / Pixabay

Doctor's Note

If it’s not the vitamin C, what might it be? That’s the subject of my video Citrus Peels and Cancer: Zest for Life?.

Surprised that the lemon benefit was abolished by cooking? Find out which vegetables it may be best to eat raw in Best Cooking Method.

What about cooked versus raw garlic? See my video Inhibiting Platelet Activation with Garlic and Onions.

For more on DNA protection and repair, see:

For all our videos on the latest research on vegetables, visit our Vegetables topic page.

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

164 responses to “Which Fruits & Vegetables Boost DNA Repair?

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  1. I thought you had showed in previous video that KIWI fruit was up there for DNA protection, no? The video made KIWI seem like the best, IMHO.

    1. You are right, Dr Greger has a great video on Kiwi fruit and DNA damage/repair.

      The study in todays video did not report on kiwi fruit, so we can get the benefit of both studies by combining the fruits in a tastily fruit salad with a squeeze of lemon on top :) If you would like to read the article for todays video, I included it in the link above.

      Kiwi fruit and DNA

      1. I think there was a Dr G video, or two, a while ago that tested a list of fruit juices dripped directly on cancerous tissues in a petri dish. Seems to me I remember that the winner was cranberry juice, with lemon also doing quite well. However, I believe the result was for stimulating cancer cell apoptosis (self-destruction) rather than DNA repair (?)

        On another topic, Dr G is always talking about the “24,000 English journal articles each year” that his staff is reviewing “so we don’t have to.” However, the year of pub for the articles in this video are, in the order shown: 2004, 2012, 2006, 2000, 2012, and 2006. Not a single one from the previous four years. A consistent pattern I’ve noticed recently. What’s up, doc?


      2. “Knowledge is knowing that a tomato is a fruit. Wisdom is not putting it in a fruit salad”
        –Miles Kington (1941-2008)

          1. From what I understand, “vegetable” is a culinary term not a botanical term. Scientifically speaking, some vegetables are “fruits” some are “roots,” some are “leaves” and some are “flowers.”

            1. Hi, linda. You and Reg Wilkins are both right. There are botanical fruits that are eaten as fruits, culinarily speaking, and those that are eaten as vegetables. Botanically, a fruit is the fleshy part of a plant surrounding the seeds, and so not only tomatoes but also cucumbers, squash, and many other foods culinarily treated as vegetables are botanically classified as fruits. The culinary difference is in how we prepare them. We think of vegetables as being prepared more in savory dishes, and fruits as more sweet or sour.

  2. Perhaps these foods can slow down the genetic entropy inherent in organisms? Is there any data on deleterious mutation rates of offspring of parents consuming plant-based diets vs. SAD?

    Dr. John C. Sanford (inventor of the gene gun), Lynch, Crow, and Kimura (world renowned population geneticists) have shown extinction due to these deleterious mutations to be inevitable, however the incomprehensible effect of this symphony of phytonutrients present in the plant foods listed above may buy a little time?

    1. haha. That was my first joking thought too. But I think there is a lesson here. You’re not getting the same benefit from jam or a fruit pie as you are from fresh fruit. I recall reading (might have been in Dr Greger’s book) that 97% of the benefits of blackcurrants to prevent macular degeneration are lost when made into jam. That might be true of most fruit. Isn’t frozen fruit always blanched when processed for freezing. I wonder if there’s any nutrient compared to fresh.

      1. I know this is ‘evasionist’ but I guess we just need to try to have a good balance of cooked and raw food to get the full array of benefits, because we are just never going to know (or remember in my case) all the intricacies nature provides. I love the daily dozen idea to remind us of the priorities.

      2. Citrus juice (apart from fresh-squeezed) is routinely pasteurized. I wonder if this degree of heating (160 – 180 degrees F) is sufficient to denature the helpful compounds under discussion.

        1. My concern with orange juice (RAW) is that it is one of the highest in sugars. To a diabetic it really doesn’t matter, sugar is sugar. Since I quit using anything with natural sugars and started using plant based sweeteners like organic steva my A1C has gone from 7.8 to 5.3 and even after eating my sugars average 110 and after the 2 hour window are down in the nineties. I drink 64 oz of lemon water a day. The only other fruits we eat are blueberries, stawberries, blackberries and cantelope which are naturally low in sugar.

    2. Who boils lemons for 30 minutes anyway unless it is put in pie or jam, is that it? Haven’t made pie or jam for so long can’t remember it. But I don’t remember boiling the pie or jam. Wonder why they used 30 minutes, is 5 minutes ok? ?’s ?’s

      1. Hi, JJ, the boiling was done to see whether the active substance or substances would be inactivated by heat. So the answer is yes. In the conclusion of the paper this is made clear, that there is a substance in the lemons which is protective of dna, in the experimental conditions, which is not ascorbic acid, and which is inactivated by heat. Hope that is helpful….

  3. I have requested the full text of “Effects of Micronutrients on DNA Repair” as a private individual (not a professional or sturdent). I will be interested to see whether the authors are willing to share the PDF. Many articles seem to have a steep fee associated with them.

    1. Once upon a time article authors were given a certain number of reprints they could distribute to other researchers. I don’t know if that is still the practice; probably not. They may be allowed to send a certain number of digital copies. The policy would be dictated by the journal, which owns the copyright.

      If your request fails, you can submit an interlibrary loan request through your local public library. Another possibility is going to a medical library. In the US, most university medical libraries are required to provide some direct public access, though policies vary on how this is managed.

      1. Thanks. I used to go to the University of Minnesota medical school library all the time, but it’s a hassle to get there now from where I live. (sigh!)

  4. Was just having this discussion with our teens…DNA protection & repair is one reason we began to really, really get them on a plant-strong diet along with Juice Plus 13 yrs ago.

  5. This might be a little off topic, but yet related to the idea of plants having huge effects on our DNA, health, and mental capacities. I was thinking about the story of the Garden Of Eden ( If you disregard the Bible, then just think of the Garden of Eden as a long buried anthropomorhpic memory in the human collective consciousness. Just don’t be closed minded. ). Anyhow, in this story, plants play a significant role. There was the tree of knowledge with its fruit, and then there was the tree of life with its fruit. The point I am making is that these plants symbolically had the ability to alter the DNA of humans who consumed either fruit. The secondary point I want to make is that philosophically the “fountain of youth” that the early Spanish explorers sought after, and all of the other seekers down through the ages of history searching for youth, health, and even immortality might be located in a plant, or maybe even in a combination of plants. Just speculation…that’s all. I think our science has only scratched the surface on understanding all of the biochemistry of all of the plants on the surface of the earth and even in the oceans, streams, and lakes. Plants have certainly had a huge effect on health in general and even in psychological areas such as hallucinatory causing plants in South America.

    1. The fall of man may very well be the introduction of the concept of genetic entropy. The ages (Adam, Noah, etc.) used in the Bible portray the concept of genetic decay with high precision.

      Perhaps plants can partially slow down this decay?

      In Genesis 9:3 God also gave us meat to eat, I believe, due to our genetic degradation. Due to genetic defects I believe we cannot live on plants alone (unless supplements are given), as was originally intended (Genesis 1:29), as can be evidenced by deficiencies in B12, zinc, DHA/EPA, iodine, K2, and possibly low (defective) conversion rates of nonessential proteins such as taurine and carnitine while on a plant-based diet.

      Plants experience genetic entropy as well. It is likely they do not provide the same degree of nutrition as they once did, coupled with measurable degredation of the soil. Heirloom plants are great!!

      1. Matthew & John Axsom:
        I’m sorry, but I find these propositions that there was extraordinarily profound wisdom in the bible to be examples of confirmational bias (i.e., if a passage in the bible supports a premise, it’s adopted and a passage that undercuts the argument is ignored.) I’d be more open to the arguement if examples of finding extraordinarily profound wisdom were provided from other traditions as well (e.g., Confucian, native American, Buddhist, Hindu, etc.)

        As to meat ameliorating “genetic entropy” (the conceptual gift of “Young Earth Creationist” John Sanford), that notion goes against everything I’ve read from Dr Gregor on this site. The same goes for the alleged defects of a vegan diet. Dr Greger and other vegan doctors have reported research that a vegan diet is not only adequate but superior to omnivorous diets.

        As to B-12, it’s true that plants don’t generate that critical nutrient, but neither do animals. The only organisms that do are bacteria The only reason meat provides B-12 is because the animals that are slaughtered and eaten eat bacteria laced dirt during their often miserable lives.

        The concept of genetic entropy is basically a facil understanding of the concept of entropy taken an absurdum extreme. Yes, entropy does tend to degrade energy and structure in the universe. Given that observation, the proponents of this concept assert that life is inexorably headed “down hill” to oblivion. In fact, it would be seemingly impossible that we we exist now.

        What that argument *entirely* ignores is the action of the law of natural selection to allow *beneficial* mutations to be selected and passed on to future generations (a mutation is simply a *change* in the genetic code… it isn’t proven beneficial/unbeneficial until the mutated organism is subjected to survival stresses and manages/fails to pass its genes on to the next generation.)

        While one is certainly welcome to ascribe the causes of observed natural phenomena to supernatural beings, that isn’t the only possible explanation and such attribution does little to advance the understanding of said phenomena.

        1. Natural selection of beneficial mutations (a very rare occurrence indeed) does not solve the problem of compounding near-neutral negative mutations.

          As a former follower of the Darwinist religion, I encourage all to read Dr. Sanford’s work (he was also a Darwinist). The radical advancement of our understanding of genetics has made it possible to scientifically disprove the 19th century religion of Darwinism, as has been done in Dr. Sanford’s work.

          Vegan diets are, in themselves, not adequate. Dr. Fuhrman (vegan advocate) sells supplements for good reason. Even Dr. Greger advocates supplements (for good reason!).

          I eat a plant-based diet, but I realize the truth as it stands before us all, the diet is not perfect, and neither are we.

          1. You use the word “Darwinist religion”… cheap shot.

            Or, the word religion does not mean what you seem to think it means.

            I agree with you that most mutations are negative or neutral at best. But, the few that are beneficial are the ones that improve the lot of the organism and cause the seeming defiance of the”genetic entropy” you assert to be dominant. And, yes it does solve the problem of compounding mutations.

            I wish you’d directly addressed my arguments in my response to your initial claims, but whatever.

            In closing, you twice more decided to use the meme of the “religion of Darwinism”. A cheap distortion of Darwin’s belief. If you want to cast aspersions on his name, at least be honest an accuse him of being an apostate Anglican or Unitarian. But, the man in no way claimed to have established a religion. If you have proof to the contrary, I’d appreciate your providing a link to such proof.

            1. Wouldn’t it be nice if we could evolve into a super race of humans as Hitler envisioned?

              Such a feat is impossible.

              Even if the rare beneficial mutation is selected for (mathematically unlikely), it carries with it a truly massive number of unselectable near-neutral negative mutations that cannot be selected for, which ultimately culminate in the extinction of species via mutational meltdown. Genetic degeneration has been extensively documented, creation of new genetic information & function has never been seen.

              Even the Darwinist population geneticists haven’t been able to invent a way around these findings beyond invoking the disproven theory of synergistic epistasis.

              To those out there reading, check out “Genetic Entropy” or any of the multitude of studies performed for deeper insight


              1. Wow! Never thought NutritioFacts.org would devolve to the point where people raise the topic of Hitlerian eugenics. SMH.

                Moderators: would you please assess the suitability of including Matthew on these discussion boards? -RR

                1. By standing by the religion of Darwinism, not only do you believe Hitler’s eugenics program to be feasible, you must also believe that whites are superior to blacks due to their “supposed” closer genetic distance to apes as Darwin believed.

                  The religion of Darwinism leads down a dark path, a path you know in your heart to be evil as evidenced by your reluctance to even read a sentence with the word “Hitler” in it without crying for someone to delete the comments that violate your Internet safe space.

  6. I really enjoy videos like theses. I have a child with food allergies and I’m wondering if anyone knows someone who studies the use of food to heal the gut and possibly help food allergies. My son is 4 years old and also has a connective tissue disorder (officially diagnosed with Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita, but I believe we have Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome [hypermobility type]). He’s allergic to dairy (not life-threatening, but very itchy/rashy), peanuts, several tree nuts, & shellfish.

    So he has a gut that leaks the proteins through and his body will react to that and attack. He has a connective tissue disorder that makes it a little more difficult for his body to make Vitamin D with sunlight. Allergists recommend a probiotic and Vitamin D supplement. I know that apples are really good for people with food allergies. He is currently strictly avoiding his allergens, yet his stools are always loose. To me, that says there’s something wrong. Of course he’s 4 and not interested in vegetables whatsoever. He will eat all the fruit I give him, though.

    I feel like there has to be a connection here. Or at the very least, there’s an optimum diet he should be eating. I’m confused and not finding answers.

    1. Hi Wylietopes- Sorry to hear about your son’s conditions, but happy to hear you’re approaching it with a plant based diet. I can’t offer any suggestions for the questions your posed, but I would like to offer a few you didn’t ask about.

      I have to take Vit D supplements with a regular dose of 2K units/day. Several years ago I was feeling horrible and my endocrinologist told me that my blood levels were very low, even though I was taking my regular dose. A few days later I happened to hear on the news that the FDA found that half of all supplements contained little or no amount of the labeled ingredient. I realized that the problem started after I had switched brands. So, I went to Amazon and read the reviews for Vit D, and ONLY counted the ones that said they had their blood levels tested before and after using the product. I then settled on Blue Bonnet brand which is ~$20 for a tiny bottle. But just one drop/day is 2K units. (you can also buy lower doses). I like it because it works, it’s only one almost tasteless drop (faint lemon flavor) and there are any fillers or junk in it.

      The other thing I learned that week was that researchers found that some people didn’t respond to Vit D. When they test and then questioned the subjects about how they were taking it, it turns out that the people who took the vitamin D with their largest meal of the day, which included some fat, saw their levels respond. Those that didn’t take it with a little fatty food did not. When they instructed those in the non-responsive group to change their protocols to take it with a meal they responded as well and their levels went up. So if at any time your son seems be low (for me it was always days of feeling listless and no energy) and he tests out as having low levels, these could offer clues.

      Final comment on loose stools. Before my gallbladder was removed I always had very soft stools (like stiff pudding) on a plant based diet. And they weren’t watery, just very soft. At first I worried about it, but my regular doctor told me it’s fine. For me and I think most people, this is true when you eat a lot of fruit, especially stone fruit.

      Sorry for the long post.
      Mark G

      1. Hi Mark! Thanks for the suggestions! My son isn’t on any form of Vit D yet, but I am taking him to the allergist tomorrow and I’m sure he will be soon after that. I didn’t know how much to give him, so I’ll see what the doctor says. I’ll definitely look into Blue Bonnet brand.

        We’re not completely plant-based yet, but working on it. His BMs have been that way his whole life, even when we were nursing. Never seems to bother him, but I still feel like there has to be a connection – either to the food allergies, or to his AMC. Others with AMC have issues, but usually it’s with constipation because of weak core muscles. My son’s AMC is relatively mild compared to others we know and his core seems pretty strong (he could sit up on his own at 4 months, which is practically unheard of!), so I think it may be the food allergies.

        But yet he doesn’t eat any of his allergens, unless he accidentally consumes something that is cross contaminated with milk – and I can tell when that has happened by the itchy rash that pops up.

        I guess my biggest issue is not knowing who to talk to, like what kind of doctor. Maybe his new allergist will have some insight.

        1. Hello, While I cannot produce the scientific references right at the moment, I’ve been researching the relationship between vitamin C and its structural role in the body. Collagen, for example, cannot form itself into the bodily matrix without the presence of vitamin C. Collagen is the substance throughout our body (not just in the skin) that gives form i.e., acts as a net (if you will) to give our bodies structure. It is in every structure and organ in the body – how do you suppose the intestines maintain their form? Collagen. But without Vit C collagen cannot form and maintain itself. So one option for you and your son might be to give the body lots and lots of Vitamin C. And of course I’m not meaning pills. Higher in Vitamin C than oranges are red and yellow bell peppers. Here’s a list of the top 10 fruits and veg with vit C:
          https://www.healthaliciousness.com/articles/vitamin-C.php And they’re all fun things to eat!!

          Some research shows that taking hydrolyzed collagen can help with the structure of skin (and I would infer that it might help other structures in the body as well). I know Dr. Greger does not like supplements, and I basically agree. However, given your circumstances, I might try adding some hydrolyzed collagen to the diet along with Vitamin C (at the same time) and see if this doesn’t help. Hydrolyzed collagen can be made from the cartilage of fish, chicken, or cows. Personally, I’d choose the fish. You can find various hydrolyzed collagens here:
          My understanding is that the hydrolyzed is more bioavailable than non-hydrolysed. Perhaps someone else can comment.

          A Naturopathic physician may be able to help as well.
          Let us know how you and your son are doing.

          1. Yes, about the collagen. His connective tissue issues are certainly about collagen. He’s very probably allergic to shellfish, so I’m not so sure about a supplement made from fish. He can’t really be diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos because his case is extreme (there’s no genetic test for the type I think we have), but I could be diagnosed. I’ve self diagnosed it, based on information I found online (basically, I’m very flexible & have chronic pain due to that flexibility).

            Here’s some info from the NCBI:

            Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), hypermobility type is generally considered
            the least severe type of EDS, although significant complications,
            primarily musculoskeletal, can and do occur. The skin is often soft and
            may be mildly hyperextensible. Subluxations and dislocations are common;
            they may occur spontaneously or with minimal trauma and can be acutely
            painful. Degenerative joint disease is common. Chronic pain, distinct
            from that associated with acute dislocations, is a serious complication
            of the condition and can be both physically and psychologically
            disabling. Easy bruising is common. Functional bowel disorders are
            likely underrecognized.

            Now I’m wondering about those functional bowel disorders. Surely this all has to do with collagen. Maybe I should start focusing my personal research there. I was born “pigeon toed” (metatarsus adductus) and he was born with club feet and clubbed hands, for lack of a better term. His arms are not as strong as other kids his age, his wrists didn’t extend (lots of splints and therapy), his joints feel very unstable to me.

            I could go on (and on). But all this has to be related. I don’t know that healing a leaky gut could cure the food allergies, or that taking collagen supplements (I’m aware that Dr. G and Dr. McDougall are against supplements, but maybe there are some who need them??) but could perhaps curb other issues down the road that we’re not even aware of yet.

            Thanks for taking the time to comment!

            1. I personally see an important difference in taking supplements of basic vitamins and minerals, which you can get from food, and taking supplements in the way you might take medicine when there is an unusual or specific need.

      2. My daughter has had much health difficulty knows a lot! Horrific Vit D deficiency post screwed up gut surgery!
        She says to take mushrooms with large width gills, oyster, portobello, shiitake, lay them for 10 minutes upside down in bright sunlight, brushed off lightly with cool water. That will charge them with lots of Vit D! Watch out for allergies as he has done! This little 4 year old fellow lives with a condition I Started referring my mental health patients for rheumatologist help! Doctors who had never heard if it before, now is a area sprcialist, with many patients now who had been separately loaded up with pokes of individual diagnoses previously! It is highly heritable! I think my daughter and I. 44, and 69 both have it, but in 1991 no one but physicians caring for certain populations of patients who also had other global disorders knew about it! So have never gotten it labeled! Then the loose joints were treated with OT interventions! Little else!
        Bottom line in her case raising the Vit-D with supplementation makes her very very tired! If the body like hers has accommodated to VERY VERY LOW levels, in her case-Vit-D and also K+, it just says, as she says, “no thanks, I’ll bottom feed!”
        She has horrific Vit-D deficiency and absolutely sky high 700+ parathyroid hormone lab values! No local endocrinologists will touch her! Not too broadly skilled, most do diabetic care, a little traditional thyroid care! But her levels were so low that her Potassium levels were super low too! An old ER-RN knew that! It’s often an UNKNOWN BY EVEN SPECIALISTS CO-MORBIDITY WITH Hep-C which she got from a 1998 surgery! Again refused care for an anesthetic she needed for other surgery due to fear of ♥️ ⬇️K+Risks! The point here… Is that very high parathyroid hormone reading relate to ⬇️⬇️vitamin D, (actually a hormone), lab reading’s relate to poor vit-D intrinsic uptake! Yes almost any fat for that helps!

        1. Wow. Well you and your family have certainly been through more than I. And today was my 2.5 month check in for lab results and I am back to normal in everything, including PTH, which was the abnormal one for the past few tests. My endocrinologist thinks it might hold given my other labs coming in line sooner and holding.

          If I could judge how much D I could get from the mushroom technique that your daughter uses I’d switch to that. My Dr wants me to stay as close to 40 as possible without going over for under. So, trying to play with mushroom dosing, while preferred, sounds difficult to me. Thanks for the note back. I wish you and yours good health and relief from these challenges. With the improvements to therapies coming at ever increasing speed, we might all get some relief soon.


      3. Good info Mark. Just a shame that the Blue Bonnet vit D3 liquid is derived from lanolin, which comes from sheep hair. So sadly neither plant-based or vegan.

        1. Hi Scott- Thanks for pointing that out that it’s from lanolin. I hadn’t paid attention to that. I’ll have to consider if I want to continue it or find another product. This product works perfectly for me because I can control it and there are no capsules made of carcinogenic things like carrageenan and there are no undesirable, unhealthy fillers. (I was recently shocked when I found a B12 that was more powerful than the one I had been using but just a tiny fraction in size of the lower dose one. The difference being all the fillers, dyes and sweeteners added.) Anyway, I might start searching again for an alternate D3. I’m glad that I never claimed it was plant-based because then, in being wrong, I’d have to eat crow. And as a strict vegan, that just wouldn’t work. ;-)

          Mark G

            1. I now use Solgar sublingual 1000 units, cyanocobalamin. The tablets are super small. In the past I prefered methylcobalamin, but in his book, How Not to Die, Dr Greger says to use cyanocobalamin because methyl hasn’t been proven to be efficacious. Doesn’t mean it isn’t, just that it hasn’t been shown to be. In prior discussions here on this point, some posting here have felt that if your blood levels show your B12 going up, then that’s all you need. But, Dr Greger would have concluded that if that’s what he thought. But he didn’t. I don’t know. Maybe abundant levels of methyl in the blood don’t help as much or at all, whereas cyano do. Until I know, I’ll do cyano. Just thought I’d through that extra point. No charge.

              1. I also switched to cyano based on some debates you had on here and someone provided an interesting link about cyano working with more pathways then methyl leaving some doubt about methyl not to mention the lack of studies done with methyl. I also do bluebonnet thanks to your suggestion. Maybe when there are more vegan options i will consider switching but until then sticking with bluebonnet.

                1. It is true that not everyone needs methylcobalamin to attain adequate B12 levels. It has more to do with your genetics than anything. If you have an MTHFR defect which affects your ability to methylate then you are better served by using the methyl form of B12. There are other forms of B12 such as adenosylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin which can also be taken and which is better is also dependent on genetics. As a general rule I think if you have had your level checked and you are not deficient then you are likely fine doing whatever you are doing even if that’s taking nothing. if yo are supplementing and are still deficient then it’s worth working with a professional to find out why.

                2. Hi Ben
                  Thanks for the feedback. One of the great things about this site is knowledgeable people sharing info to try to help others not have to learn the hard way. And I agree with you that maybe we’ll someday find something better than lanolin. But for now, the fact that Blue Bonnet works and doesn’t have lots of other junk in it, is great with me. Just one drop and I’m set for the day.

                  Best of health to you.

    2. Will he eat leafy greens? Of all of the classes of foods discussed here leafy greens time and again yield outstanding effects on health. If he won’t eat them directly, maybe he would drink them if you blended them in a smoothy with lots of fruits. If he is a fan of the Shrek movies you can tell him he is drinking green ogre smoothies. The other factor with leaky gut, if I understand correctly, is saturated fat. Here is a video on this site talking about this. And plant fats aren’t a panacea since they too contain saturated fat, just in much lower percentages. In fact coconut oil has the highest percentage of saturated fat of any source plant or animal. Typing “leaky gut” into the search bar will return a number of others if you haven’t already looked around here. As for the loose stools, it depends on whether they are just soft or separated and watery. The former could be due to eating more fiber and I don’t think are a problem as long as he doesn’t have uncontrollable BMs. And fiber is really important to gut health since it is what is needed to feed the healthy gut bacteria that produce the butyrate (a short chain fatty acid) that looks like it is the primary energy source for the lining of the large intestine. This video and the one following it are ones that I think you will find very interesting.

      1. Thank you, Jim! I will watch the videos. He’s not too crazy about leafy greens (or any veggies, as of late), but I can always talk him into a smoothie. He’s not big on meat though, so that’s not a problem to get rid of, Eggs are something else, though. But I’ll do whatever I need to do for him.

        They vary between soft and separated and watery. It’s worrisome.

        1. I wouldn’t worry about soft stools, in fact as long as he is hydrated, it shouldn’t be a concern at all unless they are foul. Constipation however, is related to a lot of potential problems.

      1. L-Glutamine to heal gut…interesting that cabbage -especially fermented- is traditional for gut-healing

        From Livestrong.com
        Legumes such as beans, peas and lentils are high
        in protein and provide a rich source of glutamine are the high-protein
        ones. Other glutamine-rich vegetables include spinach, parsley, cabbage
        and beets. High cooking heats can break down glutamine, so it is best if
        these vegetables are consumed raw in order to maximize their glutamine
        content and increase bioavailability. Using raw vegetables on a
        consistent basis in the diet requires a little extra thought and
        preparation, but it well repays the effort.

    3. No answers from me but here is help in asking the right questions to the right people: The Patient’s Playbook by Leslie Michelson. We have to be our children’s health advocates and this book is on the job training. Good luck to your family!

    4. I agree with Julie, Amy Myers is a good person to look up. If you are not in the Atlanta area you could go to the website of The Institute for Functional Medicine, http://www.functionalmedicine.org and click on find a practitioner to find someone in your area or at least to find the closest person to you. Choose a practitioner who is listed on their site as a certified practitioner and you should be in good hands.

    5. Sorry to hear about your son, I know how tough it can be for the parents to figure it all out! I think you are on the right path, I know going WFPB changed my health and life! When my younger grandkids come we make a lot of veggie burgers with a grain that are easy to sneak pureed veggies into. “Sauces” that are tomato based with more pureed veggies or soups too. Seems to me it was recognizing the culprit that gave them the most pause. One day when one said they didn’t like vegetables, I finally confessed and assured them that they actually did and why, and since then, they are great! Vegetables have pretty strong flavors alone, and kids tastebuds are acute, so mixing it up helps a lot. They love green smoothies too!

      1. Thanks, Vege-tater! One of my biggest obstacles is that we can’t do nut-based sauces! All they want on their rice/noodles is Earth Balance. :- My plan is to find recipes that don’t need butter. But they love smoothies.

        1. Here is a no nut cheez sauce most kids love, http://chocolatecoveredkatie.com/2016/02/22/vegan-cheese-sauce-low-fat-no-cashews/ and one more… http://www.veggieonapenny.com/vegan-cheese/ but there are a slew of them out there, just do a search for vegan cheese sauce. Because I was diabetic I leave out the fat and it isn’t missed at all. Since miso adds a nice flavor and probiotics, its a healthier option and works great in place of salt in any cheezy type sauce or dish. Good luck!

    6. wylietopes: I don’t know enough to comment in general, but you mentioned leaky gut and I know of an expert who helps people with that problem: Dr. Klaper. He has a lecture you can buy on line. Also, to my knowledge, Dr. Klaper is the only plant based big-name doctor who will do phone consultations (for a fee of course). But it sounds like you are really motivated and I think that Dr. Klaper might be a source of information along with personal medical attention that you can trust.
      If you are interested in the lecture, here is a free excerpt and then you can hopefully figure out where to buy the full lecture from there: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRDoqS6QHQw
      This might be a cheaper option for the lecture: http://doctorklaper.com/webinars/leaky-gut-syndrome
      Good luck! You little boy is lucky to have a parent who is working so hard to help.

  7. Nothing new, just confirmng previous findings that I Iearned about here.
    Good to have the reminder about lemons which are amazingly healthful.

  8. From reading most nutritional writing aimed at a general audience you would think that citrus was just a delivery device for vitamin C. Here is a study showing that its marque nutrient didn’t have any effect on the DNA repair but rather some other unspecified nutrient or combination of nutrients. Once again Professor Campbell and his Wholistic viewpoint is proven to be a much sounder approach to nutrition than a highly reductive single nutrient at a time approach. Bottom line eat whole foods not for the nutrients we know about, but for all those we don’t, not to mention all the synergistic interactions that are far beyond the ability of reductive science to address.

  9. After devouring this site I became vegan and love it, but I’ve noticed my teeth losing their whiteness and want to protect them and my bones. Some online searching led me to K2, particularly MK-7 (natto) derived. Do you think taking this supplement would help, and if so, how much would be a good dose?

    1. Dr. Greger does not recommend supplementation, since the body is capable of synthesizing its own. I eat natto everyday because I like it, because it supplies lots of MK-7, and because it contains nattokinase, which has been shown to be capable of dissolving clots. Japanese populations that consume it regularly have very low rates of heart disease.

      I am skeptical about MK-7’s ability to reverse tooth enamel loss, but it’s ability to reverse osteoporosis and arterial calcification are well established.

      1. Thank you for your fast and thoughtful reply! I don’t have access to natto at a price within my budget (I’d have to get it shipped to me). Are their any other healthy sources of K2?

        1. I make it myself, basically for the price of the soy beans, which is pennies, and it’s way better than commercial. It’s not that much harder to make than yogurt. If you would like me to share the procedure, email me at dfbarbour@gmail.com

          1. I looked up how to online and the starter I found was over my budget. I think you might be able to make it with any kind of beans. How did you get the starter, or did you start with natto you found at a store?

            Alternately, is there another way I could help my body synthesize more K2?

            Do you know of any harm coming from trying supplements?

            Thank you for all the information you’ve already shared with me.

            1. MK-7 supplements are fine. They are made from natto.

              Buying natto starter ($13 for many batches worth) is going to be a lot cheaper in the long run than than buying supplements ($10 for 60 100mg capsules; some practitioners recommend a daily dose of 200mg or even higher). Like yogurt, once you have made one batch, you can use it as starter for the next batch forever after.

              I don’t know any other food sources of MK-7. Other forms of vitamin K2 are available in certain cheeses, for example, but these are not considered as good. In general, it is better to get a nutrient from whole foods instead of supplements, since, often, there are other synergistic nutrients and co-factors present in the food that are probably not present in the supplement.

              I realize this is off-topic, but I can’t help myself. There is just no downside to natto. That’s why I’m such a vocal advocate!

              1. Curious if you have ever attempted making natto from a commercial portion of premade used as starter, I have some I was thinking of experimenting with from online instructions. Also, I read you can make this with other beans besides soy, and I have lots, but not the small natto soybeans, just non GMO regular sized ones. Any experience you can enlighten me a bit with? I love natto and tempeh, have you ever made that? Temps here in FL could be perfect in the daytime, but at night I think I’d have to improvise…ideas? Thanks in advance!

                1. I bought starter spores for my first batch and have used starter from the previous batch ever since. It’s a very hardy species: even boiling it will not kill it! I get excellent results with regular-sized, non-GMO soy beans. I have had commercial natto, and it’s not nearly as good as mine. :)

                  I’ve also heard that other species are natto-able, but I’ve never tried. I have never attempted tempeh.

                  It’s exciting to know that there are wonderful foods out there yet to be tried. The world is opening up its riches and bounty. What a far cry from frozen pizza and beef jerky!

        2. Hi Joy Dancer, I have made nay to both using a commercial starter, and using a previous batch of natty to start a new one. it seemed the results with the commercial started were best (you use just a tiny pinch). using a previous batch of natty worked but after a few batches it seemed to become less potent. In Japan they wrap the natty in mats made of rice straw, which seem to contain the right microorganisms for turning soybeans into natto. I don’t know if other beans would work. I have tried making tofu with other beans and got a disgusting mess—so if you want to try other beans you can definitely skip the black beans and red kidney beans! take my word for it, you really don’t want to go there, at least for tofu. Hope that was helpful. If you find the stater expensive and you have a friend who might want to share with you, a really tiny amount of the started goes a really long way.

          1. Dr. Miriam Maisel: You mentioned trying to make tofu out of other beans than soy beans. I thought you might be interested to know that Burmese tofu is make out of chickpeas and some clever people have figured out how to make it easily out of chickpea flour. Here’s one recipe if you are interested: http://www.girlcooksworld.com/2013/03/burmese-chickpea-tofu.html I have made it and think it is pretty good, but I’ve never been able to make it as well as I did the first time. Don’t know what I’m doing different…

      2. It’s postulated that MK-7 derived from Natto works to halt or reverse osteoporosis by increasing carboxylated osteocalcin and decreasing under-carboxylated osteocalcin but I’ve seen a few studies that did not show increases in bone density. Here’s one I was able to put my hands on. They used a dose of 360mcg of Natto derived MK-7 supplements and had a 334 post menopausal women in the study, so had a good sample size. They followed their bone density for a year and found that even though under-carboxylated ostecalcin was decreased it had no influence on rates of bone loss as compared with placebo. They were using a supplement as opposed to home made NATTO so perhaps there is a difference in the effectiveness of a supplement vs. a food. I do however remember having seen at least one other study in the past that had essentially the same conclusion.

        1. Thank you for pointing out this study. 360 mcg would certainly appear to be an adequate dose. Have you read the paper? I wonder what the diet was of the 34 women in the study. I, too, wonder whether supplemental MK-7 is the same as eating natto.

          I definitely need to do some more reading on the subject. MK-7 supplementation does not seem to have mainstream support at this time, but neither does it give the impression of being strictly a fad. The studies that impressed me most were actually the ones that seemed to suggest that MK-7 could reverse calcification of arterial plaque and other soft tissues in the body. I’ll have to admit that it seemed like a magic bullet with regard to calcium regulation. Maybe this was wishful thinking.

          1. Hi guys,
            After doing some deep digging in the Vit K literature a few years back, my understanding was that the “vascular calcification” seen in chronic kidney disease or warfarin/coumadin use, for instance, is quite different than the vascular calcification seen in coronary artery disease. Calcification of atherosclerotic plaques occurs in the intimal layer of the vessel (more superficial, adjacent to the vessel lumen), whereas calcification from CKD/warfarin occurs mainly in the medial layer (deeper). From what I gathered, Vit K (K1,K2,MK-4, MK-7) appeared much more promising for inhibiting/reversing *medial* calcification and much less so for atherosclerotic calcification. Even *if* one or more forms of K help prevent/reverse arterial plaque calcification, I’d be very careful with this, since the calcium may serve to help *stabilize* the plaque and prevent it from rupturing and occluding the vessel (a.k.a. a heart attack!).

            1. David Sprouse: Lots of people ask about vit K, so I was really happy to see your post as someone who has really looked into it.

              I didn’t understand all of what you wrote, so this question may be really stupid. I’m wondering about your last sentence: ” Even *if* one or more forms of K help prevent/reverse arterial plaque
              calcification, I’d be very careful with this, since the calcium may
              serve to help *stabilize* the plaque and prevent it from rupturing and
              occluding the vessel (a.k.a. a heart attack!).” My question is: Why would you need to be careful of Vit K if if helps to stabilize the plaque and prevent it from rupturing? Is there a word “not” missing in that sentence somewhere? Or am I *not* (ha, ha) understanding your point?

              1. Hi Thea,
                Calcium in the plaque appears to help stabilize it, so just going in and reversing the calcification could (at least in theory) destabilize the plaque, especially if it were done rapidly and without a reversal of the other contents of the plaque. Does that make more sense?

            2. Thanks. You remind me that it is wise not to be too simplistic in one’s conclusions, or to extrapolate effects beyond what has been documented.

          2. Unfortunately I have not read the entire study as it is behind a pay wall and I wasn’t at a location where I had full access when I was addressing the question. I was actually looking for another study I’ve seen that had essentially the same outcome but came upon this one instead. In any case that’s an interesting point about what the diets of these women was. The abstract points out that in a prior study where Japanese women were studied it showed that bone density was increased. This study was in european women (specifically Norwegian) so the diet of the participants could very well have been a determining factor. I would think an average Japanese diet would be closer to WFPB than that of an average Norwegian. If that’s the case one could argue that the overall diet is more of a determining factor than supplementation.
            I agree there is still a lot to learn on this topic, thanks for a stimulating conversation. It keeps me on my toes :-)

            1. It’s possible that lower rates of hip fracture in women who have been eating natto their whole lives (and probably eating a healthier overall diet, as well) simply do not translate into an ability for MK-7 supplementation to reverse in one year the probably well-established osteoporotic downward slide of these older western women. I’m still hopeful about natto’s benefits, but it won’t be the first time that I have been wrong!

    2. I take a natto based K2 with the consent of my endocrinologist. I take the recommended daily dose (about 95 units/day). I have never heard it associated to teeth whiteness. I take it for the believed benefit of helping the body to fix calcium in the bones and prevent it from overly circulating in the blood and being deposited in the soft tissue and organs. There are some practitioners who believe that it must also be taken with other nutrients to be effective. I don’t take anything else.

      1. Thanks for your reply. :) I’ve heard you take it with vitamin A and D(3?), you might get the first from your diet and the second from sunlight.

        Have you noticed any benefit since you started taking K2?

        1. I take it because I have an overactive parathyroid (we have 4, only need 1) which causes calcium in the blood to be too high (takes it from the bones and puts it in the blood/soft tissue). I’ve already had one bad overactive one removed along with a suspected bad one. That brought my levels down a bit. They go bad because they develop tumors, almost always benign. But they cannot find my remaining two. So, my doctor tests my blood regularly to keep me out of danger. For my situation, there is no way to know if it is helping. I take it on faith and because the risk that it might be problematic seems very low. So taking it outweighs not taking it. From what I’ve researched it takes a long time to show any bone benefit. You might like these links, although in the end they are both selling their brand of supplement. Still, the info might help give you some background. BTW, there are different forms and the daily amount for K2 (nk-4) which the body seems to make requires a much different daily dose than K2 (nk-7) which is derived from natto and cheeses. There are other forms as well. None are well understood and are being researched more closely.
          The info you can find feels endless.
          You can also check wikopedia.

          I take vitamin D. See my post above on in response to someone else. I don’t take vit A. I assume I’m getting enough from food and it’s not one I’d want to take as a supplement. Vit D isn’t really a vitamin. It’s a para-hormone that helps regulates calcium and sleep. I hope you’ll research K2.

          Good luck.
          Mark G

        1. One man’s home remedy for teeth whitening:
          Clorox on a Q-tip.
          Dab on and leave for about 15 seconds.
          Then rinse mouth with water and brush.
          I’ve found it an effective remedy for removing stains from blueberries, coffee, tea, etc.

  10. Don’t forget the lemon peel. The peel contains many times more nutrients than the juice. “Zest for life”.

  11. Dr. Greger: Thanks for doing a video again that is like some of your older videos where we get to guess/get quizzed. I have fun with those and it wakes up my brain/helps me to remember the information.

  12. What is so interesting to me is the foods that did and did not “make the cut”.

    A form of bok choy? > No. Broccoli? > Yes.
    Lettuce? > No. Celery? > Yes.
    Lemon? > Yes. Strawberry? > Yes. But Orange? > No.

    Very interesting.

  13. I’m hungry for more information regarding foods found to have the most efficacious DNA repair profiles. In a world where there is uncontrolled nuclear material emissions into the Pacific Ocean at Fukushima and the indiscriminately release of industrial pollutants into the environment at large, we are going to need all the help we can get.

    Of course, an gram of prevention is worth a kilo of cure so it would good if we stopped contributing to the problem, but until that time, please pass the broccoli slathered in lemon juice and zest and I will have the persimmons, strawberries, apples and lemon juice fruit salad for dessert thank you very much…

    1. I agree about helping the environment. I replaced my lawn with sunshine mimosa. It cleans more air than a grass lawn and requires no mowing or things that would add to the problem. I know it’s small, but more and more people are doing things like this, and anyway it’s something we can do ourselves. Before I had a lawn, I grew plants inside.

      1. Congratulations, I think lawns are such a ridiculous waste of resources and the cause of even more pollution with the array of chemicals used on them! Seeing the plethora of manicured golf courses being watered in a drought especially makes me want to scream! My mission is to encourage everyone to eliminate useless lawns and plant food, a great way to get quality produce and save money too! Learn about permaculture, a wonderful self sustaining imitation of natural systems that reduces and even eliminates the gardening chores. There are so many benefits and no downside! The mono-cropping of a few selected foods and the artificial chemistry needed to maintain them is a horrible plague that we all should take into our own hands as much as possible!

    2. Have you ever seen this “delightful” video? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQ1ApOa9tgA I just can’t imagine the insane justification for this under ANY circumstances…sometimes I feel like I must be an alien because it is so beyond my comprehension! Having grown up with the looming threat of nuclear destruction during the intense Cuban missile crisis and cold war threats, this video makes me nuts! (Like I need help!)

      1. I had not seen this video. Thank you for posting it. Thank you for posting it.

        There were well over 600 above ground nuclear tests before the adoption of the Limited Test Ban Treaty. This video is incomplete because it runs through 1998 so does not include North Korea, and Israel and South Africa are widely believed to have developed nuclear weapons. Their testing programs have remained unpublicized.

        Don’t forget to duck and cover…

        1. I didn’t realize it was going to post so BIG, but oh well, the topic was DNA damage and I’d have to imagine that 2500 nuclear bombs before the turn of the century might have some effect! You are right of course about the new members of the “club”. This is my island of sanity and intelligence in an insane and mindless world!
          Yeah duck and cover! We used to have to crunch up under our desks for practice every day! Not only was that ridiculous and ineffective but it permanently traumatized a whole generation of kids! A more appropriate phrase we learned a bit later…put your head between your legs and kiss your @** goodbye!

      2. So haunting. Thanks, Vege-tater. I had never seen this video before. All I can think is how crazy we are as a species. Our brilliant minds are now so dissociated from our bodies and we’ve lost our social connections to each other that we can no longer fully understand and act on what is truly in our best interest. The science is so compelling about how to take care of our bodies with a WFPB diet yet so few seek out and act on that information. The scientific consensus is nearly unanimous regarding the climate catastrophe unfolding for all living creatures on earth and the urgent need to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet we fail to take bold action. The continued production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy will inevitably bring more radioactive nightmares to millions yet we somehow believe we can “manage” these weapons and power systems.

        The Fukushima disaster is only the latest evidence that we are not effectively managing these very dangerous systems. For more truth about the widespread risks in current nuclear energy production check out Arnie Gundersen, a nuclear engineer who’s life mission is to freely and courageously share with the world his knowledge and ongoing research on nuclear energy safety, in the same generous spirit and non-profit educational way as our own Dr. Greger does for nutritional health. http://www.fairewinds.org/fukushima/

        1. It is just mind boggling how brilliant we can be and conversely, how obtuse! Thanks for the link I will check it out because nuclear power never made any sense to me. How could they even consider the concept when they had no clue how to safely store the waste for millions of years, but that didn’t stop them! Because hey, why not just use that radioactive waste to make bombs and blast the innocent civilians in the middle east and effectively wipe their genes off the map because they can no longer reproduce! Depleted uranium birth defects there are horrifying, it makes me feel like I’m from another planet because I can’t even comprehend the insanity that initiates such vicious hostility masquerading as “military defense”! I get defense, but not annihilation. Wow.

  14. Is such research transferable to mitochondrial biogenesis? i.e., building new mitochonria within muscle cells to enhance aerobic athletic performance? I think there’s a genetic component to it.

    1. Hi James, No, I don’t think one could transfer the results of this research…You are correct in assuming though that there is a genetic component to mitochondrial replication. The mitochondria contain their own DNA separate from the DNA found in the nucleus of the cell.

        1. It is kind of amazing! The human egg has mitochondria but seem don’t so all of our mitochondria, with their DNA, originate from our mother, mother’s mother etc.

    1. Hi Elijah, it seems only the fresh were looked at in this study so we can’t know the answer to your question, unless you can find another study which looked at the dried fruit. Hope that is helpful.

  15. Having read the article, I do wonder how much we can glean from it as regards the effect of specific foods on our bodies. In the article the experimental procedure was described and included the use of extracts of the various foods at different concentrations, but no mention as to whether the concentrations used would be similar to the concentrations found in our body, after passing through the hydrochloride acid in the stomach, mixing with alkaline pancreatic secretions in the small intestine and then being transported through the intestinal cells into the blood stream and absorbed into the cells of our bodies. In the experimental also, they were looking at protection of DNA in lymphocytes, some of which were intact and some of which had the cell membrane removed to expose the DNA more directly to the extracts. I find the article very interesting, and it did show DNA protective effects of several of the fruits tested, but I don’t think we can leap from there to focusing too much on one or another item for our diets. The article is avalable free on line and for those who are curious is it worth having a look. I still think the bottom line for healthy diet is consuming a variety of fresh, raw and cooked veg, fruit grains and pulses, with some seeds/nuts depending on individual factors, and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    1. That is so true about a lot of the research show cased here that the research shows very interesting effects on the body but
      “the bottom line for healthy diet is consuming a variety of ….”

  16. Regarding lemons:

    A controversial topic is whether or not lemon juice may be used directly on the skin. Some say it can lead to better complexion and less acne, while others argue it’s too acidic. Thoughts, anyone?

    And while on the topic of skincare: are there other plants one should consider putting on the face?

    Input appreciated!

    1. Hi boilingair, I couldn’t find any significant research on effects of lemon juice on the skin. In a routine google search most articles and blogs talk about the major problems being that you don’t know how much citric acid you are applying because the amount of citric acid can vary from lemon to lemon. There is also concern for other chemicals in lemons called furocumarin derivatives which can be phototoxic (can cause sunburn). Here’s a study regarding that. Both these arguments make sense to me. So even though some of the ingredients in popular skin care products are derived from lemons I wouldn’t necessarily think that translates to rubbing lemon juice directly on my face as a treatment.

      1. Hi payoung!

        Thanks a lot for the reply. Excellent points. My understanding is that the pH of lemon juice is around 2, which is considered too acidic for the skin. I have used lemon juice on my face occasionally and been totally fine, but my concern is more regular use might cause damage.

    2. My 2 favorite skincare ingredients are FRESH aloe (not in a product) which is a bit slimy but very soothing and beneficial. And plain old oats, whizzed in a blender to make colloidal powder. It can go in your bath to soothe and soften, mix it with coarse salt as a defoliant, soak and the strain the liquid mixed with some aloe as a mask, there are tons of ideas online, the list is endless. As are the list of ingredients, but these are common and available, and I love the benefits!

      1. Hi Vege-tater,

        Thank you. How interesting that you bring up oats and aloe – two ingredients I have been curious about trying! :)

        I live in northern Europe where more than half of the year is cold and dark, so I imagine keeping my own aloe plants would not be practical. Would it be okay to buy concentrated aloe powder and/or juice?

        About the oats: would you happen to know a recipe for an oat lotion that would be left on the skin to sink in? I prefer this way over masks that you have to wash off, since they tend to dry out my skin and also make a huge mess in the sink.

        1. Hi there in northern Europe! Not sure what latitude you are but I lived in northern New England and used to grow aloe in my south window just fine, often putting it outside in the warmer months. It’s so easy to care for, you only water when the outer leaves starts looking a bit deflated. There is nothing better for burns, I would split a leaf and tape it over a burn for a few hours, the pain would dull and next day the damage was almost unnoticeable compared to the part that wasn’t treated! I just never found a product, even just supposed pure aloe, that came close to the effectiveness of the living plant. You can even eat it, the outside green part is bitter, but the gel in the center is mild and great for smoothies and drinks. And how can I forget honey? Another wonderful healing balm, but as always, try to get it raw and unprocessed, nature is so much wiser than man!
          Here’s a few oat cream/lotion recipes I like, but had to source a few ingredients first. Alternately you can just do a browser search for “colloidal oatmeal recipe” to find something suitable to try, there are tons of them. And once you get familiar with the effect of the various ingredients, you can perfect your own mix, I’m still working on that. I grew a lot of mint and cukes, so I am loving the refreshing smells in my mixes, something I was missing. Real fragrance is wonderful, but we can do without the smelly chemicals! Oh, and since I would rather avoid preservatives, I either make a tiny batch or else they all get stored in the fridge until I use them. Good luck!

    3. Papaya fruit is supposed to be great for brightening the skin and I’ve had great experiences with it when I did a couple papaya facials in the past. Greet tea is awesome for your skin and daily applications can actually build up in your skin and help protect it and ingesting just a cup of day does the same thing for your skin to a greater extent I believe and would imagine. I’d do a bit of research on green tea and skin, I think you’ll like what you read.
      Bentonite clay isn’t really a food but is ingested by some, that’s awesome for cleaning pores.
      Chamomile tea is anti-inflammatory so a lot use it for eye puffiness.
      Extracted oils like extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil, etc. are good topically as a moisturizer. I’m currently using sea buckthorn berry oil as a face moisturizer, I’d read about it, it’s great for you skin and healing though it does make your skin orange for the first few minutes of application but it fades, though it will stain if you rub it off on things before it absorbs (talking about the berry oil, not seed oil which doesn’t have omega-7 which is the healing property, also the seed oil is deeper in orange color and doesn’t fade as quickly, both have great stuff in them though).

  17. This list is very similar to the best fruits and vegetables for cancer. I believe the soaking of fruits limits their nutrition. Phosphorus is a main nutrient needed for plants. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium are the main fertilizers needed for plants. I believe in my opinion, people are similar, and current soaking and heating removes these nutrients.

  18. Pasteurized (heat treated) juices are no good. But anyway, juices are worse than the whole fruit. For example, the pith of an orange is the best part because it contains naringening (dna damage repair), pectin, and vit C.

  19. Sensational Super I live on lemons organic raw Honey and Black organic chia seeds no kidding i go thru mega amounts of Organic lemons Thankfully My dear friends family has an orchard where organic lemons are a Plenty Oh so grateful to hear this latest new I did read your book Well Done Greta job Highly recommend it Thank You Dear Brother Gregor Dr Gregor oh what I enjoy about you is your walking on the tread mill while giving interviews EXCELLENT :) :)

    1. So jealous! I’m obsessed with organic lemons too, but they’re so expensive :( I have to buy them singular as those I find in bulk all contain beeswax which is a no go for sustainability purposes and other ethical purposes (you might have guessed I’m vegan).

    2. I lost 15 lbs of liver in 1985 when I was told to eat only green vegetables for one month to eliminate a fatty liver that was four times the size of a normal liver. It worked. Terry made me home made ravioli at end of month. As I placed the ravioli in my mouth, my body rejected it. In 1985 at age 42, after one month of only green vegetables, I felt as if I was 16 again. I felt better and healthier then when I came out of basic training in 1964 at age 21. It is tough to do what you do. Keep up the good work. Our goal is to share our CoQ10 story with Humanity.

  20. What about the dark purple fruits and fruit juices that we’ve heard so much about for their anthocyanins. Were they tested as well?

    1. I’ve done the same thing and am going to start doing it again. I’ve had amazing results with it! And so much energy. I would sometimes grind up the zest and drink it in there as well but then I just started saving the skin and adding it to smoothies.
      I use a glass straw to avoid the acidity on my teeth and choose glass for sustainability purposes/being environmentally responsible, and also for health as well (as soaking a plastic toxic thing in my healthy drink would be a bit insane).

    1. Thanks for your question Noa.

      While I am not specifically aware of the role of a plant based diet can play in muscular dystrophy (MD), I can suggest you a few nutritional strategies to consider to help reduce symptoms.

      According to one study, one should carefully consider the intake of the following nutrients as they have found to be inadequate in people with MD. I am going to present examples of how to counter for each of the nutrients but please take into account that I am not aware of the contraindications for such patients so do be careful when interpreting the choices given:

      – Total energy intake: ensure regular meal intake
      – Protein: tofu, seitan, legumes, seeds, nuts, greens (eg. broccoli, spinach)
      – Vitamin E: nuts, broccoli, tomato, spinach, mango, kiwi, avocado
      – Vitamin D: exercise/ movement outdoors as much as possible & in line with physiotherapy recommendations, in order to catch sufficient amount of fun
      – Zinc: beans, chickpeas, nuts, wholegrains, fortified foods, almonds, peas, oatmeal,
      – Copper: whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes, dark leafy greens, prunes, cocoa, black pepper, and yeast
      – Calcium: Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, collards, kale, mustard greens, turnip greens, and bok choy or Chinese cabbage, almonds, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, tahini, dried beans and fortified foods.

      For other practical recommendations, I highly recommend you visit the website tips presented by the University of Maryland. However, in this article, there are a few errors in my opinion.

      – it does not take into consideration the negative health effect of animal products and oils.
      – It ignores the fact that trans fat is also found in animal foods and therefore should not be recommended to anyone

      Hope this answer helps!

    1. Fresh squeezed lemon juice will add great flavor, but for the deeper array of antioxidants, use the zest as well. Commercially prepared lemon juice is likely not going to have the deep array of antioxidants as fresh lemon.

  21. If I squeeze lemon juice in uncooked sauces, will this have the same effect or does one have to eat the whole lemon?

      1. Not quite sure I understand your reply? I never said eat a raw diet? The video said cooking lemons or boiling lemons removes the effectiveness. As in this will only work with lemons not cooked. It doesn’t specify in the video whether just drinking or eating the lemon juice has the same effect. Or it has to be extract from the peal of the skin… or if one has to eat the whole lemon peal, fiber and juice. My question is do I have to use the skin in my none cooked sauses? The Juice? The whole lemon? Or lemon extract? I make tomato ketchup by using date sugar and tomato puree, I add lemon so it doesn’t go off if I make a big batch. I just wondered if lemon juice alone works or not? Cheers

        1. It would be nice if he went into that detail. I imagine the studies are done on lemon juice since that’s what is generally consumed. I imagine if it were something more irregular, like lemon skin and rind, that he would have specified. However, I doubt there’s a big difference. Chances are you’re getting these protective qualities in all of the lemon. So consuming the juice AND the skin will only add more benefits. If one were excluded, I’m sure it would have been mentioned, but also that would make no sense.
          The easy answer is that all fruits and veggies and a plethora of other plant foods are very protective to our bodies.

  22. So many how apples (for this example) per day would it take to reverse (or repair) the 19000 incidents of DNA damage per day?

  23. Lipoprotein(a) – little known but high risk for heart disease will a plant base diet fix this if u have high levels thanks

    1. Thanks for your question Simon.

      I could not find any studies specifically addressing your question. However, to learn how to reduce the risk of heart disease, I highly recommend you read this short summary and explore the related videos attached.

      Hope this answer helps!

  24. I live in an area of Costa Rica where we just do not have lemons but we do have 2 lime trees and limes are readily available, but how do they compare to lemons for DNA repair and in general?

  25. Your team is the best fact checking resource I have. Could you fact check this article titled “Long term vegetarian diet changes human DNA raising risk of cancer and heart disease”. The article has links to the Molecular Biology and Evolution journal. This is beyond my level of understanding. Thanks for all that you do! http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/12206669/Long-term-vegetarian-diet-changes-human-DNA-raising-risk-of-cancer-and-heart-disease.html

    1. Dye: ​​
      Below are links to a whole host of excellent responses to the interpretation of the study you are talking about. Bottom line: Basically, your quote is criminally misleading “journalism”–not an understanding of the actual study.
      Dr. Greger: http://nutritionfacts.org/video/plant-based-treatment-for-angina/#comment-2597611517
      Dr Katz: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/vegetarianism-nutrition-science-meets-media-nonsense-davidDr
      Garth Davis: https://www.facebook.com/drgarth/posts/1126374594050114?hc_location=ufi
      NF Moderator Dr. Jon: http://nutritionfacts.org/video/plant-based-diets-and-artery-function/#comment-2596819840
      NF Moderator Renae: http://nutritionfacts.org/video/almonds-for-osteoporosis/#comment-2601476959
      NF Moderator Dr. Jen: http://nutritionfacts.org/2016/03/31/dr-gregers-new-google-talk/#comment-2599942486 and http://nutritionfacts.org/2016/03/31/dr-gregers-new-google-talk/#comment-2601267177
      NF Moderator Dr. Alex: http://nutritionfacts.org/video/plant-based-treatment-for-angina/#comment-2597863794
      ​Tom Goff: http://nutritionfacts.org/video/gut-dysbiosis-starving-microbial-self/#comment-2734176559​
      ​Jim Felder: http://nutritionfacts.org/video/gut-dysbiosis-starving-microbial-self/#comment-2734894622​
      Here’s how I put it all into perspective in my head: *Suppose* someone found out that descendants of *some* healthy people have developed an adaptation where consuming table sugar is even more unhealthy than it already is for everyone else. Thus, future generations might be even more sensitive to the negative health impact of eating Twinkies than we are today. Does that mean we should all eat a bunch of Twinkies today so that our descendants aren’t worse off eating Twinkies in the future? Of course not. That would be absurd. And that’s essentially (as I understand it) what the article you are quoting is saying in regards to eating meat. What’s more, that claim is a complete twist of what the actual study is actually saying.
      Does that help?

  26. I suffered from peripheral neuropathy following breast cancer treatment. I have recently started to improve my diet in an attempt to improve this and the resultant autonomic bowel problems of constipation. I have to say that the increased fibre has proved successful but would the diet addition improve the underlying problem eventually.

    1. Good question, I’d like to know if it has to be boiling to negate the effects or if hot temperatures in general will do it. Since watching this video, for my hot lemon water, I just started making it more “warm” lemon water so I don’t have to worry about losing any of those awesome benefits. He did say that the lemons were boiled for a certain amount of time so it’s probably ok… hopefully… would be nice to know though.

  27. I can’t find the quote in the paper cited at the 1-minute mark. I’d like to read the paper in which the quote “DNA repair is a phenotype with a heritability estimate in the range of 48-75%…” Looks like maybe you have an incorrect citation? Can you pease provide the paper cited there?

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