Dietary strategies, including the use of black pepper (piperine), can boost blood levels of curcumin from the spice turmeric by up to 2,000%.
Images thanks to Marxfoods.com and Steven Jackson photography via Flickr and Choij and Jonathunder via Wikimedia Commons. Thanks to Ellen Reid for her image-finding expertise and Jeff Thomas for his Keynote help.
Historians from all around the world have produced evidence to show that apparently all primitive peoples used herbs--often in a sophisticated way. Quinine from Cinchona bark was used to treat the symptoms of malaria long before the disease was identified and the raw ingredients of a common aspirin tablet have been a popular painkiller for far longer than we have had access to tablet-making machinery. Indeed today many pharmacological classes of drugs include a natural product prototype, which we originally discovered through the study of traditional cures and folk knowledge of indigenous people.
There's a plant in South Asia called adhatoda. Adu meaning goat and thoda meaning not touch because it's so bitter even the goats won't eat it. But it has compounds that help open one's airways, and as such adhatoda tea has been used traditionally to treat asthma where the leaves are steeped with black peppercorns. That sounds so gross to me, why would they do that? Because they're smart. Back in 1928, scientists discovered what the people evidently already knew, which was that adding pepper increased the anti-asthmatic properties of the leaves. Black pepper alone didn't work, it was the combination. And now we know why.
Just like approximately 5% of the spice turmeric is composed of an active compound called curcumin, about 5% of black pepper by weight is this compound called piperine. Curcumin is responsible for the yellow color of turmeric and piperine for the pungent flavor of pepper, and it's a potent inhibitor of drug metabolism. One of the ways our liver gets rid of foreign substances is making them water soluble so they can be more easily excreted, but this black pepper molecule inhibits that process.
And it doesn't take much. If you give people a bunch of turmeric curcumin, within an hour you can see a little bump in the level in their blood stream. The reason we don't see more is that our liver is actively trying to get rid of it, but what if you suppress that process by taking just a quarter teaspoon's worth of black pepper? Then you see curcumin levels like this. Same amount of curcumin consumed, but the bioavailability shoots up 2000%. Even just a little pinch of pepper—1/20th of a teaspoon—can significantly boost levels. And guess what a common ingredient in curry powder is besides turmeric? Black pepper.
Another way to boost the absorption of curcumin is to consume it in the whole food, turmeric root (fresh or dried), and powdered as turmeric because natural oils found in turmeric root and turmeric powder can enhance the bioavailability of curcumin 7 to 8 fold. When eaten with fat, curcumin can be directly absorbed into the bloodstream through the lymphatic system thereby in part bypassing the liver.
And how is it prepared in India? With fat and black pepper. Amazing how they could figure that out without double blind trials, though maybe it just tasted good and was a coincidence? Their traditional knowledge certainly failed them with ghee, though, which is practically pure butter fat and may explain their relatively high rates of heart disease despite all their turmeric.
To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Ariel Levitsky.
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Why would we care about boosting curcumin levels? I started talking about this golden spice pigment in Which Spices Fight Inflammation? and Spicing Up DNA Protection and then moved on to treating actual clinical conditions in Turmeric Curcumin and Rheumatoid Arthritis and Turmeric Curcumin and Osteoarthritis. Next I’ll end this video series with some cautionary notes in Who Shouldn’t Consume Curcumin or Turmeric.
I’ve previously covered this topic of food synergy in videos such as Apples and Oranges: Dietary Diversity and Garden Variety Anti-Inflammation that emphasize the importance of eating a variety of plant foods to take advantage of some of these interactions.
The painkilling properties of aspirin mentioned in the video are actually found throughout the plant kingdom: Aspirin Levels in Plant Foods.
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