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  • Rhombopterix

    you can make a whistle out of the box after youre finished eating them

    • Maureen Okun

      Wow—you can’t get much more cool than that! From nutrition facts to fun facts, this site has it all.

    • baggman744

      Wow, does that take me back…

  • michellevegan

    Off topic but of concern….

    …are raw peanuts edible, or does cooking need to be done in order to eliminate antinutirients, etc.? Peanuts are a bean so I have always assumed they need to be cooked. Toxic raw? Bad for gut raw? I am aware of the aflatoxin issue in peanuts, but cooking seems to have little effect on reducing this risk, and that is not the issue I am most concerned about. Thanks for any help on this.

    • KPLindsey, NF Moderator

      Edibility is hard to answer with an absolute yes or no. I envision edibility as a spectrum of maybes that depend on lots of different factors about the eater, and the prep, and the food itself. My thinking is that cooked legumes are always more edible than raw legumes. Lectins and phytates are present in plant seeds and seed foods and at least some of these can be reduced by soaking in multiple changes of water and cooking. These substances are also concentrated in the seed skins. I hadn’t really considered how peanuts are unique in the legume family because they are most often prepared by roasting!

      • Joe Caner

        Boiled peanuts are popular in the southern US. I remember being served a vegetable stew that had boiled peanuts in Alabama. It was a bit bland. Roasting brings out more interesting flavors, but I was a meat eater at the time, and perhaps now, I would appreciate them more.

        • KPLindsey, NF Moderator

          ((facepalm)) I was born in Alabama, so I should have thought of these! Aside from the ones in soup, the peanuts boiled for snacking are not pre-soaked, and are cooked directly in water – not only with their skins, but also with their shells! For anyone who has never tried these, tastewise, they kinda remind me of edamame.

        • 2tsaybow

          The first time I had boiled peanuts was in Florida many years ago. They are sold on the roadside and you get a bag of salty in shell peanuts that you shell and eat. I just loved them and I tried to repeat the flavor by boiling peanuts and then blending them into hummus. I just think they are delicious.
          I believe that this was the food used to transport the enslaved people from Africa to the Americas. It is a remarkable plant, the goober.

      • Mike Quinoa

        I love raisins, but are raisins containing sulfites problematic.

        • George

          Mike: As I understand, sulfite-containing raisins are problematic only if you’re allergic to sulfites or have asthma. If your body tolerate sulfites, sulfite-containing raisins (golden raisins) are better for you than the ones without sulfites because the former has more antioxidants. The same is true for dried apricots. Evidently sulfites protect the antioxidants from oxidation.

          • Mike Quinoa

            Thanks George.

        • NFModeratorKatie

          Hi Mike! If you’re still concerned about sulfites, there are many all-natural/organic brands that are sulfite-free. Just check the ingredient list on the food label. Hope this helps!

    • esben andersen

      you would not be able to eat very many raw peanuts as they taste like a raw bean or soybean , not very good

      • Karen

        Raw peanuts are great in “peanut punch” a delicious Jamaican drink made with peanuts soy milk Irish moss and spicesWhen done right tastes like a Reeces peanut butter cup with a straw , yum

    • GEBrand

      My brothers and I all grew up eating peanuts by the handfulls – raw, boiled, roasted, salted, unsalted, in the shell, shelled, as butter. . .. Now in our 60’s I see no repercussions for our consumption. Personally, I like peanuts raw the best.
      Interestingly, peanuts are a basic protein in Africa where they are eaten in the various forms and called groundnuts. You can find many lovely varieties of recipes on the internet for West African Groundnut (or Peanut) Stew. I’ve made it and its simply delicious hot or cold. One fun variation is to add some chunks for pineapple to the stew – makes your mouth go “Wow!” :-)

    • Alan

      Hi michellevagan – occasionally i buy raw peanuts without the shell and eat them like that. I do not find them distasteful, but not my favorite either.

    • Level UP

      I like this post because I read recently that aflatoxin was what triggered peanut “allergies” and not the peanut itself. So what was blamed on the peanut was actually believed to be the fungi doing the damage. I remember from my microbiology class how harmful that fungi is and how heat doesn’t undo its toxicity. Scary stuff. Irreversible liver damage and death from consuming even small amounts, mostly in 3rd world countries.

      • robert

        T C Campbell (China Study) has researched the relationship of protein consumption and aflatoxins. The take home from his research is that the problem is with animal protein in combination with aflatoxin. Also see

        • John

          I only buy peanut butter from fresh peanuts, where you can grind it right at the health food store yourself. You know that it doesn’t have any weird additives or sugars in it. I’ve known about aflatoxins for decades. Then you know they’re fresh and I eat it rapidly. I just heard (don’t know the source) that the resveratrol in peanuts has shown them to be correlated with longer life spans.


      In the Phillippines they boil peanuts,I couldnt buy any raw, I guess its maybe because the autoflaxin risk is higher in damp tropical climates. I have eaten white,skin removed peanuts for may years without issues. I was intrigued to notice the efforts squirrels go to not to eat the skins as do chickens hmmm maybe they know something, peanut skins do taste unpleasant.

    • Vege-tater

      How about sprouting, that usually decreases phytates and increases some nutrients. They may still need light cooking, not sure about that, but maybe worth investigating via search engine?

    • NFmoderatorRenae

      Whilst not specific to peanuts, but does address their family legumes, rather than being something to eliminate, antinutrients/phytates seem to have a dietary beneficial effect. See here-

      Phytates and antinutrients

    • I am not human because I LOVE & eat lots and lots of raw (in shell) peanuts almost every day. According to search I did 2 years ago on Google, by weight peanuts have the same amount of protein as Fillet Minion steak. I am a vegan so for me it’s a great protein substitute at a much lower price & no cruelty and no cooking (takes time and is expensive) required either.

  • George

    I add a handful of raisins to my morning hot cereal everyday (Recently, I started using Greger mouthwash after every meal), so this is an important one for me, and it’s reassuring. Thank you Dr. Greger. Any similar research on the effect of dates on teeth?

    • KPLindsey, NF Moderator

      Good question! I was surprised how hard it is to do a literature search for dates since that word means so many things. My best efforts to find studies on dates and cavities turned up nothing. I think it’s reasonable to assume that dates are similar to raisins in that they are no worse at promoting cavities than other foods. Despite this modest news on the oral hygeine front, Dr. Greger has pointed out there are some other great reasons to eat dates.
      Are dates good for you?

      • F. Jovan Jester

        Did you try searching for the scientific name Phoenix dactylifera? I found one study mentioning that the fluoride content of dates might protect against tooth decay.

        • KPLindsey, NF Moderator

          The authors provide no data about dates specifically, but they are correct that quite a lot of studies associating fluoride and tooth decay have been performed!

  • ahvyahvyahvy

    Dr Gregor, can you talk about dental health and drinking lemon water /eating lemon? thanks!

    • Foroogh – NF Moderator

      Hi, thanks for your question. Lemon water has a lot of benefiial health properties however since it is acidic with a ph of around 2, it can erode tooth enamel. The enamol is the hard covering that protects your teeth. I would refer you to one of the videos of Dr G. regarding mouth wash that you might like to use in which he suggests use of green tea on its own or with added Amla which has another name called Indian Gooseberry as a home made mouth wash.

      what is the best mouthwash

    • NFmoderatorRenae

      The advice seems to be where possible drink through a straw and rinse your mouth after!

      “Whether lemon juice or wedge, smoothies can be sour, and any time you’re eating or drinking something sour, you have to careful about eroding the enamel on your teeth. If you soak teeth in a smoothie for an hour, significant enamel is eroded away, but who soaks their teeth in a smoothie for an hour? What if you instead study the effects of smoothies in situ, meaning in position, as opposed to in vitro, meaning in glass? If you make people wear slabs of enamel in their mouths while they drink a smoothie to replicate a typical tooth exposure, they do find almost as much erosion as drinking diet coke, so it’s recommended that smoothies be consumed through a straw, similar to the advice given for other acidic beverages like soda or hibiscus tea. Compared to control, drinking juice through a straw has less of an acidic effect than swishing it around in your mouth, so avoid swishing smoothies around in your mouth, and you want to wait at least an hour before brushing so as not to brush your enamel in a softened state, but rinsing your mouth out with water after drinking can help rinse away some of the acids to protect your teeth.”

      From here-
      The downside of green smoothies

      There’s also more information here-
      Do vegans get more cavities?

      and here-
      Plant based diets and dental health

    • NFmoderatorRenae

      And also wait 30 mins after eating before brushing!

  • Gayle Cousar

    As an ICU nurse, I have to use hand sanitizer products dozens of times a day-every time I enter and leave a room. I work a 12 hour shift. I understand the importance of not transferring germs but are there any safety/ health concerns for using these alcohol- based products this much.

    • vmh

      Any thermal paper in the ICU ? Using hand sanitizer before touching paper printouts (such as grocery store receipts) markedly increases the amount of BPA entering the body.

    • HemoDynamic, MD

      The concern is that hand sanitizers destroy the microbiome on your skin making possible for the skin to “break down” and then bacteria or viruses can move from your skin (or from anywhere else) into your blood causing inflammation and irritation.

      Here is an excerpt from Robynne Chutkan, M.D.’s Gutbliss website on the issue, “Chemicals like sodium lauryl sulfate are common ingredients in cleansing products because they create a thick lather, but they’re also easily absorbed and very irritating to your skin. Harsh chemicals like these make your skin and scalp more permeable to penetration by surface bacteria and viruses, as well as to other chemicals, creating a state of dysbiosis and putting you at risk for developing skin conditions like acne, eczema and rosacea.”
      Robynne Chutkan, MD on Hygiene

      That said, I see a lot of patients daily (15-20) and I almost always wash my hands or use hand sanitizer. I don’t like it but I don’t want many of my patients microbiota, nor do my patients want other patients microbiota either so at the end of the day I wash my hands with a gentler soap like Cetaphil face wash that is not as harsh and place moisturizer on top of the skin to help repair the daily damage. It does help somewhat but I do not know of another proven system to keep your skin healthy and at the same time not spread disease from others.

      Anybody else know of any good solution to this conundrum?

      • NFmoderatorRenae

        I remember being taught something about keeping the hands moisturised so they don’t crack and provide places to breed bacteria, but can’t currently find a good research paper to support this!

        Environmental adjuvants are an interesting idea, though unlikely to reduce the hand hygiene still required-
        Rethinking sterile- the hospital microbiome

      • Tom Goff

        Is a new pair of disposable, sterile gloves for each patient an (expensive) option?

        Otherwise, you probably have to keep on doing what you are doing. The CDC advises “If soap and water are unavailable, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol to clean hands.”

      • Kim

        Liquid Cetaphil does contain sodium lauryl sulfate. Do you use the bar or the liquid soap?

    • James

      Hand sanitizer does not kill the notorious C. difficile infection and certain other bacteria. You need bleach and peroxide to do a more complete job. Perhaps UV light would also help. Also, bacteria can be transferred if the medical practitioner is wearing long sleeves and the fabric touches the patient. I also wonder if these things can result in mutated sanitizer resistant organisms. Alcohol sanitizer must also be very rough on your hands if you use it several times a day. Personally, I subscribe to the theory that the more I’m exposed to bacteria and viruses, the stronger my immunity becomes- although I doubt that a patient with a compromised immune function would be comforted if a nurse puts that theory into practice.

    • Foroogh – NF Moderator

      Hi Gayle, Thanks for your question regarding hand sanitizer products. I personally use lavender oil as I know it has cleansing property. Infact the botanical name is Lavandula which comes from Latin word to wash. Also tea tree oil which has a compound called Terpine-4-ol which has antimicrobial properties. There was a study that suggests the combinations of lavender oils inhibited growth of both MSSA and MRSA by direct contact and suggested it should be investigated further for possible use in antibacterial products. I shall include the refernce for you.

      I found another website that gives a good recipe to make your own hand sanitizer which I will include here for you as well.

      How to Make Homemade Hand Sanitizer

      The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA).

  • metrov

    I believe it was one of Dr. Greger’s videos a year or so back that reported Indian Gooseberry powder kills dental plaque. I purchased a bag from Amazon, and rub it on my teeth and gums (without rinsing) just before I go to sleep. Ever since, my dental hygienist reports finding very little plaque on my teeth, and of course, no cavities. Thanks, again, Dr. Greger!

    • NFmoderatorRenae

      Correct! Indian gooseberry/Amla is mentioned here-
      Indian gooseberry/Amla and plaque

      Glad to hear it has brought positive results for you!

      • John

        Thanks. I’ll have to add it to my partially Greger inspired homemade toothpaste.

        • 2tsaybow

          Just rinse everything off on your counter after you brush because the next morning everything will be black if you don’t. It works great however. I’ve added it to my homemade tooth powder and my teeth and gums are doing great.

      • EvidenceBasedNutrition

        “Amla evidently shows an outstanding cavity-stopping potential not by killing off the bacteria like green tea, but by actually suppressing the bacteria’s plaque forming abilities.”

    • joss levy

      Amazon has been the subject of a boycott call for a few years now, because it is such a dirty organisation with a long history of not paying its taxes, abusing its workforce, discriminating against minority groups, and many other unethical practices. There are always alternatives to buying from amazon.

      • John

        I have heard so many stories of how Jeff Bezos of Amazon is such a titanic slave driver-both personally from people I know who worked for him but also extensive literature on the topic. I try to avoid them.

      • George

        Hi Jose; I used to buy a lot from Amazon and used to be a Prime member, but now I try to avoid it as much as possible. Nevertheless, I can’t completely avoid buying at Amazon because there’re things I can’t find anywhere else online at reasonable prices. What the world needs is a true competitor to Amazon. I had a lot of hopes for Jet, but Jet doesn’t complete with Amazon; it does with Costco.

    • David Burdick

      Been using salt based toothpaste for years now. (Weleda is mfg). Has improved my gum health and still no cavities! (never had any). You can get it on Amazon…

  • Janet Pichardo

    Completely of topic. I wonder if Dr. Greger has anything on Fluoride in water?

  • Psych MD

    Dr. Greger mentioned non-alcoholic wine. I love cabernet so I tried I tried some, sans alcohol recently. Gawd it was awful! I’ll stick to two buck Chuck.

  • John

    One thing I love about Dr. Greger’s videos is that he measures data that I didn’t even know anyone measured. Who talks about a measurable stickiness factor of foods in causing cavities? John

  • danieltb

    Is it safe for me to be drinking apple cider vinegar water (approx 3/4 tsp acv : 1 qt water), effectively, “all day” or will this corrode my teeth?

    • NFModeratorKatie

      Thanks for your question! The high acid content of apple cider vinegar could potentially erode tooth enamel. Here’s an article you might find helpful: Do Vegans Get More Cavities?

      • danieltb

        I already knew that it could potentially erode; I was asking for an exact answer. LOL

        • NFModeratorKatie

          So sorry we can’t be more exact – it’s really difficult for us to say. There are many other factors that can contribute to enamel erosion. Low salivary flow, acid reflux, certain medications, genetics, and even environmental factors (stress, wear & tear) also play a role. It would be best to ask your dentist for more specific recommendations, as they know your complete medical history. Thanks again for your question! Hope this helps!

          • danieltb

            It actually did help:
            i. I saw vinegar on the list of foods that cause cavities
            ii. I got the tip not to brush directly after eating acidic foods.

          • NFModeratorKatie

            Good to hear! :)

  • E

    Can you folks please do a video about tinnitus? Thanks!

  • heather9955

    Considering my daughter has never had a raisin or a piece of dried fruit.. I’m gonna say no, no they don’t cause cavities. *Lack of nutrition causes cavities*

  • David

    What about prunes causing cavities? They really stick to my teeth when I eat them.

    • NFModeratorKatie

      Great question! One study that Dr. Greger examined put 21 foods to the test – and there was actually no relationship between food retention and how sticky the foods appeared to be. Bits of certain processed foods actually stuck to the teeth the longest, whereas raisins disappeared within minutes. I think it’s reasonable to assume prunes would respond very similar to raisins.

  • Darryl

    A wide variety of high polyphenol plants interfere with quorum sensing in Streptococcus mutans, the major cariogenic pathogen. A useful though now somewhat dated review is Plant Polyphenols and Their Anti-Cariogenic Properties: A Review (2011). The most recent review is Natural Products and Caries Prevention (2015), which isn’t open access. It highlights the citrus flavonol hesperidin, as well as high polyphenol foods like grapes, cacao, tea, and coffee, which have all been found to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Fellow fellow dark roast addicts can rejoice in these papers: 1, 2, 3, 4.

    • HaltheVegan

      Gotta have that morning cup of coffee!

  • Tom Goff

    The Disqus sponsored adverts are back again when I click through to “view in discussion” from the Notifications button. Sorry I can’t use the print screen function to show you – Windows 10 doesn’t seem to support it (it won’t let me print either but that is another matter).

    • NFModeratorKatie

      Hi Tom – thanks for the update. I’ll pass the message along to our team leaders.

      • Thea

        Katie: ooops. Sorry. I didn’t realize you were on duty. I jumped the gun.

    • Thea

      Tom Goff: Thanks for the note. I passed it on. FYI: I don’t think we need the screen print any more since we know the problem is with disqus. Now all we have to do is get disqus to behave like professionals…

  • heather chip

    Dr. Greger and team! is there any science out there on urine therapy??? very curious to hear about this topic here. one can dream :)

    • Tom Goff

      Sounds like nightmare rather than a dream!

      The only study I’ve seen published notes the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in human urine and no recorded clinical benefits:
      “no documented scientific / clinical evidence of the beneficial effect of urine therapy in clinical had been reported, while multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial species had also been recovered from such urine.”

      And Medicinenet comments:
      “The bottom line is that drinking your own urine isn’t likely to be harmful, but it has no known medical benefit.”

      The only advantage of this approach that I can see is the opportunity it affords to make oodles of jokes in extremely bad taste (see, I’m doing it already).

    • Daniel K. Morris- NF moderator

      Hi there, this is not a topic that I have read about or ever discussed with clients or colleagues, nor have I ever come across any information by Dr Greger on this subject

  • This reminds me of an interesting study done a while back wherein it was found that Coca-Cola mixed with Calcium LACTATE had the same effect on dental caries as did… distilled water!

  • David Hochstettler

    Thank you so much for making a video on dental health. I have not been able to make it to the dentist for a couple years and although I haven’t had a cavity for many years I am scared for my teeth . I do everything I can to protect them because I am afraid of losing them and of course the dental pain, I am flossing with dental floss and using a waterpik water flosser every day and brushing with a rechargeable toothbrush twice a day. This year I switched toothpastes to Crest Advanced to get more fluoride. I also wait at least an hour after brushing in the morning and evening to eat or drink and swish my mouth with what is in my mouth after brushing for about a minute to help remineralize my teeth, If you have any suggestions they would be appreciated. 62 and plant based since 2009

    • Thea

      David: There are some other videos on this site about dental health. Be sure so check out the ones about mouthwash as it sounds like swishing with Dr. Greger’s recommendation can be a great protective measure!

  • Dar

    Is there any scientific evidence suggesting that nightshade vegetables should be avoided for better health? I keep hearing that from time to time but I don’t understand why tomatoes or potatoes would be bad. I never hear any plant based doctor saying we should avoid them. I have a friend recommending to another friend to avoid nightshade vegetables. I’d like to show her research, if possible, why that’s not accurate.

    • Thea

      Dar: I could be wrong, but it is my understanding that the shunning of nightshades comes from the macrobiotic diet. Here are some excerpts from Wikipedia about the macrobiotic diet:
      “A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics), is a diet in which an attempt is made to balance the yin and yang elements of food; this means that grains are a staple, supplemented with other foods such as vegetables and soy; certain kinds of cookware should be avoided.”
      “Nightshade vegetables, including tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, eggplant; also spinach, beets and avocados are not recommended or are used sparingly in macrobiotic cooking, as they are considered extremely yin.[11] Some macrobiotic practitioners also discourage the use of nightshades because of the alkaloid solanine, thought to affect calcium balance.[12] Some proponents of a macrobiotic diet believe that nightshade vegetables can cause inflammation in the body and osteoporosis.[13]”
      From these quotes, you can see that a) the macrobiotic diet discourages uses of nightshades and b) the macrobiotic diet is not based on science. It is pretty what I call “woo-woo”, but some of it’s tenants overlap with a whole plant food based (WFPB) diet and thus I’m sure a macrobiotic diet can help some people to the extent that it does overlap WFPB diet.
      But talking about a negative, “The origins of what you believe in has no scientific backing.” is not as persuasive as, “Here’s scientific evidence that shows you are wrong.” For that, I suggest you look up the nightshade foods listed above on the NutritionFacts site/in the search box at the top of the page. I think you will find plenty of videos and their related scientific studies to show that eating at least some of those foods (for example, spinach and beets) is very healthy indeed.
      Note: Since I’m not an expert, there may be some group of people with some disease or genetic situation where nightshades really are a problem–in the same way that someone allergic to peanuts should not eat them even if they are healthy. I don’t know one way or the other if there really are a set of people who should not eat nightshades as a class. But it is pretty clear to me that such restriction would not apply generally to everyone.
      Does that help?

      • Dar

        Yes. Thank you!

  • Usha

    Does honey cause cavities??

    • MikeZP

      acid, adherence, biofilm

  • Modus Operandi

    Another myth dispelled!
    Is raisin syrup a nutritional sweetener, like date sugar and molasses?

  • Savanah

    I’ve been hearing about vegans losing all their teeth. What is the reason for that? What is deficient in their diet and what foods or supplements are necessary to prevent it from happening?

  • Natasha Said

    no alcoholic wine is expensive- could one just boil the alcohol out and have it still be very healthy (antioxidants and teeth health – sans the sugar content)?