Do the Health Benefits of Coffee Apply to Everyone?

Do the Health Benefits of Coffee Apply to Everyone?
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Genetic differences in caffeine metabolism may explain the Jekyll and Hyde effects of coffee.

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Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

Three-quarters of American adults drink coffee, about half of which on a daily basis. That comes out to a million tons of coffee every year. Might there be “grounds for concern”? Population studies have found that coffee drinkers tend to have lower risk of Parkinson’s, less prostate cancer (especially the women), less liver cancer, less diabetes, liver cirrhosis, depression among women, and a reduction in mortality overall, such that coffee drinkers tend to live longer than non-coffee drinkers, with mortality bottoming out at about four cups a day. But these are all just associations. You don’t know if it’s cause and effect…until you put it to the test.

For example, coffee really does seem to protect the liver. Take people with chronic hepatitis, and have them drink coffee, or not, for a month, then switch them back. And, the coffee really did seem to help. Similarly, randomize Parkinson’s patients to get two cups of coffee’s worth of caffeine, and get a significant improvement in movement symptoms within three weeks. Runners randomized to drink coffee shaved about six seconds off their mile. Weightlifters randomized to coffee can squat more weight, about 600 pounds more worth of reps. And, not just athletic performance. A cup of coffee’s worth of caffeine can significantly improve IELT, which stands for “intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time,” from two minutes all the way up to five.

Unfortunately, those effectively randomized at birth to genetically just have a higher predilection to drink coffee do not appear to be protected from diabetes, or depression, or Alzheimer’s, or obesity, or metabolic syndrome. So, it seems the protective associations may just be due to “confounding factors,” like, maybe those who drink coffee just happen to exercise more, or something. And, the same with prostate cancer—no apparent cause-and-effect relationship, and even the mortality benefit seemed to disappear.

Even if a study did show coffee drinking could extend lifespan by reducing inflammation, or improving lung function or insulin sensitivity, that would mean on average. There is “interindividual variability…after consumption of major plant-food…compounds,” meaning people may respond differently. For example, how crazy is this? “In some [rare] individuals,…heavy use of caffeine apparently provokes sleepiness.” That’s an extreme example. Most of the time, it’s just that “some individuals may benefit more than others from the health effects of [different foods].” For example, because of differences in gut bacteria, only a minority of Westerners may derive extra benefit from soy, as I’ve described before. The most common difference in caffeine effects is that while most people metabolize caffeine rapidly, certain gene variants in liver detox enzymes make some people slow metabolizers. Might that make a difference?

Well, habitual coffee consumption of at least three cups a day has been “associated with uncontrolled [blood pressure]” among older individuals diagnosed with hypertension, suggesting that “moderating coffee intake” may be a good idea for some people. But, even if it was cause-and-effect, that would be on average. What would happen if you split people up by how fast they metabolize caffeine? Compared to coffee abstainers, those who have impaired caffeine metabolism genes have an elevated risk of becoming hypertensive at one to three cups a day, and especially at four or more. Okay, but check this out. For the rapid metabolizers, not only was there no excess risk at one to three cups, heavy coffee drinkers were protected, meaning apparently the more coffee they drank, the lower their risk. How do we explain that?

“Coffee is a complex ‘blend’ of a vast number of different [compounds].” There are protective polyphenol antioxidants that are beneficial. Coffee beans are, after all, beans; well, actually, seeds—but seeds are really healthy too! On the other hand, there’s the caffeine, which can spike adrenaline levels in the blood—but only if you’re a slow metabolizer. Rapid metabolizers can clear caffeine so fast that there’s no increase in adrenaline even at four or more cups a day. And so, then you just have the beneficial polyphenols that actually lower your blood pressure—hence the benefit overall. “Thus, there seems to be a Jekyll and Hyde aspect to coffee, whose overall action on the cardiovascular system appears to be regulated by” that gene for the enzyme that metabolizes caffeine.

“The important question,” though is, “Does it give women larger breasts?”  W-w-hat?! Young women who drink a lot of coffee and are rapid caffeine metabolizers have about a half-a-baseball-sized larger breast volume, which may be a bad thing, “as breast volume is associated with breast cancer risk.” But no, the important question is, “What about heart attack risk?” In slow metabolizers, daily coffee consumption appeared to double the odds of a heart attack, or even quadruple the odds at four cups a day, whereas in the rapid caffeine metabolizers, daily coffee consumption was protective, cutting the odds of heart attack by more than half—or at least until you get up to four or more cups a day. “The protective effects observed among rapid metabolizers suggest that the efficient elimination of caffeine might have unmasked the protective effects of other [phyto]chemicals in coffee.”

We think it may be the adrenaline again, since if you’re a slow metabolizer of adrenaline, high coffee consumption may put you at risk as well.

So, is coffee “friend or foe”? “[T]hese studies suggest the possibility that slow caffeine metabolizers who consume caffeinated coffee may have an increased risk of [cardiovascular disease], whereas fast caffeine metabolizers may be protected from this risk by the antioxidants and other beneficial compounds present.”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Nathan Dumlao via unsplash. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

Three-quarters of American adults drink coffee, about half of which on a daily basis. That comes out to a million tons of coffee every year. Might there be “grounds for concern”? Population studies have found that coffee drinkers tend to have lower risk of Parkinson’s, less prostate cancer (especially the women), less liver cancer, less diabetes, liver cirrhosis, depression among women, and a reduction in mortality overall, such that coffee drinkers tend to live longer than non-coffee drinkers, with mortality bottoming out at about four cups a day. But these are all just associations. You don’t know if it’s cause and effect…until you put it to the test.

For example, coffee really does seem to protect the liver. Take people with chronic hepatitis, and have them drink coffee, or not, for a month, then switch them back. And, the coffee really did seem to help. Similarly, randomize Parkinson’s patients to get two cups of coffee’s worth of caffeine, and get a significant improvement in movement symptoms within three weeks. Runners randomized to drink coffee shaved about six seconds off their mile. Weightlifters randomized to coffee can squat more weight, about 600 pounds more worth of reps. And, not just athletic performance. A cup of coffee’s worth of caffeine can significantly improve IELT, which stands for “intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time,” from two minutes all the way up to five.

Unfortunately, those effectively randomized at birth to genetically just have a higher predilection to drink coffee do not appear to be protected from diabetes, or depression, or Alzheimer’s, or obesity, or metabolic syndrome. So, it seems the protective associations may just be due to “confounding factors,” like, maybe those who drink coffee just happen to exercise more, or something. And, the same with prostate cancer—no apparent cause-and-effect relationship, and even the mortality benefit seemed to disappear.

Even if a study did show coffee drinking could extend lifespan by reducing inflammation, or improving lung function or insulin sensitivity, that would mean on average. There is “interindividual variability…after consumption of major plant-food…compounds,” meaning people may respond differently. For example, how crazy is this? “In some [rare] individuals,…heavy use of caffeine apparently provokes sleepiness.” That’s an extreme example. Most of the time, it’s just that “some individuals may benefit more than others from the health effects of [different foods].” For example, because of differences in gut bacteria, only a minority of Westerners may derive extra benefit from soy, as I’ve described before. The most common difference in caffeine effects is that while most people metabolize caffeine rapidly, certain gene variants in liver detox enzymes make some people slow metabolizers. Might that make a difference?

Well, habitual coffee consumption of at least three cups a day has been “associated with uncontrolled [blood pressure]” among older individuals diagnosed with hypertension, suggesting that “moderating coffee intake” may be a good idea for some people. But, even if it was cause-and-effect, that would be on average. What would happen if you split people up by how fast they metabolize caffeine? Compared to coffee abstainers, those who have impaired caffeine metabolism genes have an elevated risk of becoming hypertensive at one to three cups a day, and especially at four or more. Okay, but check this out. For the rapid metabolizers, not only was there no excess risk at one to three cups, heavy coffee drinkers were protected, meaning apparently the more coffee they drank, the lower their risk. How do we explain that?

“Coffee is a complex ‘blend’ of a vast number of different [compounds].” There are protective polyphenol antioxidants that are beneficial. Coffee beans are, after all, beans; well, actually, seeds—but seeds are really healthy too! On the other hand, there’s the caffeine, which can spike adrenaline levels in the blood—but only if you’re a slow metabolizer. Rapid metabolizers can clear caffeine so fast that there’s no increase in adrenaline even at four or more cups a day. And so, then you just have the beneficial polyphenols that actually lower your blood pressure—hence the benefit overall. “Thus, there seems to be a Jekyll and Hyde aspect to coffee, whose overall action on the cardiovascular system appears to be regulated by” that gene for the enzyme that metabolizes caffeine.

“The important question,” though is, “Does it give women larger breasts?”  W-w-hat?! Young women who drink a lot of coffee and are rapid caffeine metabolizers have about a half-a-baseball-sized larger breast volume, which may be a bad thing, “as breast volume is associated with breast cancer risk.” But no, the important question is, “What about heart attack risk?” In slow metabolizers, daily coffee consumption appeared to double the odds of a heart attack, or even quadruple the odds at four cups a day, whereas in the rapid caffeine metabolizers, daily coffee consumption was protective, cutting the odds of heart attack by more than half—or at least until you get up to four or more cups a day. “The protective effects observed among rapid metabolizers suggest that the efficient elimination of caffeine might have unmasked the protective effects of other [phyto]chemicals in coffee.”

We think it may be the adrenaline again, since if you’re a slow metabolizer of adrenaline, high coffee consumption may put you at risk as well.

So, is coffee “friend or foe”? “[T]hese studies suggest the possibility that slow caffeine metabolizers who consume caffeinated coffee may have an increased risk of [cardiovascular disease], whereas fast caffeine metabolizers may be protected from this risk by the antioxidants and other beneficial compounds present.”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Nathan Dumlao via unsplash. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video

Doctor's Note

This is one of the rare instances where “personalized nutrition” isn’t just some marketing catch-phrase. Soy is another one, but in that case, it’s just about who benefits the most. See How to Convert Into an Equol Producer.

For more on coffee, see:

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

154 responses to “Do the Health Benefits of Coffee Apply to Everyone?

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      1. Caffeine has a detrimental effect on sleep architecture.

        (see “Caffeine Effects on Sleep Taken 0, 3, or 6 Hours before Going to Bed” https://jcsm.aasm.org/viewabstract.aspx?pid=29198)

        I am a rapid-metabolizer ( rs762551(A;A) ), but I stopped drinking coffee because sleep quality is also very important to health. I would be interested in a study that weighed the benefits of coffee polyphenols against caffeine’s negative effects on sleep.

          1. Organic aside, I would wager that by the description given that fast metabolizers can “unmask other protective effects of other chemicals in coffee” that yes indeed, this may be the best prophylactic use of the product, even for slow metabolizers.

        1. I checked my 23andme and there are many CYP1A2 genes depending on the “marker” location. The rs762551 you mentioned is one location of that gene. I know nothing about this so I just typed CYP1A2 in the search bar on my 23andme and an entire page of this gene came out. So my question, I guess, is: Is that marker rs762551 the determinant of fast or slow caff metabolizing or could it be one of the other markers of that gene? Mine at that location said A/C was my genotype. So is A/C fast or slow (assuming that marker is the determinant at all)?
          Yes, confusing, but Thank you Dr. G, just the same.

          1. Here is how to interpret your 23andme results once you determine if you are A/A or C/C at SNP rs762551:
            https://www.snpedia.com/index.php/Rs762551

            For those of you that don’t know how to do this: Go to your name/icon on the upper right corner in 23andme and click on the drop down menu and select “Browse Raw Data”. Then under the search bar type in “rs762551”.

            I was surprised to learn that I am a slow metabolizer (C/C) as I can drink a cup of cofee an hour before going to sleep and not have any problems.

            Personally, as in most things in life I subscribe to the golden mean. All things in moderation. I have my 1 cup of coffee in the morning and switch to various types of tea during the day (oolong, chai, green). Also, remember with tea there have been studies that show increased risk of esophageal cancer mainly due to drinking scalding hot tea and the temperature damaging the lining of the throat, not from anything in tea itself. So, always let your tea cool down a bit before drinking.

            1. Thank you Sidney, MD. My result says A/C so my genotype is one of each. AA is fast, CC is slow. So I’m right in the middle? Just an average metabolizer of coffee/caffeine.

            2. hmm.. what I can’t seem to google is the marker on COMT for the LL slow metabolism of adrenaline. Anyone have guidance on determining that?

        2. I have never suffered any negative impact on sleep from caffeine. The days I drank extremely strong coffee in high amounts (the only way for me to get an effect), the crash was enough to arguably improve sleep.

          Green tea doesn’t bother me even if I drink a lot in the evening (4-5 tea bags). There was one time I thought maybe it was the cause for me waking up a few times (I had drank a lot very late, right before bed), but that was just speculation.

          In a past video, Dr. Greger suggested that if you’re worried about sleep, to just not drink caffeinated beverages past 4pm (going on memory).

      2. I would not trust any of those DNA companies. Save your cash and guessing yourself would probably be as accurate or more. I had one tell me that my family was over 90% Italian. Then got a letter from them 9 months later saying they ‘updated the parameters of their testing’ and my DNA has a small amount of Italian (in their current guesstimation) and out of nowhere eastern Europe appeared.

        1. Actually what do you may be experiencing is increased accuracy as the size of the database grows larger. Larger sample group…more data …changes in your results. I experienced something similar.

          1. That is fascinating.

            I have been following genetic genealogy in murder cases and it is accurate enough to solve 28 cold cases in one year.

            https://www.foxnews.com/us/dna-genetic-genealogy-made-2018-the-year-old-the-cold-case-biggest-crime-fighting-breakthrough-in-decades

            That being said, yesterday, I saw a case where I felt like it was misused.

            They narrowed it to two people, one living and one dead, they tested the DNA of the living person and just declared the dead person guilty, even though they didn’t have any criminal report. Lazy way to “solve” a cold case. Could be true, but it just didn’t sit right. If there were 2 potential people in the database, there could be 10 more they don’t know about because not everybody loads their DNA into the database.

            Every few days another case gets solved. I have been wondering how accurate it is. It definitely helps. They get nationality and eye and hair color and which diseases they are prone to have. They get a sketch of what the person might look like. Seems like it could be more accurate than eyewitnesses. Seems like it would aid eyewitnesses eventually. Except that DC and Maryland already don’t want it.

            I suspect that it is going to be a Supreme Court case someday.

        2. I had my DNA tested by a company associated with National Geographic without giving any information whatever about my ancestral history. Amazingly, they zeroed in on my ancestry with extreme accuracy.

        3. Reality bites, I’m with you on that. The DNA companies that advertise heavily on tv are so gimmicky and dishonest to lure in customers. I had actually contacted one of the best DNA testing companies (they do not put out tv ads and they explain which type of test to get for what you’re looking for, their tests are also much more expensive as well, I only found them through digging). They actually explained how much more complex DNA testing is and that single tests do not pick up all of your genes and background and they also cannot measure your heritage, but rather what they find in your DNA depending on what test they do.

          Another great example of the dishonestly in places like 23andme, etc., is the way they advertise finding Native American roots… turns out, if you’re Northern Native or Native Alaskan, there is no way for you to detect that through DNA testing. There are literally only 2 Native Tribes in the database, going on memory, I believe it is the Pima of Arizona and the Mayan, so when people show up to have Native American in their DNA, it’s either because they descend from either of those two tribes, or the DNA structure of the tribe they do descend from resembles that of the Pima or Mayan whereas none of the northern tribes’ DNA is similar to the two in the database. In fact, turns out that many people who have Northern Native American in them show up as having Finish or Siberian or things like that in them due to the DNA structure more closely resembling those. That’s definitely NOT advertised on tv! As someone who is part Native American and has a deep respect for Native American History, that deeply annoys me.

          I also read that the owner of 23andme (going on memory) is the wife of the owner of google or something like that, and they plan on using their collective data (collected from the people giving their DNA) to create a new market in selling this information to insurance companies, etc. In the article I read, it was admitted by the owners, so it wasn’t a conspiracy theory.

          1. Another great example of the dishonestly in places like 23andme, etc., is the way they advertise finding Native American roots… turns out, if you’re Northern Native or Native Alaskan, there is no way for you to detect that through DNA testing. There are literally only 2 Native Tribes in the database, going on memory, I believe it is the Pima of Arizona and the Mayan, so when people show up to have Native American in their DNA, it’s either because they descend from either of those two tribes, or the DNA structure of the tribe they do descend from resembles that of the Pima or Mayan whereas none of the northern tribes’ DNA is similar to the two in the database. In fact, turns out that many people who have Northern Native American in them show up as having Finish or Siberian or things like that in them due to the DNA structure more closely resembling those. That’s definitely NOT advertised on tv! As someone who is part Native American and has a deep respect for Native American History, that deeply annoys me.
            ———————————————————————————————————————————————-
            S, thanks for posting your findings… they hit home for me.

            That is, I was told by my mother (in her later years when she wasn’t the most accurate in repeating what she knew) that one of her relatives (distant grandmother) was Cherokee. At the time she told me I figured it to be one sixteenth or possibly one thirty-second in my blood.

            But then a brother had one of the genetic tests mentioned and there was no Native American blood in our ancestry. It was a genetic test so I assumed accurate. I also assumed my mother had just gotten it wrong.

            My deceased mother thanks you for restoring her (somewhat) accurate abilities to recollect my family’s provenance.

            1. Aw, glad I could help, Lonie! Another thing to consider when it comes to DNA is that what shows up in one person can differ drastically from people even as closely related as siblings. When it comes to Native American backgrounds, the most accurate and obviously much of the time, the only way to trace that is through documents, etc.

              1. DNA is that what shows up in one person can differ drastically from people even as closely related as siblings.
                —————————————————————————————–
                So true, I’ve actually told people (even in the presence of my siblings) that I’m pretty sure I was either adopted or switched at birth. Reason is, there is no way we can be actually related as evidenced by how different we are.
                ________________________________________________________________
                When it comes to Native American backgrounds, the most accurate and obviously much of the time, the only way to trace that is through documents, etc.
                —————————————————————————————————-
                ITBT, then it is a little disheartening since the brother just older than me is a big Ancestry. com guy. He’s been doing this for years and it just seems by now he would have discovered something. On the other hand, he has concentrated on the Pater side since those are the extended family we are most in contact with.

                But remembering back when my mother and I were discussing this, she was so clear in remembering that the ancestor could have participated in some of the Oklahoma oil wealth but declined.

                I don’t know the story… if it was because her tribe ostracized her for marrying a white ancestor or if she herself thought she didn’t deserve it because she married outside the bloodlines of her native people.

                I so wish we had cell phones (w/cameras) back then… or at least tape recorders.

                1. Lonie, here’s a little hope for you… Something to also keep in mind is that there was so much undocumented and lost documents of Native peoples that to this day, tribes struggle to collect their history. And due to racism back then, sometimes people wouldn’t even disclose their heritage out of fear or families might have hidden it out of shame. Things were bad for the natives. Some were actually sold as slaves, I would imagine it would be difficult to collect documentation on slaves.

                  1. Something to also keep in mind is that there was so much undocumented and lost documents of Native peoples that to this day, tribes struggle to collect their history.
                    ———————————————————————————————————-
                    Good point… especially since most Native American history is an oral history.

                    This has brought to mind a scene from the mini series, Centennial base on James Mitchner’s book of the same name. The character of a militia commander played by Richard Crenna, attacked a peaceful Indian village and killed everyone in it.

                    Mr. Mitchner was known for his great research, so I can imagine that a similar event happened. Not downplaying the butchery, but there would have also been lost the history of the people of the village that may have not have been well known by other tribes.

                    But I guess for the most part, outside the realm of the Native American community likely only anthropologists would be interested.

                    1. I actually think a lot of people are or would be interested and I think it’s an extremely important history to be truthfully taught.

        1. Alexis Kelley – It is automatically included. Along with every other gene and marker at every chromosome. The problem is having a clue as to how to interpret the results.

      3. There’s an admitted conspiracy behind 23 and me. They’re doing it to use the information in the future like selling to health insurance and such. This is based on what I’ve read and personally will avoid them.

    1. Adding on to that question, it would seem that there must be since the study refers to fast metabolizers and slow metabolizers. What criteria did the study use to determine what kind of metabolizers they were studying?

    2. Presumably, if you drink coffee and it makes you have to pee like crazy, you’re a fast metabolizer.

      Why not just eat a WFPB diet and not worry about it. Drink coffee if you like, and don’t if you don’t.

    3. Here’s one that is obviously not as accurate as a genetic test but is easy and cheap to do: Drink a strong cup of coffee just before your regular bedtime. If it keeps you awake for hours, you’re a slow caffeine metabolizer.

    4. I sleep so much better without drinking ANY coffee. And now I can feel it causing “extra urgency” in my bladder for the full time it’s in my apparently SLOW-metabolising body. I have seen 6 and 7 hours quoted as the “half-life” of coffee in a human, but there was no mention of metabolic rates. I can feel it in for a full 12 hours. I used to drink a 32-oz pot every day. Now, because I love my sleep (sleep deprivation has been associated with Alzheimer’s) and waking up refreshed, I only have caffeine on the weekend or when traveling and or otherwise “need/want” it (it’s highly effective on migraine for those who don’t drink it daily).

      I love the SPEED effect coffee gives me now, but also hate the bladder feeling that I only now associate with having caffeine in my system. My whole life, if I overconsumed caffeine (sodas usually) my kidneys would hurt and cause bad lower back pain. I must be a slow metabolizer.

      Neil Barnard is the doc from which I gathered this info. Can’t find the video.

      Good easy sleep is such a joy-and healthful.

  1. The research studies referred to in the latter half of the video seem to focus on the caffeine rather than the whole array of coffee ingredients. Would any of these conclusions apply to Decaf coffee drinkers? And how about tea, which also contains some caffeine? Hmmm … the human body seems to be a little bit complicated, to say the least ;-) Some interesting studies here regardless.

    1. WFPB-Hal, out of interest, is decaffeinated coffee all you drink? (ie no regular coffee?) It would be interesting to test the effect of decaffeinated coffee on blood pressure then, using the 4 cups guideline suggested by Dr Greger’s report. A month or 6 weeks duration with and without coffee might be enough time for you to find out if it applies to decaffeinated coffees.

      I am one of the people that can drink a cup of coffee and go to sleep. Tea, however, has the oppposite effect. I don’t think it’s just the caffeine. 1 or 2 cups of tea has an unsettling effect.

      1. Barb, Yes, I do mostly drink Decaf coffee now. But even when I drank regular coffee, it didn’t seem to affect me except it was a little harder to fall asleep, if I drank it late in the evening. Neither black nor green tea seems to affect me either, not even sleep-wise.

        1. For me, the take away message had little to do with coffee and wether we choose to drink it or not. But instead, I thought the interesting thing was the larger idea that there is (genetically linked?) ‘interindividual variability ” to consuming compounds found in plant foods. Marilyn Kaye has mentioned before on this forum that we are not all the same and can expect different responses to the same foods. And here we are with coffee as an example.

      2. I wonder then if that would be an accurate prediction of being a slow or fast metabolizer if you can drink coffee before bedtime and still go to sleep

        1. I just checked my CYP1A2*1F (rs762551) results on 23andme which suggests that I might be a fast metabolizer (A / A). I can tell you that if I drink a cup of coffee in the late afternoon, it can easily happen that I have problems with falling asleep.

          1. i too am A/A (fast metabolizer). Coffee has no effect on my sleep, and i drink upto 4 cups per day. Might i suggest your sleeplessness could be a result of something else?

      3. It’s fascinating the difference between people! If I drink coffee before bedtime, I’m up till 3 a.m. My husband, on the other hand, can go promptly to sleep! Now I understand him better. He drinks coffee all day whereas I can hardly tolerate it and find tea much better for my personality! : )

  2. Fascinating video, raising two questions:

    1. How do you know which of the metabolizers you are
    2. Does this apply to all forms of coffee? i.e. cold brew, filter, instant(freeze-dried), instant(not freeze-dried(I guess ;p))

    I then I guess what you put in the coffee also makes a difference. sugar(white, brown, light brown), dairy milk, soy, almond milk etc. Thoughts?

    1. yes, what you said. I want to know too. The replies are almost cryptic in many cases. First, do we need to go get a test at a lab or is there a clear easy to understand checklist to weigh out with common sense which one we might be – drink coffee its good you live long time happy or don’t drink coffee you die fast. LOL

    2. Hi, Schalk Neethling! Great questions. You can find out which of the metabolizers you are through genetic testing. Specifically, you want to know your CYP1A2 genotype. You may be able to get an idea which genotype you are by the way caffeine affects you. For example, I have not undergone genetic testing, but I am pretty sure I am a slow caffeine metabolizer, because caffeine has unpleasant effects on me. With regard to the form of coffee, I think it may depend more on the caffeine content than anything else, but we don’t know for sure until we “put it to the test!” Putting milk and sugar in coffee can make a difference. For more information, you can find everything on this site related to coffee here: https://nutritionfacts.org/?s=coffee I hope that helps!

      1. Is there a way to ferment or ‘prove’ brewed coffee with caffeine degrading bacteria that are safe to consume? Does something like that already exist?

  3. “In slow metabolizers, daily coffee consumption appeared to double the odds of a heart attack,” The term ‘heart attack’ is unclear, are we talking about an ischemic event (from atherosclerosis), or an arrhythmic event (from atrial sinus signaling disorders)?

    For common arrhythmic disorders like SVT, is coffee harmful?

  4. Are any of the protective benefits due to caffeine? Any downside to reducing it. Darker roasts have less.

    Therefore I use organic dark roast coffee, half decaff, and half regular.

    But let’s get our TEA, too !

    1. “Therefore I use organic dark roast coffee, half decaff, and half regular.”
      – – – – –

      That’s what I do. I drink it black with nothing added, not too strong, and only a few cups a day a day. I’ve been a coffee (and tea) drinker since I was in my teens. Doesn’t affect me negatively, so I ain’t gonna sweat the small stuff. (I get up during the night to take a leak no matter what….as I’ve posted before somewhere.)

      It seems to me that Dr. D., the EatRight4YourHeart guy, wrote another book having to do with a Genotype diet. There was a way for people to send in their …damned if I remember, as the whole process never interested me. Was it a drop of blood? Spit? Not sure if this would have anything to do with the woes of coffee drinkers, but I suppose the subject could be googled.

  5. I stopped drinking coffee decades ago during one of its early “bad-for-you” phases. But lately I’ve begun adding a few droppers of coffee in my various teas in case there is a benefit for doing so.

    I would really like to see a comparison of drinking tea, drinking coffee, and drinking both.

    1. Lonie,

      I would like the coffee versus tea showdown, too.

      The studies are muddying the waters. I will stick with tea for now but had considered whether to bring more coffee in.

      I didn’t find a type of plant-based milk I liked with coffee, but there were so many types left to try that I considered it.

      1. Deb, Several of Dr G’s previous videos have a lot more info on the good and bad side of coffee. (See the list in “The Doctor’s Note” of this video above.)

        Since I enjoy the taste of coffee, I have concluded that for me, a few cups of light roast decaf coffee in the morning works out fine. Then in the afternoon I switch to a mix of Ceylon black tea with a little green matcha mixed in, so, hopefully, I’m getting the best of both worlds nutritionally, as well as having some enjoyable drinks throughout the day :-)

      2. Try oat milk. The one I get is called Planet Oat. It is the only plant milk I have every tried that is actually delicious as a standalone beverage and reasonable in coffee.No added sugar, either. The brand is fairly new. I get it at Smart and Final.

    2. A Dutch paper published last year reported:

      ‘This study suggests that for men, compared to exclusive coffee drinkers, those drinking 30–50% tea showed the lowest mortality; any tea drinking seemed better than only coffee. For women, those who drank exclusively coffee or drinking up to 40% tea had the lowest mortality, but those drinking higher percentages of tea were at increased mortality risk [HR = 1.41 (95% CI 1.01–1.99) for 80–100% tea compared to exclusive coffee drinkers].’
      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871637/

      However, like all observational studies, there is a possibility that the results were confounded by an unknown uncontrolled variable or variables. Or by over-adjusted or under-adjusted controlled variables for that matter.

      1. Tom, the research paper you pointed to is one of those mysterious findings studies that fall into the category of non sequitur.

        But in reading it, they certainly had a large group they followed and the length of the study should have been sufficient to make the data worth noting.

        Yes the results may have changed drastically depending on the type of tea (green, Earl Grey, etc.) and the kind of coffee (dark roast, light roast, etc.) but it just seems to me that there may be some truth within the data that supports the conclusions drawn to some degree at least.

        This of course has us yearning for new studies breaking down results from specific teas and coffees. Not sure if the results change due to the over arching data suggesting these unexpected results (I’ve always thought of coffee as the yang while tea, possibly due to its place in the tea ceremony, as yin.)

        Still, I read an observational study suggesting eating nuts will prolong life. It was mentioned at the end that the subjects followed were eating peanuts, so who knows what that would have looked like if peanuts were treated as a legume rather than a nut?

        Anyway, the study you referenced at least addresses the question in broad terms.

        1. I wrote: It was mentioned at the end that the subjects followed were eating peanuts
          ————————————————————————————-
          Should have written: It was mentioned at the end that the subjects followed were (mostly) eating peanuts

      2. Tom, being lazy at the moment, could you give an example of how much tea would be considered in the higher percentage range?

        I still won’t worry because like you said, there’s so many factors to observational studies and the direct science on tea consumption shows immense health benefits, so those results don’t seem “right.” But then, we know excessive anything can be bad from water to bok choy. In any case, I’m really curious to know how those ranges translate in terms of cups or tea bags or some easier way to understand.

    1. Lily, there is so much left unsaid they could fill a book with it. For instance, does coffee drank with a meal have the same effect on our systems… what are the effects of putting cream (or faux creamers, for that matter) in coffee, does adding sugar have an effect.

  6. No, you can’t stop the video there. REALLY? How the heck are you suppose to know if you’re a fast or slow metabolizer of caffine. With out knowing ways one would find out about metabolism, isn’t this entire info useless? Can someone shed some light on this please?

  7. The conclusion that coffee intake is not protective against the chronic diseases mentioned in this video is just WEIRD SCIENCE. Using “genetically linked preference for coffee” as a means of proof is really lame. This is an inexact science and there are many influences on coffee/caffeine preference that are non-genetic or epigenetic. The question isn’t whether coffee is protective or not; it’s more like, what is the relative contribution of coffee to disease prevention, as part of a plant-based diet? Does it account for 1% of the benefits? Five percent? Three percent? It’s NOT black or white. This is the same mistake that has been made for decades: looking at one small part of an overall healthy intake and expecting it to have miraculous effects.

    1. No, the point is that all the evidence showing a protective effect for (some) coffee drinking comes from obervational studies. Observational studies are notoriously prone to confounding. Consequently we do not know for certain if coffee drinking is truly beneficial.

      For example, perhaps it’s just less unhealthy than drinking booze, pop, milkshakes, sports drinks, juices and the like – hence the results in observational studies. But less unhealthy isnt the same thing as healthy.

  8. What I heard was, to be safe drink decaffeinated coffee to reel in the benefits of coffee consumption without becoming entangled in the risks. Or get tested for the fast/slow CYP1A2 gene.

  9. Could it be that people who can metabolize fast caffeine also metabolize more rapid or efficiently compounds that are detrimental for their health, and there is not real protection coming from coffee?
    Did they review that possibility in those studies?

  10. How do you know if anyone has previously asked how one knows whether one is a fast or a slow metabolizer?

    True story: When I was working as a busboy, in 1970, in Heidelberg, I was sitting at the staff lunch table, drinking a cup of coffee during a break. One of the cooks saw me drinking the cuppa and advised me, disapprovingly, that “kaffee ist schlecht für das herz.” I smiled as I finished my java, and changed the subject. Later that day, while on my lunch break, the woman who had expressed her concern for the damage coffee was doing to my heart, was walking toward the break area, eating what appeared to be, a large scoop of vanilla ice cream, in a dish. When she arrived at the table to join me, I looked more closely at her large bowel of dessert…and saw that it was one enormous scoop of butter, that my health conscious friend was enjoying. Butter was still sufficiently expensive in West Germany then that having a few scoops at work, was a genuine treat. To this day, when a stranger warns me of the dangers of my caffeine habit, I think of that day, almost fifty years ago. I’m still here; I hope she is, as well…enjoying a little butter, in her dotage.

    1. Back in those days, large studies did show that coffee drinkers had very significantly increased risk of heart disease. However, i understand that those studies didn’t control for cigarette smoking. And coffeee and a cigarette was a favourite breaktime pastime …. and was breakfast for many too.

      1. More than just breakfast, I have some family members where to this day, coffee and cigarettes are a praised ritual at any hour and often served as dessert.

  11. Thank you for this explanation of caffeine’s diverse effects! I must be a slow metabolizer because even a trace of caffeine can precipitate a manic episode. I have l ended up in the psych ward from mania which started by ingesting caffeine. Now I know why that is. Thank you!

  12. Laughing, for decades, I always fell asleep from drinking coffee and always said that caffeine doesn’t affect me.

    I noticed it when I tried coffee in high school and I remember nodding off trying to use it in my college years and while I lived in California.

    But after doing elder-care for a decade, when I started having insomnia, I eventually did go off coffee thinking it might help. Nope.

    So, I have breast cancer risk, which is what my mother died from.

    I haven’t been drinking coffee since I went off of milk. Was it the milk in the coffee which gave the women bigger breasts? Maybe?

    Well, anyway, decreasing my risk of breast cancer is what WFPB is for.

  13. I drink Tieman’s Fusion Coffee – Premium Arabica with Matcha, Rooibos and Goji – I add cashew milk and maple syrup – just 1 cup a day usually – not sure if I am a fast or slow metabolizer – is it possible for someone to be neither one nor the other – just sort of in the middle?

    1. Julot, by that reasoning, we shouldn’t eat broccoli and a million other things that are literally some of the most protective foods. Antioxidants in general are formed for the same reason, as a natural pesticide, perspectively. Meanwhile your recommendations go against the science because of the incredible benefits linked to tea which is why Dr. Greger, one of the most well-researched M.D’s on the planet, names green tea as one of the 3 healthiest beverages… hibiscus and and water are the others. Also, the Kuna Indians are accredited for their good health due to their habit of drinking cacao on a daily basis.

      1. Stopping eating broccoli and most others ripe fruits and vegetables you are talking about wont give people withdrawal symptoms like headache and others, these foods are not psychoactive drug because they dont contains any significant amount of natural or artificial pesticides, thats also science and toxicology, the most concrete one actually.

  14. Even decaf coffee has some caffeine in it. Also soda (like Diet Coke, etc has it). Look at the OTC medications that have caffeine. Go to supplement stores and they sell caffeine in capsules that sport people and lots of college student use. So many consumables have this most widely consumed drug that when I think a lot it, it’s scary. It is readily available. Maybe too much so. Very good video that makes one think about the topic. Thanks NF.

  15. Was the comparison of fast caffeine metabolizers to coffee abstainers with the same coffee metabolizing gene? Did the coffee abstainers have the Same allele that allowed for fast metabolism of caffeine?
    If not…
    Is it possible that rapid caffeine metabolizers also metabolize other drugs and foreign substances rapidly, so they don’t spend as much time in the body doing damage and that’s why they are protected?

  16. I found that caffeine causes acne in my face, once i switched to decaf coffee it completly desapeared and when i switched back to regular cofee it came back
    i am 50 yrs old, so this info might help if you face the same issue like me

  17. I never use any stimulants.

    QUESTION:

    Please, more details about the “good” chemicals in coffee beans.

    In which foods can I get those chemocals?

    1. Sydney, Several of Dr G’s previous videos have a lot more info on the good and bad side of coffee. (See the list in “The Doctor’s Note” of this video above.)

      For example, the one at the link below says

      “This is a graph of mortality versus coffee consumption, suggesting coffee drinkers live longer than non-coffee drinkers. This may be because “[C]offee [may have beneficial effects on] inflammation, lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression.” This may be in part because of a class of polyphenol phytonutrients found in coffee beans called chlorogenic acids, proven to have favorable effects with studies like these, where they just give it alone in pill form and can show beneficial effects—such as “acute blood pressure-lowering” activity, dropping the top and bottom blood pressure numbers within hours of consumption. Okay, so which coffee has the most? We know how to choose the reddest tomato, the deepest orange sweet potato, since many of the plant pigments are the antioxidants themselves. How do you choose the healthiest coffee?

      More than a hundred coffees were tested, and different coffees had different caffeine levels, but the chlorogenic acid levels varied by more than 30-fold. “As a consequence, coffee selection may have a large influence on the potential health potential of coffee intake.” So, all those studies that show that “one cup of coffee” does this or that; what does that even mean when coffee can vary so greatly? Interestingly, “[t]he major contributor to [the] wide range [was the coffee] purchased from Starbucks which had an extremely low [chlorogenic acid] content,” averaging 10 times lower than the others. Maybe it’s because they roast their beans too dark. The more you roast, the less there is. They appear to be partially destroyed by roasting. Caffeine is pretty stable, but a dark roast may wipe out nearly 90% of the chlorogenic acid content of the beans.”

      The same article goes on to say that when adding cow’s milk or cream to coffee, the casein protein in the milk binds with the good stuff in the coffee making it unavailable.

  18. I believe one can also stimulate their Cytochrome p450 system by consuming broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables. This could be a treatment for “lazy liver syndrome.”

  19. I’ve read lots of coffee studies. The biggest problem I see w/ these studies is that no one defines what a cuppa is. My 12 oz french press claims to be a 3 cup coffee maker. I suspect that my mother’s tea cups held about 4 oz w/ room for cream & sugar. I use a mug which holds all 12 oz and I typically consume 2 of those black, a day. These daze some may be confused w/ the super, grande, flappa, triple shot, sugar, flavored ,mocha etc…coffee world I suspect folks are confused! There are certainly enough variables such as where the beans are grown, how many
    beans I grind, how long they steep etc… Please Dr. Greger atleast define how many ounces a cup is. Is it 8,6,4, 0r 24 oz?
    No doubt somewhere in the studies a “cup” is quantified, but never in the summaries. What’s up with that?

    1. John, As you indicate, there are many variables involved in things like where the coffee beans were grown, how they are roasted, how they are ground , etc. Disregarding those factors, Maybe the best measure of “quantity” would be the weight of the original amount of beans used in brewing the cup of coffee. For example, a 12 oz cup of “weak” coffee may use the same weight of beans as a “strong” 8 oz cup. So volume wouldn’t be a very accurate measure.

    2. You are correct in pointing out that the referenced studies do no clarify exactly how many ounces are in the cup of coffee being tested. I only found one study that spelled out amount Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States, but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors.which stated surprisingly that “Among coffee drinkers, the mean ± SE usual intake was 14.1 ± 0.5 fluid ounces” Often when coffee is being studied the cup is defined as only 8 oz (See https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art-20049372 which defines a cup as 8 oz.) Perhaps focusing on amount of caffeine rather than coffee would be a better measure. In that case you could say that your daily 2 12 oz mugs would be 3 cups–but of course we have so many other things to consider, like how weak you like your coffee. (And the fact that you keep yours healthfully black!)

      1. This is a good link… BMJ, review of 201 meta analyses re coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. Between 3 and 4 cups per day is the amount offering most benefits. https://www.bmj.com/content/359/bmj.j5024 Hmmm, coffee is associated with lower incidence of a wide variety of conditions including some cancers, neurologic, metobolic, and liver ailments.

  20. Dr Greger, I’m one rare homo sapien that uses coffee when in need of Rem. sleep. I noticed this phenomena at boarding school when my peeps would rely on coffee for some all night cramming for exams.
    I’m now a fully blown adult and coffee still makes me drowsy. Give me a Starbucks americano and I’m toast! Also l
    take a ginger shot with coffee when my guests are having alcohol shots.
    By the way Dr. Greger, you’re the bee’s knees! (British slang)

  21. If getting rid of caffeine is what unmasks the healthy phytonutrients in coffee, then wouldn’t decaffeinated coffee be healthy for everyone?

  22. What? Not only do I not have a way of knowing where I am on the rapid/slow metabolizer continuum (I’m pretty certain rapid/slow is not an either/or proposition in real life), I have no baseline figures for risk. Without baselines, the conclusions are meaningless. If something I like doubles my risk of disease from .05 to 1%, it may well be worth it. If it doubles my risk from 25 to 50% . . . . .

    One of the worst videos Dr. Greger has made. The price of success, perhaps. Lots of pressure to do more and more. Sad to see him so apparently overburdened, sad to see him take on more than he can apparently handle, sad to see this level of work from him. If someone else had published this 5 years ago he would have derided it.

    1. All he has done is briefy summarise the research and referred people to a range of other videos on detailed aspects of this broad topic. His videos are not intended as medical advice. They are for educational purposes only.

      I suspect that you don’t understand what the video is about, its purpose or how to use the sources listed and other references supplies to find the answers to any questions you may have.

      1. Tom,

        Thank you for pointing to the value of this process and how it increases exponentially when the topics are as confusing as coffee genuinely is.

        No, this is not the worst video ever and it is not useless. There are people who shouldn’t drink coffee and they are the ones who may already know it.

        I used to always say that caffeine puts me to sleep. I found this video extremely useful if only to know that I wasn’t crazy. I remember a woman in college and she had allergies so bad during finals that I offered her one of my antihistamines but warned her that she should only take half because they might put her to sleep, but she was so caffeine-sensitive that half of an antihistamine (a quarter of the dose on the bottle) caused her to bounce off the walls. I had to show her the bottle because she felt like I gave her speed.

        She would know immediately which category she fell into and so would I. I suspect that if caffeine bothers you, that would be a clue.

        Please don’t injure Dr Greger for sharing how complicated these issues are. They used to say: Don’t shoot the messenger and Dr Greger is wading through this complicated science and he is sharing what the science really says. No matter how complicated it is.

        Dr. Gregor is a genuine person and he reads his comments and it is okay to point out that this is confusing but try to leave out the parts which will hurt his feelings and reputation.

        He just finished his book and he is still nonprofit and he is starting his Question &. answers again and is so responsive to his audience. The day before yesterday, we talked about gut microbiome and yesterday, he put up guy microbiome.

        He hasn’t had success throw him off track, he is still helping us.

        1. Deb, the videos and articles are ‘lined up ‘ for release many months in advance. It was coincidence or synchronicity if you will that you had me tioned that topic recently.

    2. I know that this is complicated but that makes these resources more important.

      Be nice to Dr Greger. He is one of the good guys.

      Don’t hurt him.

    1. Mr Fumblefingers,

      That looks like a great reference!! I read the summary, and looked at the rest (so far). Thanks for posting the link!

      How do you find these references?

    1. Does drinking coffee bother you?

      Does it keep you up at night and give you the shakes?

      At parties, do you find yourself saying, “Do you have decaf?” Or “No, it is late, I better not have any.”

      Or do you say, “I had 4 cups of coffee today, but I would like one more, no, it doesn’t matter whether it is decaf or not, whichever is fresher.”

      Those are real statements from real parties. Which category are you?

      1. There is a third category

        They say things like, “High test. I need my coffee to fiunction.” They carry a thermos instead of a commuter mug. They order a venti and get a refill.

  23. Yawn, I have been waking up every hour tonight because of my to do list.

    I end up getting up and doing one thing and sleeping for another hour.

  24. What about the increase in cholesterol that is mentioned in the other video, doesn’t this offset any benefits (even if you could tell which group you were in)?

    1. If you actually read the studies, it turns out that increases in cholesterol (if any) and blood pressure are very small increments. Drink filtered coffee to avoid even those couple of mg/dl . I posted a link for meta analyses above. You might be interested in reading about the benefits associated and pitential harms. Dr Greger lists his sources as well.

    2. Hi, Elizabeth! Thanks for your question.
      Paper filtered coffee, as well as instant and percolator coffee, are lower in cafestol (the compound that raises cholesterol) compared to espresso, French press, Turkish, and boiled coffee. There have been a few studies that found filtered coffee to be associated with raised total cholesterol, but it was not significantly associated with an increase in LDL cholesterol. The results showed that most of the cholesterol-raising cafestol was retained by the coffee grounds, rather than getting stuck in the filter itself. So the importance of the filter is in blocking the fine particles carrying the cafestol, not the cafestol itself.
      You can cut out more than 90% of the cafestol by switching from French press or metal mesh filter to paper filter. If you use coffee that starts out with a high level of the cafestol compound, you’ll still clear out about 95% with the paper, but there may be enough left to still bump up your LDL. So, if you have high cholesterol despite eating a healthy whole food plant-based diet, you may want to try cutting out coffee, and then getting your cholesterol retested to see if it makes a difference for you.
      Another option would be switching to a lower-cafestol coffee. There are many variables that can affect cafestol levels, such as roasting degree and grind size. Choosing a larger particle size (like coarse grind) and a darker roast could be helpful. However, studies comparing different roasts found “no significant difference between the rise in cholesterol after a medium light roast and a medium roast”. (https://nutritionfacts.org/video/does-coffee-affect-cholesterol/)
      Overall, with the research we have available now, coffee appears to be a mixed bag when it comes to benefits vs. disadvantages, with outcomes varying from person to person. For more information, check out the coffee topics page: https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/coffee/.

      For some helpful information on cholesterol, check out these links:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/questions/what-can-i-do-to-lower-my-cholesterol-it-seems-ive-tried-everything/
      https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/cholesterol/

  25. I am personally so happy that there is a person like Dr. Greger, providing us with an overview of topics and most often very detailed information–and not for the sale of products. It’s up to us to research further questions that we have based on the information provided.

    He is truly an ambassador of the WFPB diet and a healthy lifestyle. I buy most of his stuff, for gifts, etc., the money all goes to charity anyhow Anything to help keep him going.

  26. Coffee consumption’s effect on human health is certainly complex. This video by Dr.G provides more facts to consider.
    My concern is heart health re the coffee’s effect re increasing cholesterol & inflammation.
    I am a 70yo white male 150 lbs BMI 22 with high cholesterol (TC 190, LDL 110).
    There is another NFO video “Does Coffee Affect Cholesterol” August 27,2018. Apparently, coffee may indeed raise cholesterol in humans.
    The culprits appear to be 2 diterpene lipids cafestol & kahweol.
    These 2 lipids are extraced by hot water & contained in the fine particles.
    Paper filters remove approx 95% of them. Boiled, french press, turkish, espresso etc. contain high levels.
    Nonetheless, the following study abstract is clear.
    Paper-filtered coffee increases cholesterol and inflammation biomarkers independent of roasting degree: a clinical trial.
    Corrêa TA1, Rogero MM, Mioto BM, Tarasoutchi D, Tuda VL, César LA, Torres EA.
    Author information
    Abstract
    OBJECTIVE:
    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy volunteers.

    METHODS:
    This randomized crossover trial compared the effects of consuming three or four cups (150 mL) of MLR or MR coffee per day for 4 wk in 20 healthy volunteers. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), total homocysteine, and endothelial dysfunction-related inflammation biomarkers, serum glycemic biomarkers, and blood pressure were measured at baseline and after each intervention.

    RESULTS:
    Both roasts increased plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) concentrations (10%, 12%, and 18% for MLR; 12%, 14%, and 14% for MR, respectively) (P < 0.05). MR also increased high-density lipoportein-cholesterol concentration by 7% (P = 0.003). Plasma fibrinogen concentration increased 8% after MR intake (P = 0.01), and soluble E-selectin increased 12% after MLR intake (P = 0.02). No changes were observed for Lp(a), total homocysteine, glycemic biomarkers, and blood pressure.

    CONCLUSION:
    Moderate paper-filtered coffee consumption may have an undesirable effect on plasma cholesterol and inflammation biomarkers in healthy individuals regardless of its antioxidant content.

    Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  27. There is another NFO video “Does Coffee Affect Cholesterol” August 27,2018. Apparently, coffee may indeed raise cholesterol in humans.
    The culprits appear to be 2 diterpene lipids cafestol & kahweol.
    These 2 lipids are extraced by hot water & contained in the fine particles.
    Paper filters remove approx 95% of them.
    ———————————————————————————————————————
    PrfRog, thanks for posting this.

    The statements I have extracted from your post are the ones that caught my eye. I currently do not drink coffee but I do drink a lot of tea. And the way I prepare my tea is to do so with distilled, hydrogenated water at room temperature.

    I assume one could get some strength of coffee using the same process. If so, could that coffee drink be absent of the two 2 diterpene lipids cafestol & kahweol? Rhetorical question that I doubt anyone has tested for, but that could make coffee a whole nuther health drink.

    There was a big push of the Green Coffee Bean supplements that touted the high amounts of chlorogenic acid. I wonder now if perhaps that may have been free of those lipids or perhaps made them more available through digestion.

    As important as this drink is, I think it should be studied even more vigorously than it already has.

  28. Ok, so I have never noticed a jolt in energy from caffeine, even coffee, my whole life. I can drink green tea in excess and feel nothing. The only way I experience a legit increase in energy is when I drink A LOT of fresh ground black coffee made to be VERY strong, and I have to drink a high amount at once. This doesn’t last me very long though. I would assume this makes me a fast metabolizer?

    How can people tell which they are? Is it as simple as described above?

    1. Pretty much the same in re: the coffee or tea boost. However, when I need a boost, especially when driving and getting sleepy… about a third of a 5 hour energy drink snaps me back awake and alert.

      I suspect it is the taurine rather than the caffeine causing this. I keep intending to order some taurine supplements to see if this is the case but haven’t done so yet.

    2. I am the same. I drink aprox. 800ml of strong coffee during my gym workout just not to fall asleep, I don’t even expect an increase in energy…So I assume the same as you…

  29. Perhaps degrade the caffeine in coffee by using bacteria. Cold-brew it with the bacteria and then boil it up maybe.

    Are the essential fatty acids in soybeans and peanuts completely oxidised by boiling them or roasting them, are they unaffected or somewhere in between? Are any toxic chemicals formed?

  30. I’m reading “The Orchid and the Dandelion” by W. Thomas Boyce, M.D. and it’s got me wondering if the slow metabolizer might also be the “Orchid” type of personality. That would be interesting to study. The book is super interesting. The “Orchid” is a sensitive, intuitive often more introverted person that tends to get sick more often than the robust counterpart, the “Dandelion.” Some of the reasoning seems to have to do with adrenaline and cortisol. Coffee’s effect on adrenaline and cortisol got me wondering about this relating to the discussion in this video. Love to hear any thoughts on this. One interesting test that was proved over and over was that the temperature taken from a person’s two ears revealed a warmer right ear in the “orchid.” If you are involved with kids in any way I highly recommend the book, available in on audio too.

    1. Not to be rude but to be honest, the orchid dandelion thing sounds absolutely ridiculous and obviously made up. What is it based off? It’s like trying to use astrology to understand someone’s physiology. I match with the “orchid” description in personality or at least part of my personality, but not the physical aspect, would that disprove the theory for me? I’m not trying to be condescending in any way, just sharing my honest thoughts. It kind of reminds me of a more spiritual/psychological version of the whole “blood type” thing.

    2. Hi Mary, thanks for your comment. I have only had a quick look at the book preview and I could deduct that the book was looking at the nature and nurture of human being growing up from childhood. The comparison to different flowers of delicate and resilient nature is interesting. I am glad for you that you enjoyed reading it.

    3. Oh my appogies, I somewhat misread your comment and thought the book was about making claims about body functions and personality types.

  31. Anastassiya,

    You can begin an evaluation by your reaction to caffeine. Can you tolerate say a cup of caffeinated coffee without any side effects or do you find yourself jittery and on edge ? How long does the effect last coupled with can you drink coffee later in the day ? This is only one of the ways to know. If you’re a fast metabolizer you will typically find no real problem/s with the caffeine challenge.

    The caffeine challenge only tells us about the first phase of the detox system and is specifically related to the Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP1A2 type, one of the major pathways. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d49b/aaa2c2d2b132869e0cc30d275bf9c99123de.pdf

    For a more in depth assessment you might consider checking your genetic predisposition to get an idea of what pathway might have some issues: https://www.gdx.net/product/detoxigenomic-genomic-testing-saliva or you could also consider the output product testing: https://rnlabs.com.au/functional-tests/hepatic-detoxification-profile-hdp/

    And if you’re interested in some detox see the last sentence in this study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4488002/ “A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent.”

    Dr. Alan Kadish moderator for Dr. Greger http://www.Centerofhealth.com

  32. would love to hear you address ground chicory root as a coffee substitute. I have been reading about the health benefit to the gut and the liver.

  33. I am totally surprised that you would have anything good to say about coffee. In the first place, coffee is made from charred seeds. You repeatedly warn against eating burned foods. Second, caffeine is a drug just as much as nicotine is a drug. Just as the tobacco companies years ago portrayed tobacco as healthy, those who promote caffeine as healthy are the ones who sell it. Just because caffeine comes from a plant that has micro nutrients in it, cannot redeem it’s destructive qualities any more than the now debunked aspirin a day. You know that the traditional Adventist diet that is renowned as so healthy also excludes all coffee and tea made from tea leaves, even green tea? We just say “NO” to drugs legal or not.

    1. Perhaps caffeine affects children who are hyper-responders. Their attention deficit disorder or other psychological condition could be partly due to the effects of the stimulant. It’s in chocolate and I remember eating a chocolate after lunch or dinner every day when i was a child. A packet of potato chips several times a week. Puffed rice with cocoa and sugar with milk every day. I don’t get why parents think feeding their kids junk food is OK. When they eat their biscuits with coffee and pastries and cakes they’ve surrendered to the salt, sugar and fat too I guess. I don’t get why doctors have only 10 minutes to help people. There should have been education programs for families back then about what not to eat. We have the internet now for however long civilisation holds it together. At least the last generation in this world can look after themselves till the end if they get the motivation to learn about nutrition.

  34. good video. BUT! why you never talk about this topic,You are famous rawfoodist.I am vegan and mostly raw and vegan.But just today heard DR Dina talk on Okraws video about these extremely important info.To not eat too much DHA .
    it means that not to eat chia,hempseedsand flaxseeds all the time,because one can get a stroke,so chiaporridge in the morning is no good idea then????!! why nobody talks about this in the rawfoodmovement and vegans plus taking supplements with EPA & DHA HOW MUCH CHIA AND HEMPSEEDS;FLAXSEEDS IS OK THEN?!
    ITS JUST RAWFOODRECIPIES EVERYWHERE OR VEGAN RECIPIES.BUT I HAVE NEVER HEARD THIS AT ALL.I HAVE BEEN MOSTLY RAWVEGAN WITH SOME COOKED FOOD FOR 20 YEARS NOW!SUCH IMPORTAND INFO SHOULD HAVE BEEN OUT YEARS AGO SPECIALLY FROM YOU WHO HAVE BEEN ON THIS JOURNY FOR DECADES! MY MOTHER HAD SEVERAL STROKES AND HEARTATTACKS AND MY FATHER ALSO.I HAVE HIGH BLOODPRESSURE!WHAT MORE IMPORTANT INFO DO YOU JUST KEEP FOR YOURSELF!I HAVE BEEN LISTEING TO TANNYRAW;LISSAS RAWFOODROMANCE,TED CARR AND ALOT OF VEGANS! BUT NEVER HEARD THIS NEVER:THAT IT CAN THINNING THE BLOOD! AND I HAVE EVEN LISTENED TO OKRAW; AND YOU DR DINA!

  35. Did you see this new study?

    Coffee consumption and mortality in Japanese men and women: A pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan (Japan Cohort Consortium)
    Author: Sarah Krull Abe,Eiko Saito,Norie Sawada,Shoichiro Tsugane,Hidemi Ito,Yingsong Lin,Akiko Tamakoshi,Junya Sado,Yuri Kitamura,Ichiro Tsuji,Chisato Nagata,Atsuko Sadakane,Taichi Shimazu,Tetsuya Mizoue,Keitaro Matsuo,Mariko Naito,Keitaro Tanaka et al.
    Publication: Preventive Medicine
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Date: June 2019

  36. I am curious if anyone has heard of drinking coffee during the times of the day where we naturally have a cortisol low. Since caffeine can increase cortisol levels some say that by using caffeine when cortisol is low we can have a better response to the raise caffeine would give us. Whereas, if caffeine is consumed during times of elevated cortisol, we may build up tolerance, ergo the caffeine doesn’t work…

    For instance, if and when I drink coffee, I try to have it between 9:30 and 11AM, since that seems to be when cortisol would be lower for me (I tend to wake up around 6-630AM).

    Thoughts???

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16204431

  37. Autumn,

    May I suggest you get your cortisol rhythm back on track, without the stimulation effect of coffee ?

    If you’re needing a boost at the 9:30am time frame indeed your adrenals need some assistance, be that lifestyle, diet, etc. Not knowing your levels we can surmise that the underlying cause of the low output, stimulated with coffee, will place you in no better a shape especially if there is no change in the cause. So…. coffee or no coffee depends. If you’re curious about the chemical results of using the coffee, you might want to check the levels post use and over time.

    Consider your overall stresses, be that physical and emotional coupled with your food and environmental exposures and see if you can find an underlying cause. During the search and with a transition consider using adaptogenic herbals. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptogen) Look for the standardized ingredient in the formulation.

    Dr. Alan Kadish moderator for Dr. Greger http://www.Centerofhealth.com

  38. Would a high carbohydrate diet keep you pumping adrenaline through your system after every meal? Would coffee just amplify the effect? Would caffeine be better tolerated on a low carbohydrate diet, or at least after a low carbohydrate meal?

  39. Is flavored coffee harmful? I love it, but I’d like to know if I’d be better off not drinking it or cutting back. Thank you!

    1. Just saw some cold brewed coffee in glass so I bought a few of them. I’m not a coffee drinker but I think there are benefits from drinking some coffee.

      For that reason I add a few droppers of the cold brewed coffee to my cups of tea as I drink them. I think of it like alcohol… that is, a few drops are beneficial as a solvent to help our bodies assimilate nutrients.

  40. I think the tolerance of caffeine can also be linked with a high developed trait of neuroticism (which may be determined by genetics/environment or the combination of both). You could find out if you score high in that trait by taking a free ‘Big Five’ personality test online..

  41. Please could you comment on the following study conducted in 2015 which determined:

    “In summary, the present meta-analysis, consisting of 34 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies, had suggested a significantly increased risk between coffee consumption and the risk of BC. Subgroup analyses indicated that male drinkers and non-smokers with high coffee consumption were more likely to develop BC. However, caution is needed in interpreting the findings from our meta-analysis because of the inevitable heterogeneity. Further well-designed large-scaled studies are warranted to provide more definitive conclusions”

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356958/

    And lead to the British Medical Journal (BMJ) publishing the following:
    “A long suspected link between coffee consumption and the development of bladder cancer has been confirmed by a new meta-analysis of 34 case-control and six cohort studies. The link was found to be stronger among males and non-smoking coffee drinkers.”

    https://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h1477

    Has this study and the recommendations been superseded now?

    Thank you

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