Oxygenating Blood with Nitrate-Rich Vegetables

Oxygenating Blood with Nitrate-Rich Vegetables
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Vegetables such as beets and arugula can improve athletic performance by improving oxygen delivery and utilization. But, what about for those who really need it—such as those with emphysema, high blood pressure, and peripheral artery disease?

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It’s great that we can improve athletic performance eating a few beets, but so what if you run 5% faster? It can be a fun experiment to eat a can of beets and maybe shave a minute off your 5K time, but these are the people who could really benefit from a more efficient use of oxygen: those suffering from emphysema. Yeah, young healthy adults eating greens and beets can swim, run, and cycle faster and farther, but what about those who get out of breath just walking up the stairs? Do nitrate-rich vegetables work where it counts? Yes, significantly extended time on the treadmill after two shots of beet juice.

It’s great that beet juice can decrease blood pressure in young healthy adults, but what about in those who really need it: older, overweight subjects? Just one shot of beet juice a day versus berry juice as a control, and in a few weeks, a significant drop in blood pressure; but within just a few days after stopping—after three weeks of beet-ing themselves up—blood pressure went back up. So, we have to eat our vegetables, and keep eating our vegetables.

Why did it take until 2015 to publish a study on lowering blood pressure in people with high blood pressure? You’d think that’d be the first group to try it on. Who’s going to fund it, though—Big Beet? Blood pressure medications rake in more than $10 billion a year. You can’t make billions on beets. But that’s why we have charities like the British Heart Foundation, which funded a study to give folks with high blood pressure a cup of beet juice a day for four weeks. After all, high blood pressure may be the #1 risk factor for premature death in the world. In ten years, it could affect nearly one in three adults on the planet. But put them on beet juice, and blood pressures drop and kept dropping, until it was stopped after a month. With so many people with high blood pressure even despite treatment, an additional strategy, based on the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables, may prove to be both cost-effective, affordable, and favorable for a public health approach to hypertension.

What about those with peripheral artery disease? Tens of millions with atherosclerotic clogs impairing blood flow to their legs, which can cause a cramping pain in the calves, called claudication, due to lack of blood flow through the blocked arteries, severely limiting one’s ability to even just walk around. But just drink some beet juice and walk 18% longer. This is really neat—I’ve never seen this before. They measured the actual oxygenation of their blood within their calf muscle. Placebo’s in white; beet is in black, showing how they were able to maintain more oxygen in their muscles with just vegetables.

The nitric oxide from vegetable nitrates not only improves oxygen efficiency, but also oxygen delivery by vasodilating blood vessels, opening up arteries so there’s more blood flow. I’m surprised beet juice companies aren’t trying to position themselves as veggie Viagra; it could certainly explain why those eating more veggies have such improved sexual function, though this study was just a snapshot in time. So, you can’t tell which came first. However, it seems more reasonable that low fruit and vegetable consumption contributes to erectile dysfunction, rather than the other way around.

What about the most important organ, the brain? Poor cerebral perfusion—lack of blood flow and oxygen in the brain—is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, and they showed that the nitrate in vegetables may be beneficial in treating age-related cognitive decline. They showed a direct effect of dietary nitrate on cerebral blood flow within the frontal lobes, the areas particularly compromised by aging. This is a critical brain area for so-called executive function, basic tasks, and problem-solving important for day-to-day functioning. The nitrite from nitrate has been shown not only to increase blood flow to certain areas of the body, but also acts preferentially in low oxygen conditions, allowing it to increase blood flow precisely in the areas where it is needed most. And, that’s what they found in the brain: increased blood flow to the at-risk areas of the aging brain. And, the only side effects of beet-ing your brains out? A little extra color in your life.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to geralt via Pixabay.

It’s great that we can improve athletic performance eating a few beets, but so what if you run 5% faster? It can be a fun experiment to eat a can of beets and maybe shave a minute off your 5K time, but these are the people who could really benefit from a more efficient use of oxygen: those suffering from emphysema. Yeah, young healthy adults eating greens and beets can swim, run, and cycle faster and farther, but what about those who get out of breath just walking up the stairs? Do nitrate-rich vegetables work where it counts? Yes, significantly extended time on the treadmill after two shots of beet juice.

It’s great that beet juice can decrease blood pressure in young healthy adults, but what about in those who really need it: older, overweight subjects? Just one shot of beet juice a day versus berry juice as a control, and in a few weeks, a significant drop in blood pressure; but within just a few days after stopping—after three weeks of beet-ing themselves up—blood pressure went back up. So, we have to eat our vegetables, and keep eating our vegetables.

Why did it take until 2015 to publish a study on lowering blood pressure in people with high blood pressure? You’d think that’d be the first group to try it on. Who’s going to fund it, though—Big Beet? Blood pressure medications rake in more than $10 billion a year. You can’t make billions on beets. But that’s why we have charities like the British Heart Foundation, which funded a study to give folks with high blood pressure a cup of beet juice a day for four weeks. After all, high blood pressure may be the #1 risk factor for premature death in the world. In ten years, it could affect nearly one in three adults on the planet. But put them on beet juice, and blood pressures drop and kept dropping, until it was stopped after a month. With so many people with high blood pressure even despite treatment, an additional strategy, based on the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables, may prove to be both cost-effective, affordable, and favorable for a public health approach to hypertension.

What about those with peripheral artery disease? Tens of millions with atherosclerotic clogs impairing blood flow to their legs, which can cause a cramping pain in the calves, called claudication, due to lack of blood flow through the blocked arteries, severely limiting one’s ability to even just walk around. But just drink some beet juice and walk 18% longer. This is really neat—I’ve never seen this before. They measured the actual oxygenation of their blood within their calf muscle. Placebo’s in white; beet is in black, showing how they were able to maintain more oxygen in their muscles with just vegetables.

The nitric oxide from vegetable nitrates not only improves oxygen efficiency, but also oxygen delivery by vasodilating blood vessels, opening up arteries so there’s more blood flow. I’m surprised beet juice companies aren’t trying to position themselves as veggie Viagra; it could certainly explain why those eating more veggies have such improved sexual function, though this study was just a snapshot in time. So, you can’t tell which came first. However, it seems more reasonable that low fruit and vegetable consumption contributes to erectile dysfunction, rather than the other way around.

What about the most important organ, the brain? Poor cerebral perfusion—lack of blood flow and oxygen in the brain—is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, and they showed that the nitrate in vegetables may be beneficial in treating age-related cognitive decline. They showed a direct effect of dietary nitrate on cerebral blood flow within the frontal lobes, the areas particularly compromised by aging. This is a critical brain area for so-called executive function, basic tasks, and problem-solving important for day-to-day functioning. The nitrite from nitrate has been shown not only to increase blood flow to certain areas of the body, but also acts preferentially in low oxygen conditions, allowing it to increase blood flow precisely in the areas where it is needed most. And, that’s what they found in the brain: increased blood flow to the at-risk areas of the aging brain. And, the only side effects of beet-ing your brains out? A little extra color in your life.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. This is just an approximation of the audio contributed by Katie Schloer.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Images thanks to geralt via Pixabay.

Doctor's Note

Nitrates are one of the reasons I recommend eating dark green leafy vegetables every day. Beets are another good option, but not just drinking the juice as I discuss in my last video, Whole Beets vs. Juice for Improving Athletic Performance.

What else can we do for high blood pressure? See:

Why is blood flow to the brain so important? I go into depth on the potential consequences of impaired flow in Alzheimer’s and Atherosclerosis of the Brain.

For more on diet and pelvic blood flow in men, see:

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

113 responses to “Oxygenating Blood with Nitrate-Rich Vegetables

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  1. excellent! after your first video on beetroot and oxygen efficiency I began to give a shake of beet to my Grand mother in the morning (she is suffering from high blood pressure and dementia..) but after few week i just stop.. and now i think i will came back with the reed shakes mornings..
    it is any unsafe quantity? to beets a days can bee to much or have a side effect? thank you!




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  2. what if you eat beets every day for a year… does the body get use to NO in the blood and this boosting in the metabolism of oxigen will then go down again or it will maintain high as long as you are eating greens and beets? thank you!




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  3. Right now, my breakfast includes blueberries and banana. A change to blueberries and beets seems in order. I’ll have to read the studies to understand the dosing requirements.




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  4. I’m still confused on a point. Does eating a cooked beet or two provide the same results or does it need to be beet juice? If both work is one better than the other?




    4
    1. I think it’s just that the study used beet juice. Maybe it was easier for folks to take the juice over freshg beets? Of course, the whole beet includes its juices and is likely to provide the same function.




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      1. Except you’re missing a great deal of the fiber and phytonutrients with just the juice. Nothing to do with oxygen absorption, just general better health and glycemic regulation…




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  5. I’d love to know the source of the beet juice used in these studies. Is this a bottled product, or are they making their own from fresh beets?




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        1. Shawna, my daughter has the same disease and is plant-based and in college. Do you have any advice for her as to what has been the most helpful to you?




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      1. I spend a fair part of the year in apart of the world where beetroot is pretty much unobtainable. I try to take some beetroot powder with me but do not know if this is effective. Is there any information on the effects of consuming beetroot powder?




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        1. Gosh I have no idea! I’ll look into but give me some time please (like a week). Thanks, Tom! Does anyone else know the answer or have any research?




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    1. “All tests were performed at the William Harvey Clinical Research Centre. 34 drug-naïve and 34 treated patients with hypertension were randomized to receive either 4-weeks daily supplementation with dietary nitrate (250mL beetroot juice, James White Drinks Ltd., Ipswich, UK) or placebo (250mL nitrate-depleted beetroot juice25, James White Drinks Ltd., Ipswich, UK).”




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      1. I wasn’t into it either for many years. I suggest you try having it cooked in different ways (i.e. not tinned) e.g. roasted or raw blended into a smoothie or juiced, with other ingredients. Nowadays I don’t mind it at all. Good luck :)




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  6. For those who don’t care for beets, or concerned about high Aze intake, there are plenty of alternatives. From: Santamaria et al. 1999. A survey of nitrate and oxalate content in fresh vegetables :

    mean mg nitrate/kg (fresh)
    Rocket 2597
    Swiss chard 2363
    Radish 2067
    Spinach 1845
    Kohlrabi 1769
    Beetroot 1727
    Celery 1678
    Romaine lettuce 1241
    Parsley 1150
    Butterhead lettuce 1089
    Broccoli raab 905
    Crisphead lettuce 581
    Asparagus 498
    Green onion 410
    Fennel 363
    Endive 224
    Cauliflower 202
    Carrot 195
    Broccoli 154
    Potato 81
    Sweet potato 54
    Bulb Garlic 34
    Onion 32
    Savoy cabbage 29
    ‘Radicchio’ 12




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          1. Good for you Jason! Tastes can change when you keep an open mind, mine sure have! Anything we can do to get the good stuff into us, and smoothies are such a great way to sneak in things we would have never even considered otherwise. It amazes me sometimes how well they come out when you just toss stuff all together. Who woulda thunk it? lol




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        1. Charzie: I haven’t yet, but it sounds like a good idea. It seems like they would add a very nice color as well as not be too overpowering in the context of a smoothie.




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          1. Yes, they sure do make a pretty color! Even my picky 7 y.o. granddaughter got past her aversions when we made a pretty fuchsia smoothie with spinach, cukes, celery, avocado, watermelon, grapes, lots of berries and some dates and beets!




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    1. Wonder if there’s an absorption difference here, or some other synergy going on…otherwise why are Beets getting all the attention in relation to NO?




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      1. Not sure why Beets get all the attention, but for practical reasons beets are among the highest dietary source given the volumes typically consumed I would think – people who like beets would likely get through 250 grams of Beets in a sitting than 250 grams of Arugula, for example.




        1
    2. You are the bomb Darryl! Thanks. By the way for those who didn’t know, that “rocket” at the top of the list is also known as arugula, my current fave sprout or micro veggie, since it doesn’t appreciate the heat here now, and I can’t afford to buy it! I always feel compelled to share the “grow some food yourself” message…you know what you are getting when you do, and it’s fun (and exercise too when you garden), even just in pots on a balcony!




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    3. Darryl, great list. I eat celery dipped in hummus every day for lunch. I like beets and was planning to pick some up, but since the difference between beets and celery appears to be minimal and the hospital dietary service delivers a fresh batch to my office every week, along with carrots, grape tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, and jicama I should be in good shape without them. Thanks.




      0
    4. Darryl, thanks for the list. That aze linked info is kind of creepy, especially since there’s no conclusion for humans. What else has aze?




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      1. I came across Aze in some reviews on the BMAA/ALS story. Like BMAA and L-dopa, Aze is a proteomimetic, in Aze’s case closely resembling proline, and Dr. Edward Rubenstein’s hypothesis is that misincorporation of Aze into myelin basic protein plays a role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Beets are the only common dietary vegetable containing significant Aze (at about a 1:20 ratio to proline), but because sugar beet molasses and pulp are common animal feeds, there’s potential for biomagnification in meat and dairy.




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    1. I’m no Jo, but as I understand it this situation results from the body balancing out the acidification caused by meat eating with calcium (neutralizing) from the bones.




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        1. Thanks for the reminder, sometimes I learn so much i forget. Well I’m still fairly certain that eating a lot of meat every day isn’t a good way to keep one’s health. ;-)




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  7. As you might guess…here’s an NO supplement:

    http://www.swansonvitamins.com/swanson-ultra-fast-acting-beet-root-no-60-chwbls

    I’ve tried it…works maybe like viagra…but haven’t tried the former.

    If you are out on a date…you could try getting out a can of beets….or take a couple of these?

    Do I care whether you try these? No. Just information…which is the new crime. Don’t give them information…you never know what they will do with it!




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  8. Nitrates are increasing in surface waters such as the Great Lakes, source of drinking water for millions. One reason is that we remove phosphates, but not nitrates, from sewage. Sounds like amounts in Great Lakes (~.3 mg/L) don’t approach that of many vegetables.

    There must be an upper level for safe ingestion of nitrates, though? I seem to recall a rat study and one on cattle grazing N-fertilized fields. (The cattle had problems, not consumers.) Just wondering.

    http://www3.epa.gov/grtlakes/monitoring/limnology/index.html#NOx




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  9. I tried a cup of RAW beet juice for a week a year or so ago and it lowered my systolic at least 10mm/hg. Didn’t continue because I was concerned about the amount of sugar and glycemic effect.
    It would be helpful of the staff posts would indicate whether the medium used was raw, cooked, canned, whole beet or juice. Perhaps all are equally effective.




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      1. As I recall about 6/8 med sized beets in a juicer made a pint or so. I think now I would not discard the fiber but use it in a smoothie or go for the whole, cooked beets. I am going to try it with my swim routine for comparison. Other nitrate sources sound good also for a mix.




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  10. I have been eating a plant based diet for 19 months (loving it!), and met with my diabetes educator yesterday (I am a type 1 diabetic) and also have RA (but zero symptoms since being plant based). She told me that I should not eat beans, because they cause inflammation. Bad news for me, because beans have become one of my favorite protein and comfort foods. Is this true?




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    1. Depends on if you believe the paleo crowd or not. Paleo says so but other people don’t. Even non-vegetarians say that legumes are anti-inflammatory. Beans and legumes are truly a fountain of youth anti-inflammatory food because they are bursting with inflammation-reducing antioxidants and phytonutrients as well as being one of the richest sources of fiber on the planet.




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  11. I love beets but i’ve heard they contain a decent amount of sugar (something like 8 grams per 100 grams of beets) thus they can promote Candida yeast growth in the guts.




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    1. Well the only real negative I see mentioned (skimmed it VERY briefly – would love it if someone took a more detailed look!) is a cancer risk, and that seems to mention nitrites in meat products – which Dr. Gregor explained ( http://nutritionfacts.org/video/are-nitrates-pollutants-or-nutrients/ ) turn into the “bad” stuff (nitrosamines was it?), whereas nitrates in fruits/veggies turn into nitrites and then NO (something like that..?).

      This is why even “no nitrate” hot dogs are considered “bad” because they still often add nitrites from celery which, in the presence of meat, apparently act the same as the added nitrates.




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  12. I was watching one of Dr Greger’s earlier videos re: the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide pathway which mentioned briefly the role of the proton pump. That got me wondering if proton pump inhibitors would be associated with adverse cardiac events, so I Googled it, and indeed, PPIs are indeed associated with adverse cardiac events for this reason (as well as another interconnected reason). See:

    http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/13/e426.full.pdf and

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105215/

    Not only that, some people are taking PPIs together with NSAIDs to protect their stomachs (see Dr Greger’s video “Anti Inflammatory Life is a Bowl of Cherries”). Since NSAIDs are also associated with cardiovascular problems, taking these two drugs concurrently could be a double dose of deadliness for your heart.




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  13. Canned beans have a similar nutritional profile as dried beans. Do canned beets also have a similar nutritional profile to fresh beets?




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    1. I read in a forum online that someone tweeted one of the researchers who did some of the groundbreaking research on beets and athletic performance. Apparently he said boiling beets boils away the nitrate content. Best to steam or bake. I cut in quarters and steam for 15-20 minutes.




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  14. Why are meat nitrates bad for you if veggie nitrates are good for you? Thanks! I love this site and am a happy vegan. Hubby likes nitrates.




    0
    1. Kelly: The following video starts to answer that question. Watch this intro and then keep clicking ‘next video’ until your question is answered. Alternatively, note that the following video is actually in the middle of the series. So, you could keep clicking ‘previous video’ until you get to the start of series and then go forward from there.

      Is Bacon Good Or Is Spinach Bad?
      http://nutritionfacts.org/video/is-bacon-good-or-is-spinach-bad/




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  15. Would chronic supplementation with nitrate rich foods like beets, spinach or antioxidants possibly cause nitrate tolerance? And if so, which dosage would prevent this…




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  16. I eat beets regularly along with the rest of the veggie rainbow. However for the first time this winter I have developed Reynauds Syndrome. Does anyone have any thoughts on this? Any research Dr Greger?




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  17. When I lived in Egypt I found a delicious green called gargeer. It was said to be “good for men” ;-) when I returned to USA I discovered that gargeer was arugula and it is indeed “good for men” ! Ps. I’m not a man I just love greens and have a lot of respect for wisdom that came to be from observation over long periods of time.




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  18. Beet juice works amazingly well for my Dermatomyositis a muscle disease with decreased capillary flow. I figured it out while juicing before all the hype. Then i saw the science…




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  19. I used to hate beets. If I ate just one bite of cooked beets I would gag. I tried beet juice and just about threw up. HOWEVER, I have slowly learned to eat RAW whole beets. I just ate a little bit with each meal, now I can eat a whole beet root with a meal, and strangely, I am now really like the taste of raw beets. I haven’t ventured into cooked beets or beet juice because of my reaction to them in the past. I think I will just stick with whole raw beets.




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    1. John Axsom: I’m so glad you shared this story. I was just in a big conversation with someone the other day about how tastes can change. This is a great example.

      Like you, I have found that I prefer some veggies cooked and others raw. I think Dr. Greger would say, “Which way is healthiest? The one that you will eat!”

      If you ever get brave enough in a year or so to sample a small amount of cooked beet, I would be curious to hear if your reaction changed since you’ve acclimated yourself to the raw stuff. I have found that even though I *hated* cooked carrots as a kid and while I still don’t love them, I have developed a much bigger tolerance/less dislike of them since I started eating a lot more raw carrots. Just sharing.




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  20. Help please! This vid discusses PAD but I need info on a different leg pain, that is foot and leg cramping. It gets me out of bed several times a night, especially bad when I lie down for that first half-hour, and strikes during the day several times too. When a cramp happens, stretching that muscle helps, but sometimes opposing muscles both lock up at the same time – ow!
    Please discuss this. As I understand, it’s somewhat common. Thank you, Kim




    0
    1. Hi Kim, this is unfortunately a common occurrence and seems to get more prevalent as people get older. Like most things this can be a symptom of several different problems, some of which could be serious. Iron deficiency anemia, uremia, myelopathies are just to name a few of the underlying causes. I would suggest you get a work up by your personal physician in order to make sure there is nothing serious going on.




      0
      1. We both get leg cramps at night and 5-10 almonds or walnuts befor bed works quite well. We like a couple dates with them. Magnesium and potassium sources in good packaging.




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    2. Look into magnesium. I have been taking 400 mgs magnesium citrate for years. When I got out of the habit I developed nasty calf and foot or toe cramps. Boy do they hurt!!! I added back in my magnesium and they have been gone now for a number of years. Also, add greens to your diet. Lots of magnesium in greens. I added (as above) greens to my diet at every meal and my BP dropped and leg cramps are gone. Do not supplement with magnesium oxalate – not as bioavailable. Citrate form works better.




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  21. Just for the record, arugula is the US name for rocket lettuce. For years, I occasionally came across references to arugula on US sites and had no idea what it was. Thank you Mr Google.

    Oh, and turnips and swedes are called rutabaga in the US I understand




    0
  22. I’m perplexed and a little scared. I’ve been following Dr. Greger’s diet to the letter for about two months, including eating beets and flaxseed in my salad everyday. I’m 66 and not overweight. I’ve had a history of hypertension but never took drugs for it cause the side effects worried me. Yesterday I went to my doctor for routine and my BP was 160/82. I was shocked. I just reread the chapter on high blood pressure and I seem to be doing everything right. I am clueless what to do next. Any advice? Thank you.




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    1. Terry Magram: I’m not an expert and I forwarded your post onto our volunteer medical moderators. We don’t have enough volunteers to get every question answered, but at least your question is in the pile. In the meantime, I thought I would ask you if you might have any hidden sodium sources that might be affecting your outcome? For example, you mentioned salad. If you are using a commercial salad dressing, you might be getting more sodium than you realized. Just an idea for something to look into. Your generally diet sounds fantastic. Congratulations on the changes you have made already. I hope you are able to figure this out.




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    2. Hi Terry: As Thea mentioned, definitely check hidden sodium intake – meaning anything that comes packaged, pre-made, canned, frozen, etc. Do you exercise? Regular walking can help lower blood pressure. Any added stress in your life? Proper stress management is something to think about too. Also, just getting your blood pressure re-checked might do the trick. Sometimes people are nervous at the doctor’s office – or maybe you were rushing to get to your appointment on time. Hope this helps! Please let us know if you have any additional questions or concerns.




      0
    3. HI Terry – I understand how you feel, . . trying everything to ‘do it right’ and still not getting the results you want. I’ve not ever had high blood pressure but mine did come down overall when I went WFPB, SOS (no/low sugar, oil, salt) a la Dr. McDougall (lots of easy recipes on his website). But my BP went even lower when I tweaked a couple of things. I am 63. Per Dr. Esselstyne’s lecture, I added green vegetables to my diet at every meal (which he recommends if you’e not getting the results you want). There are 5 that he recommends precisely for their anti-inflammatory and nitrite-producing abilities: kale, swiss chard, beets, beet greens, arugula. When you chew these greens your body, in the gut, makes nitrite for you. One-half cup cooked is a serving. I just make a big pot of greens and then eat 1/2 C (or more) with each meal. The other thing I started doing was making sure that I have a 12-hour fast every night to allow my body to fully digest, use up calories, and do its cleanup work. If I feel I can go longer than 12 hrs, I do so. I saw my BP go from 130/85 to 109/65. Perhaps using Benson’s Table Tasty (an herb salt substitute) might help with flavoring to replace salt. (google it)
      For the greens, my favorite is to steam in water, add fresh squeezed garlic, tsp of sugar, rice vinegar, soy sauce (low sodium), minced ginger, dash of red pepper (the kind you shake on pizza), and lots of toasted sesame seed ground in a mortar and pestle. (the recipe calls for toasted sesame oil but I prefer the whole seed).
      Here is Dr. Esselstyne’s lecture, perhaps there will be other information to help you:
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8yikz5bOEQ

      Also – I like to go down to my local grocery store that has a blood pressure cuff in the pharmacy dept where I can take my own blood pressure. I sit for a few minutes and relax and then take 3 readings. I also do this once or twice a month so that I get a composite reading over time. I find this is helpful in understanding where my overall BP is. I hope this information is helpful to you.




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  23. Got the biggest question i been trying to find out for a while now, sence arugula got the highest content of nitrate then why is beets the main one people talk about when it comes to blood pressure, should it not be aruglua sience its higher nitrate




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    1. Hi Jesse. Great question! I’m a NF volunteer moderator. Most of the time, people are unaware of this information and need informed people to let them know. Dr Greger actually addressed which vegetables have the highest nitrate level in this video, Vegetables Rate by Nitrate.

      Please feel free to refer people to this video in the future. I hope that helps.




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