Best Brain Foods: Greens & Beets Put to the Test

Best Brain Foods: Greens & Beets Put to the Test
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Cocoa and nitrite-rich vegetables, such as green leafies and beets, are put to the test for cognitive function.

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Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

The production in our brain of nitric oxide—the open-sesame molecule that dilates our blood vessels and is boosted by the consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables—and the role of nitric oxide in the control of nerve functioning “has been comprehensively investigated in [lab animals]. However, little evidence on [its] role” in human brain function existed…until it was put to the test.

Feed people lots of green leafy vegetables with some beet juice to boot, and then measure cerebral blood flow. See that spot there with improved flow? That’s a critical brain area known to be involved in executive functioning. Okay, but improved blood flow doesn’t necessarily translate into improved cognitive function. For example, feed people tart cherries, and “despite some indication of improved blood flow,” this didn’t appear to manifest as improved cognitive performance.

And indeed, some of the initial studies were disappointing. Give people over a cup of cooked spinach, and no immediate boost in the ability to carry out simple tasks. But, that may be because the tests weren’t hard enough. Give people a similar battery of simple tasks after consuming cocoa and no significant effect. But put people through a more demanding set of tasks, and you can see “acute improvements” in cognitive performance after cocoa consumption. The tasks they’re talking about are like counting “backwards in threes” for minutes at a time. What if you tried doing that same thing after drinking two cups of organic beet juice, which has about the same amount of nitrate as two cups of cooked arugula?

Significantly improved performance, in terms of more correct answers on the sustained subtraction task. “These results suggest that a single dose of [nitrate-rich vegetables] can modify brain function, and that this is likely to be as a result of increased [nitric oxide] synthesis.” Okay, but how do we know it’s the nitrate? Beets are packed with all sorts of phytonutrients, like the betalain red pigment. One way to tease it out would be to come up with some kind of nitrate-depleted beet juice—has all the other stuff in beets, but just missing the nitrate—to see if that works just as well, and that’s exactly what researchers did.

They developed a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice placebo. And, compared to that, within two weeks of supplementation with the real stuff, this group of diabetics got a “significant improvement in…reaction time.” Now we’re just talking 13 milliseconds here, but other interventions, like balance training, that only increased reaction time like seven milliseconds, were associated with significantly lower fall risk. And, of course, in athletes, those fractions of a second can sometimes make a difference.

“At very high exercise intensities…, cognitive task performance deteriorates, with a pronounced detrimental effect on reaction time.” And, that may be just when you need it the most. You’re like playing football or something, and need to make rapid appropriate decisions while simultaneously going all out. And, once again, beets to the rescue: significantly reducing reaction time. So, not only improving physical performance, but mental performance as well.

Yeah, but can it improve the structure of your brain? Things like cognitive training and aerobic exercise can actually affect the structure of the human brain. There’s something called neuroplasticity, where your brain can adapt, changing its configuration as you like learn to play piano or something.

We used to think only younger brains could do this, but now we know it can occur in the aging brain as well. Can’t “beet” that—or can you? We didn’t know…until now. Here’s your brain before and after a six-week exercise program, measuring connectivity between various parts of your brain that control movement. No big change.  But, what about the same amount of exercise before… and after drinking some beet juice, too? Big difference. “The exercise plus [beetroot juice] group developed brain networks that more closely resembled those of younger adults, showing the potential enhanced neuroplasticity conferred by combining exercise and [nitrate-rich vegetables].”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Adobe via Adobe Stock images. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video.

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

The production in our brain of nitric oxide—the open-sesame molecule that dilates our blood vessels and is boosted by the consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables—and the role of nitric oxide in the control of nerve functioning “has been comprehensively investigated in [lab animals]. However, little evidence on [its] role” in human brain function existed…until it was put to the test.

Feed people lots of green leafy vegetables with some beet juice to boot, and then measure cerebral blood flow. See that spot there with improved flow? That’s a critical brain area known to be involved in executive functioning. Okay, but improved blood flow doesn’t necessarily translate into improved cognitive function. For example, feed people tart cherries, and “despite some indication of improved blood flow,” this didn’t appear to manifest as improved cognitive performance.

And indeed, some of the initial studies were disappointing. Give people over a cup of cooked spinach, and no immediate boost in the ability to carry out simple tasks. But, that may be because the tests weren’t hard enough. Give people a similar battery of simple tasks after consuming cocoa and no significant effect. But put people through a more demanding set of tasks, and you can see “acute improvements” in cognitive performance after cocoa consumption. The tasks they’re talking about are like counting “backwards in threes” for minutes at a time. What if you tried doing that same thing after drinking two cups of organic beet juice, which has about the same amount of nitrate as two cups of cooked arugula?

Significantly improved performance, in terms of more correct answers on the sustained subtraction task. “These results suggest that a single dose of [nitrate-rich vegetables] can modify brain function, and that this is likely to be as a result of increased [nitric oxide] synthesis.” Okay, but how do we know it’s the nitrate? Beets are packed with all sorts of phytonutrients, like the betalain red pigment. One way to tease it out would be to come up with some kind of nitrate-depleted beet juice—has all the other stuff in beets, but just missing the nitrate—to see if that works just as well, and that’s exactly what researchers did.

They developed a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice placebo. And, compared to that, within two weeks of supplementation with the real stuff, this group of diabetics got a “significant improvement in…reaction time.” Now we’re just talking 13 milliseconds here, but other interventions, like balance training, that only increased reaction time like seven milliseconds, were associated with significantly lower fall risk. And, of course, in athletes, those fractions of a second can sometimes make a difference.

“At very high exercise intensities…, cognitive task performance deteriorates, with a pronounced detrimental effect on reaction time.” And, that may be just when you need it the most. You’re like playing football or something, and need to make rapid appropriate decisions while simultaneously going all out. And, once again, beets to the rescue: significantly reducing reaction time. So, not only improving physical performance, but mental performance as well.

Yeah, but can it improve the structure of your brain? Things like cognitive training and aerobic exercise can actually affect the structure of the human brain. There’s something called neuroplasticity, where your brain can adapt, changing its configuration as you like learn to play piano or something.

We used to think only younger brains could do this, but now we know it can occur in the aging brain as well. Can’t “beet” that—or can you? We didn’t know…until now. Here’s your brain before and after a six-week exercise program, measuring connectivity between various parts of your brain that control movement. No big change.  But, what about the same amount of exercise before… and after drinking some beet juice, too? Big difference. “The exercise plus [beetroot juice] group developed brain networks that more closely resembled those of younger adults, showing the potential enhanced neuroplasticity conferred by combining exercise and [nitrate-rich vegetables].”

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Adobe via Adobe Stock images. Image has been modified.

Motion graphics by Avocado Video.

125 responses to “Best Brain Foods: Greens & Beets Put to the Test

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  1. Enhanced neuroplasticity by combining exercise and a diet high in nitrate-rich vegetables.
    It appears that you have succeeded where Ponce de León failed because this is truly fountain of youth…

  2. From the last study, do you have to eat your nitrate rich veggies right before exercise to get the brain boosting effect? I eat nitrate rich veggies and exercise everyday, but not at the same time.

    1. I searched thorough the studies on improved blood flow with intrate intake, but was not able to clarify timing. Best I could come up with was the following article which seemed to indicate that blood flow (and possibly brain boosting effect was immediate when treating headaches;
      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=timing+of+vasodialation+after+intake+of+nitrate+intakeHeadache-type adverse effects of NO donors: vasodilation and beyond/

      immediate headaches are connected to vasodilation caused by nitric oxide (NO) release

  3. Previous videos said I need special bacteria on the tongue to create NO. I’m curious what bacteria. Do I need to expose my tongue to certain foods to get the right bacteria, say raw cabbage or something like that? Or perhaps a probiotic? And what about the consequences if I brush my tongue?

    1. Thanks Dr Greger for this video. It confirms and better explains some of what I have believed for a time. Not a big lover of greens but am an ardent follower of a cocoa and biotta brand beet juice regimen.

    2. Stanley,
      Here is the video you are referring to. https://nutritionfacts.org/video/antibacterial-toothpaste-harmful-helpful-or-harmless/ Exposing your mouth to vegetables helps you to develop the beneficial bacteria in your mouth as well as in your gut.. Brushing your tongue is not likely to cause a problem, however, the antiseptic mouthwashes do. Here is an interesting video on the benefits of green tea for oral health. https://nutritionfacts.org/2016/01/21/making-your-own-mouthwash/

        1. This is a great question, Ken. Recent journal articles on this topic discuss that we should stop trying to kill off all bacteria in the mouth, but rather support a healthy balance of bacteria. Exactly what that balance is and how to achieve it isn’t yet sorted. We do know that a diet low in sugar, fat, and processed foods and high in foods with fiber promotes growth of healthy and diverse bacteria. Back to the mouth, keep brushing and flossing, but consider ditching the antibacterial mouthwash, as it’s likely not helping. We don’t know yet if it’s a bad idea, and more work is bring done to sort that out. Best to you! Dr Anderson, Health Support Volunteer

  4. Beets being considered good for brain performance is common, but maybe useless information, until you find out how much beet juice you actually need. That’s the big question for me. Is putting a few slices of raw beet in a smoothie (like I’ve done) a useless effort? Do I need to juice enough to get 2 liquid cups full? That may be a LOT of beets. Is that even affordable? Beet supplements?? I’d like to know the specifics of how to put this information to real use.

    1. From the study referenced:

      Each week participants were given 7 days of BEET IT Sport Shot (http://www.beet-it.com/) with 560 mg of nitrate or the Placebo BEET IT Sport Shot (http://www.beet-it.com/) containing very little (1.1 mg) nitrate, depending on the randomization. The participants were instructed to consume one 70-mL (2.4 oz.) beverage each day within 30 minutes of opening the bottle and to consume the beverage 1 hour before the exercise intervention.

    2. Chuck R, I like variety. And whole vegetables, prepared simply or in soups, stews, etc. I don’t worry about the details, preferring instead to focus on the big picture: veggies and fruits, beans and whole grains, nuts and seeds in moderation. I may one day download Dr. Greger’s daily dozen, to see how I’m doing. Otherwise, I enjoy my food, and am grateful every day to the farmers and other workers who produce the good food and get it to the stores where I buy it.

      1. Great answer. I sometimes get caught up in the small details trying for perfect optimization. A really healthy program will you get you and maybe just take you a bit longer to reach your health goals. That said, I am curious about best practice nutrient rotation. Is it good to be on ginger for say three weeks and then off 1:week, etc?

  5. I guess I’m adding beets to my regimen in spite of the mild gastro-intestinal upset they seem to cause. Perhaps daily consumption will allow my body to a accustom itself to whatever is causing the distress.

        1. Veggivet, I have a whole garden bed of arugula: 6′ x 3.5′! I neglected my garden beds, and my first planting of arugula went to seed. When I cleaned out the old plants, I saw all kinds of tiny seedlings — and whew!! Since they are plentiful at the moment and free, they are my current “champions.” They are doing nicely through our cold frosty nights. I wish I had a cold frame; I wonder how long I could grow them into the winter?

          1. Why not make a cold frame over them? Or erect a hoop? I used an old picture window one year that rested on 2×12’s. I’m in Michigan so I kept it clear of snow over the winter and began harvesting greens in March that went on right up till summer. (I was afraid to open it during winter’s cruelest months…. A wonderful book: Eliot Coleman’s “Four Season Harvest.” (https://www.amazon.com/Four-Season-Harvest-Organic-Vegetables-Garden/dp/1890132276/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&qid=1542066132&sr=8-4&keywords=eliot+coleman+books)

    1. Mitch,
      WF carries an organic beet juice by Lakewood and it is not a concentrate. But at $6.99 for 4 one cup servings it is pretty darn expensive.

      1. I like to add a teaspoonul of beetroot powder to my cacao. As you say, the juice is very expensive even if you can find it.

        Alternatively, buy actual beetroots and juice those (I’d personally stick them in a blender rather than a juicer though). Ditto for canned beetroot which are quite cheap if you buy the supermarrket ‘own brands’. However, canned beetroots usually have lots of added water, salt and sugar which makes them a less than ideal choice.

      2. You don’t have to buy it @ wholefoods / Amazon (as whole foods is owned by Amazon). I bought the same on sale in my local super market, regular price is 5.99 for 32 oz. You only need about half a cup/day, that’s 8 servings @ $.75/serving, a bargain compared to what many pay for takeout coffee. Its a popular product, so look for it in big box stores as well. And just to add, it has a little lemon juice, and is quite tasty. As to improved athletic performance, I can’t really say, but I notice I do get a boost from my am cocoa powder.

        If you don’t want to drink it, you might have an arugula, red onion, and beet salad, but doubtful every day.

  6. I LOVE the pictures! Hooray!

    It really helps to visualize the end-goal!

    When I was doing the brain supplements, I remember a review where someone said, “This is a scam. You can just eat the food.”

    I bought a new juicer. Just got to get some beets.

  7. I ended up watching the Google Doodle about the man who never got Pearl Harbor out of his mind and I used to have such a strong problem with PTSD and I am not sure why mine got better, but it did.

    I tried looking it up, but it is over my head. Here are different things I read about:

    One said to avoid oxalates like beets because of leaky gut and they had an improvement in treating PTSD. I don’t understand the whole oxalates thing.

    One site said, ” Interestingly, the inhibition of nitric oxide in hippocampus by antidepressant has promising outcome to alleviate the PTSD symptoms [6]. While, the augmented level of plasma nitrates in depressive patients are found to be associated with suicide attempts [7].”

    I also read this “This study provides the first evidence that global arginine bioavailability, a marker of NO synthetic capacity in vivo, is lower in veterans with PTSD and is negatively associated with some markers of inflammation as well as with measures of PTSD symptom severity, negative affectivity and childhood adverse experiences.”

    But going back to beets and PTSD

    This one measured the gut microbiome and beets were in the good microbiome list.

    “It is now believed that the gut bacteria or microbiome also influences the brain and brain function by producing neurotransmitters/hormones, immune-regulating molecules and bacterial toxins. “Our study compared the gut microbiomes of individuals with PTSD to that of people who also experienced significant trauma, but did not develop PTSD,” said Stefanie Malan-Muller, postdoctoral fellow at Stellenbosch University in South Africa.
    “We identified a combination of three bacteria (Actinobacteria, Lentisphaerae and Verrucomicrobia) that were different in people with PTSD,” said Malan-Muller, who collaborated with researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder in the US for the study. Individuals with PTSD had significantly lower levels of this trio of bacteria compared to trauma-exposed control groups, researchers said. However, researchers are unable to determine whether this bacterial deficit contributed to PTSD susceptibility, or whether it occurred as a consequence of PTSD.

    To avoid certain health problems in the longer run, it is imperative to alter your diet to keep your gut healthy. Here are some foods that will help prevent any problems in the gut.

    1. Fermented foods
    2. Turmeric
    3. Almonds
    4. Spinach and Beetroot

    Another site talked about foods like wild blueberries, melons, beets, bananas, persimmons, papayas, sweet potatoes, figs, oranges, mangoes, tangerines, apples, raw honey, and dates. “These foods can create a glucose “storage bin” that helps prevent life disruptions from turning into PTSD.”

    I am trying to understand what they are saying the science is. A different page mentioned Arginine and Nitric Oxide, but this one said, “Glucose is a protective biochemical that provides a veil of protection for sensitive brain and neurological tissue. If there isn’t enough glucose stored in the brain to feed the central nervous system and to protect the brain from the corrosive effects of adrenaline and cortisol released during stress, emotional upheaval can create lasting effects. If someone’s glucose storage is low, she or he could get PTSD just from a flat tire, while someone with sufficient glucose storage could witness an armed robbery and tell the story to a friend over dinner that same day, unruffled.”

    Either way, I know that there was a TED Talk where if you add a lot of nutrition after a trauma, you can affect the level of PTSD you have a year later.

  8. I’m wondering whether beet root powder will have the same effect because I don’t like beet juice enough to use a store bought bunch before they go bad.
    Also, interested in effect on blood pressure as I’m still seeing 130-145/75-90 unmedicated. This is after being on heavy exercise (bike 150 mi/week, gym 5 days) mostly plant diet including smoothies of carrot (home juiced), unsalted tomato juice, spinach, broccoli, flax seed, turmeric powder, whole garlic, and anything else in the healthy category that I can throw at it.

    Eliminating coffee & sleep study (snoring & headaches in the AM) are next.

    1. Well, the title is greens and beets, so maybe you like greens better?

      Cocoa can help with counting backwards! You never know when you are going to need that!

      I am laughing because that was in both the PTSD and Dementia tests that people I know have taken, so those of us who want to pass those tests someday might start drinking some cocoa and practicing ahead of time. Someday, I will get so upset with politics that I won’t be able to answer questions like that and I already never know what the date is. I will need to be able to count backward for sure.

      1. I took my grandmother’s dementia test and I passed, but I will say that I hated that they intentionally spent the whole time trying to confuse her.

        They do things like show people cards, then have a 15-minute conversation about a different subject and then try to get them to remember what they saw on the cards. The thing that I understood is that the cards were all random. They didn’t tell her a story or a visual story then question her to see how much she remembered. I watched Brain Games and these doctors are doing the same process as the people trying to confuse the potential juror game and the fact that Brain Games confused 100% of the adult jurors and none of them had dementia tells me that they are doing a process which could have 30-year-olds diagnosed with dementia. Try getting them to count backward by 8’s.

        1. I passed because I was the listener, not the one on the spot. I am convinced that I would have failed if I had an authority figure putting me on the spot and trying to confuse me.

          1. There may be other problems with those tests.

            For example, do they account for prescription drugs causing dementia-like symptoms and do they adequately account for the effects of sensory deficits (vison and hearing loss)?

      2. I am still laughing at that because a man who has since passed away had PTSD from Vietnam and he emphasized counting backward “for minutes at a time.” He said that it was not something he wanted to do even one number and they weren’t going to let him stop.

        I have another friend who is also a Vietnam PTSD person and he can’t even go to the authority figure counselors at all.

        He ends up having them trigger his PTSD and he wakes up from nightmares in ways that he is afraid that he will accidentally kill his wife.

        1. he wakes up from nightmares in ways that he is afraid that he will accidentally kill his wife.
          ———————————————————————————————-
          Deb, a suspicious person might think he is establishing a defense for WHEN he kills his wife. She should consider sleeping in another room with a door lock. ‘-)

          1. Don’t think that will happen. He is a sweetheart most of the time and she has been married to him for decades. He wakes up thinking he is in the middle of a battle and falls on the floor crying out and is looking for some way to kill someone, but he has not ever attacked her. It just scares him.

      3. LOL Deb, I can totally relate. Being retired I rarely have need nor desire to pay attention to relative time related issues, so if I had one of those tests I would fail miserably.

        1. LOL! Yes, I wouldn’t even let her watch politics and she didn’t have a calendar and didn’t go outside in the hot or cold or rain, so she missed most of the seasons. Whenever anybody tries to test the minds of the elderly, they ask the date, and something political and something entertainment (which they don’t think to ask things from their generation) I remember when I was a younger person looking at an elderly person as if they were “way off” because they didn’t know Elvis died and I laugh because I don’t like how negative the news is so I miss celebrity deaths or shootings or fires all the time now. I hear it “telephone game style” and then look it up if I am interested. I do listen to talk radio so I do hear things sometimes, but one time after a fall, a policeman tried to test my grandmother’s mind and he asked 6 cultural questions, which I knew she couldn’t possibly answer and I finally asked, “Could you ask things about my family or about our town or what she used to do for a living or who was on Oprah or Ellen?” She was miserable when Oprah left the air. Positive inspirational is a genre which tends to be missing.

    2. Bob, I was in a similar situation WITH medication & then began eating ONLY within about an 8 hour/day window (intermittent eating) & within a month my bp dropped to perfect.

      1. I’ll try that. Doc says “some people just have high BP. Sugar was 105. It’s also been at that level for years. I’ve no idea why unless it’s from junk food in m college days 35+ years ago. Men die young or at 95 in my family. Most of my stats are like the 95 yr olds. We’ll see.

    3. Hi, Bob! When you say “mostly plant diet,” what does that mean? If you are still consuming animal products, eliminating them entirely would be a good idea. Add some celery to your smoothie, as well. The ratio of sodium to potassium in the diet may affect blood pressure. More potassium and less sodium may be beneficial. For more on lowering blood pressure, you may be interested in these resources: https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/hypertension/ I hope that helps!

    1. My severe kidney stones went away after I started hydrating more effectively. Now, I have been eating an oxalate rich diet for several years with zero kidney stones. For me it was not so much about maximizing the quantity of water intake, but about regularity. Rather than chugging large glasses of water a few times a day, I drink small amounts every hour or two hours. It sounds like a hassle, but I feel amazing!!!

      1. Thank you.   That sounds good since I love beets and greens it has been hard for me to give them up knowing how healthy they are.                                   LindaPS   I really hate kidney stones!

        Linda ScottPresident, Pickleball Club of Chesterfield County USAPA District Ambassador, Virginia Mountains to Sea District**USA Pickleball Association Ambassador Chesterfield/Richmond, VA ****Co-Ambassador with Dave Scott     Pickleballdave@aol.comPhone:   804 683 8481 (cell)USAPA.ORG   Places to PlayPickleball Central.com (use discount code CRBAD for 5%)  Gamma Brand Partner. Gammasports.com (use discount code PCCC2016 for 15% discount)

    2. Linda, I used to “joke” (kidney stones are no joke for sure!) I could build a foundation for a small house with all the stones I had, but since fully switching to a whole food plant based diet and eliminating all animal products six years ago, that problem is history, despite the fact that I now eat lots of plants with oxalates regularly. From this website, and sure worked for me…

      Prevention of Kidney Stones
      Recommendations to prevent kidney stones include drinking 10 to 12 cups of water per day, decreasing animal protein intake, decreasing sodium consumption, and adding more vegetables into the diet. Phytates, found in beans, grains, nuts, and seeds have also been shown to prevent kidney stone formation.

      1. Thanks Vegetater!

        You are timely.

        I have never had a kidney stone, but this weekend, I saw a video of a very, very angry ex-vegan who said that she left because she got kidney stones and was about to have organ failure and she ranted about the oxalates and I have no doubt that she did get kidney stones, but she was so hostile against veganism and WFPB and against the concept that foods like spinach and beets are healthy and I wanted to dialogue with her, but I already know that when you are talking with angry people it is best to listen and find out what happened and then go find the science and see if there is something which could have prevented it.

        1. Vegetater, I saw that video too! My unspoken response was that she was a very intelligent and charismatic young women, who was misguided and wasting her natural talent on false nutrition propaganda. I did not comment, however, because I didn’t want to go down the rocky road of internet communication.

        2. I meant to address Deb, rather than vegetater. I saw that video too! My unspoken response was that she was a very intelligent and charismatic young women, who was misguided and wasting her natural talent on false nutrition propaganda. I did not comment, however, because I didn’t want to go down the rocky road of internet communication.

      2. Vegetater, thanks for sharing your experience with kidney stones. I sometimes worry about oxalates. Good to hear you/ve been able to prevent recurrence with a plant based diet and plenty of water.

  9. DAIRY QUESTION:

    I have not had any dairy since about 1980, but what should I tell a friend(s)?

    What is wrong with dairy?

    What studies to quote?

    Thank you

    1. A great deal by T Colin Campbell would be good. He has been researching dairy for over 40 years and considers milk protein to be the most important carcinogen in America. https://nutritionstudies.org/provocations-casein-carcinogen-really/ In addition that that link, you could check a good number of other links relating to him and dairy. This link explains milk in relation to mTOR and other signaling factors that are species and age specific https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4581184/. Dr Greger has a number of videos on IGF1 and TOR that explain some of the rather dramatic dangers of consuming this. You might look at a number of those along with the NIH library for specific studies..

    2. Sydney,

      There is more than one direction to go.

      From the compassion perspective, the animals are kept pregnant all the time and that means you are getting a lot of hormones.

      From a health perspective, you will find out eventually that the analysis of the data is wildly polarized. Know that ahead of time. Whenever milk comes up on this site, the comment section becomes a war.

      There are studies put out by the dairy industries and those lean toward milk is positive, but the studies from outside of the dairy industries find negative health consequences and it makes it a battle of the research. There are issues like Type 1 Diabetes, which the part of the pancreas which gets destroyed has the same amino acids as the ones in milk. John McDougall talks about that and how autoimmune diseases come when if you have a leaky gut, and these milk proteins end up in your system, antibodies are made which not only destroy the milk proteins but also your pancreas. I recommend John’s video for that topic, but the jury is still out whether it is the cause of Type 1 Diabetes because they are still doing studies on it and some studies don’t show it.

      On this site, you will find T. Colin Campbell was able to make Cancer grow and shrink by giving or removing Casein is one fact. People who come on here agree or disagree about whether those animal studies also translate to human beings.

      Here is a blog on it from Dr. Greger from this site:

      “In the population study “Milk Intake and Risk of Mortality and Fractures in Women and Men,” researchers following more than 100,000 men and women in Sweden for about 20 years found significantly higher rates of bone and hip fractures, heart disease, cancer, and premature death in general for women who drank more milk. Three glasses a day was associated with nearly twice the risk of dying early. Men with higher milk consumption were also recorded having a higher risk of premature death. A meta-analysis of all such cohort studies, however, failed to find a significant relationship between milk and mortality. Findings of a 2015 meta-analysis found that men with high intakes of dairy products—milk, low-fat milk, and cheese, but not nondairy sources of calcium—did appear to increase total prostate cancer risk.

      All animal-based foods contain sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen. These hormones naturally found even in organic cow’s milk may play a role in the various associations identified between dairy products and hormone-related conditions, including acne, diminished male reproductive potential, and premature puberty. The hormone content in milk may explain why women who drink it appear to have five times the rate of twin births compared with women who do not drink milk.

      When it comes to cancer, leading experts have expressed concern that the hormones in dairy and other growth factors could potentially stimulate the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors. Experimental evidence also suggests that dairy may also promote the conversion of precancerous lesions or mutated cells into invasive cancers in vitro.

      Dairy consumption may also play a role in increased risk of asthma, Parkinson’s disease, and elevated blood pressure, among other health concerns such as recurring canker sores.”

      1. I tried to put up the links to topics for dairy, but I put too many links and it is awaiting moderation.

        Look up Parkinsons, Breast Cancer and bovine virus, Type 1 Diabetes to start.

        1. I recommend knowing your audience and not arguing with them about it. Stay calm and supportive and don’t try to do it as if it were a debate. People are emotionally attached to milk, so it might help you to just explain what you are doing and why you are doing it, rather than trying to break their emotional ties to dairy. Be patient with them. Many of them won’t change unless they have a health problem, but you can be the person they come to if you are a real friend and they won’t tend to come to people if they feel like they will be told, “I told you so.”

          If I was talking with women, the hormones and the link with Breast Cancer would probably be what I talked about. 37% of woman with Breast Cancer tested positive for the Bovine Leukemia virus, which was found in 100% of the milk from big farms who supply the most milk

          If I was talking with men, I would talk about Prostate Cancer.

          If I was talking with the elderly, I would talk about Parkinson’s.

          If I was talking with mothers, I would talk about Type 1 Diabetes risk. If I was talking with a mother of a daughter, I would talk about having the daughter develop at a younger age and messing up daughter’s periods and starting them sexual at a younger age.

          I would talk about the saturated fat and the link to Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer’s and Autoimmune.

          I would talk about IGF-1 and Choline and Cancer and Caseine and Cancer and Methionine and Cancer and Estrogen and Cancer and Acne and Cancer. Also, people who work with the cattle get Cancer at a higher rate than average Americans.

          I would talk about it not helping bones because that was the lie, which got people drinking so much of it.

          1. With mothers of young people, it would be Type 1 Diabetes and Autism.

            With teenagers and mothers of teenagers, it would be Acne.

            With teenaged girls, it could be period discomfort and acne.

            Don’t mention the early development in a room with a pre-teen young woman especially if she has a crush or an older sister and wants to grow up faster.

    3. “When dairy fat was replaced with the same number of calories from vegetable fat or polyunsaturated fat, the risk of cardiovascular disease dropped by 10% and 24%, respectively. Furthermore, replacing the same number of calories from dairy fat with healthful carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with a 28% lower risk of cardiovascular disease.”
      https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2016/10/25/dairy-fat-cardiovascular-disease-risk/

  10. Oh yes, Costco now has a dried beet chip bag that has no added oil. The beets are just dried so the nutrition should be intact. I find them easy to eat and actually pretty good. They are a bit expensive but not like beet juice or even whole beets.You do not need to worry about spoilage with these chips.

    1. That is really cool. I have had beet chips, but I didn’t check for oil and didn’t buy them because I assumed that there was oil in them.

      I always wonder if there is any nutrition left in things like that.

  11. Dr. Axe references a bunch of potential adverse effects from Nitrates/Nitrites/Nitrosamines? Any merit to these adverse effects, such as pancreatic cancer, Alzheimers, etc? I don’t agree with Dr. Axe’s assessment but wondered what others thought?

    https://draxe.com/nitrates/

    1. Joe, read the whole article, which granted could be a lot clearer in meaning.
      He’s right about the nitrates, nitrites in processed foods. Possibly also conventionally farmed foods raised with nitrate fertilizers, not sure about that.
      But he’s right that vitamin C resolves the problem, and that processed foods are to be avoided. And I agree that organic is always best if you can find it. My kids laugh when I hand them organic (amla) vitamin C if they dare to eat any processed food.

  12. Although Dr. Axe has provided some research and is correct that there have been indications (in rat studies such as the one he cited) of a connection between food contaminants including cured meat (containing nitrosamines) However the article you cited is somewhat simplified and did not clearly distinguish among n Nitrates and Nitrates. and Nitrsamines. Please check this article out:https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/nitrates/. This is a topic summary which reviews the sometimes confusiing relationship between nitrates, Nitrites and Nitrosamine-Laced Foods. You are wise to read any article carefully.and not accept conclusions that are simplified and not strongly supported by science. Referring to “potential relevance” is a long way from showing strong adverse affect and not specifying exactly what and how potential contaminants show increased risk for cancer leads to weak conclusions.

  13. I re-watched the Flashback Friday video intro after having some 92% Cacao Chocolate to see if I understood it better and I laughed because I can see what it is now. I still think there is TMI – both too many audio layers and too many visual backs and forths. I found that if I turned off the sound, I could watch it better. I know that it is designed to be uber-stimulating and that young people can handle that amount of information all at once. I felt like I would warn my friend’s epileptic son that it might give him a seizure. Part of it is this site. It is smaller and farther away visually on YouTube so it was easier to get the big picture there. Here, I pushed play and was still trying to get the whole image in the frame and it was taking off and the sound effects and visuals both were designed to pull the eye away, rather than drawing them in. By that, I mean quite literally. If you watch it, things are backing up and turning round and round and other things are in motion. Was the artist a young single person who is in relationship transition?

    1. I could be wrong, but it reads: I am not sure what direction I am going in my life. I feel like I am going in circles. I finished college and I am just going to have some fun for a while, maybe float in and out of my parent’s house for a while.

      1. Sorry for picking on the intro. It upset me that I couldn’t tell what it was so that might be making me hyper-critical. Not sure.

        1. Dr Greger,

          I am going to tell you something I said before. You work very hard at being entertaining and you don’t even have to. I look at Dr McDougall and Dr. Barnard and Dr. Fuhrman and all any of you needed was the information which you are pumping out and a nice personality to package it in and all of you have it. I feel like you being so naturally entertaining is a strength and it is probably the thing which will wear you out. I do compare the other doctors and they just give the information. Maybe a small joke now and then, but mostly they are just speaking without all of the visuals and editing and I appreciate the visuals and the editing and the sense of humor so much, but I looked at the intro and had the thought that the most entertaining doctor on the internet is going to not know when it is okay to put up something simple.

          1. I don’t think I am saying that properly. I know that they put up pictures and things too. But it is like they are doctors doing presentations and you are a personality on top of it.

            1. I look at Dr. Ornish or T. Colin Campbell and I need you to know that WFPB is seriously entertaining before you post even one video.

          2. Deb said, “You work very hard at being entertaining…”
            – – – – – – – –

            It’s Dr. G.’s way of saying, “Please luuuuuuuuuve me!” :-)

              1. YR,

                I love that he is entertaining when it is him and when it feels authentic.

                I love his silly jokes and his kids toys and how he plays with words and his treadmill and chefs hat and the fact that he manipulated his family into eating healthy foods. I love some of the even sillier things. He has some of the silliest interviews on the Internet I have ever seen where the people play with camera angles and he just is naturally funny and playful.

                I like all of that.

                I guess I am looking at the every single thing in motion back and forth and with too many audio and visual notes and I am asking: is this authentically who you are, Dr Greger? Or did someone make that for you and not start the process from who you are?

                I go to Dr Ornish in Eating You Alive and I was totally taken by surprise that he is a formal man at a business desk with a fancy suit. I wanted to email him and ask is that you and it is okay if it is, I just expected something more zen or something warmer because of his topics and discussions.

        2. I pondered it this morning and you know Dr Lisle and Dr Barnard and know will understand when I say that I am trying to get off all of these foods which over stimulate my brain and don’t want your intro to be cheesy and I am calling you out because you are like sweet potato and people take it and make dessert out of it and that would be okay except for what they do with it. I want you to use your entertainment powers for good.

          1. If you are going to try to be overstimulating you have to be more clever about it. I have switched to 92% cacao and it still tastes like chocolate.

            1. Dr Greger,

              If the intro really represents your sensibilities well then I just got to know another thing about you, but if you did it out of being afraid people weren’t stimulated enough or to try to attract young people, it isn’t an authentic way to do it.

              1. I want to own it. If it is you, own it. If it is only you in that you like pleasing people and are afraid we aren’t stimulated enough, then the fact we keep showing up every day even when you don’t is a hint.

                1. If I met you, are you walking around in circles all day long and going back and forth and have trouble commiting to one direction at a time? If I was at a party at your house would I have to follow you from room to room to have a conversation with you? Probably?

                  Okay, then I learned something else about you. You see, we are already friends and I will laugh when I watch your videos and I may leave it on mute during the jungle sounds sometimes.

  14. I’m just curious about the impact of juicing beets on the blood sugar of diabetics. A comment was made in the video about the potential positives for diabetics but if beet juice spikes blood sugar, even if it temporarily helps cognitive functioning wouldn’t that be worse for the long term health of nerves?

    1. Billie,
      Yes, I think blood sugar spikes may be a concern in diabetics consuming more than 1/2 cup of beetroot juice without any high fiber foods. It would be far better to consume the whole beets to get both the fiber and nitrates, along with additional phytonutrients. Greens in general will also provide nitrates. Check out the following for more information.https://nutritionfacts.org/2018/02/22/which-vegetables-have-the-most-nitrates/

  15. Thanks again for an informative video.

    What about Beet Powder? Costco sells it by the pound. You can put it in smoothies, etc.

    It’s called Love Beets. The label says it’s 100% organic beet powder.

    It’s certainly convenient. But does it deliver?

    Thanks

  16. I love steamed beet greens, but am not fond of beets for some reason. (Or Brussels sprouts or tempeh.)

    I wonder what it must like to “pass” a kidney stone. Is it really painful? Do you see the little sucker swimming around (or at the bottom of) your toilet bowl, or what? Can you make a necklace out of them? :-)

  17. Hello,

    I need your advice, I take a lot of supplements.

    Are they healthy for me (my liver/kidney)

    I take Coenzyme Q10, Acidophilus, Royal Jelly, Reservatrol, Magnesium, Matcha Tea, Multivitamins, Omega 3, Turmeric, Vitamin D3, Vitamin B Complex, Iron, Spirulina, Vitamin K2, Calcium, Vitamin C

    Thank you

    1. Which ones are supplements because it looks like you have some foods like matcha tea and Royal jelly and Turmeric could be a food or a supplement.

      Green tea and turmeric are better as food and green tea might harm you as a supplement.

      Multivitamins and B Complex and iron are not good supplements in general. People who take multivitamins die faster. Particularly multivitamins, mega doses, folate, beta carotene, and iron. Other vitamins are necessary and Dr Greger has recommendations on those on this site.

      Taking B-12 is good, but the rest of your B vitamins should come from plant food if possible.

      Spirulina has a small risk of toxicity so Dr Greger doesn’t recommend it.

      Why are you on iron? Did a Dr order it? I ask because that is one of the supplements which increases mortality but if you have severe anemia there might be a different guideline.

      1. ” People who take multivitamins die faster.”
        – – – – – – – – –

        Um, Deb? Sounds like you didn’t get any sleep again last night. I mean, can you please post a link to your “die faster” statement?

        1. Okay, one was the Iowa Women’s Health Study

          https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4114071/

          which found:

          “In contrast, we found that several commonly used dietary vitamin and mineral supplements, including multivitamins, vitamins B6 and folic acid, and minerals iron, magnesium, zinc and copper were associated with higher risk of total mortality. Of particular concern, supplemental iron was strongly and dose-dependently associated with increased total mortality risk.”

          1. The Cochrane Review from 2008 is the next https://www.cochrane.org/CD007176/LIVER_antioxidant-supplements-for-prevention-of-mortality-in-healthy-participants-and-patients-with-various-diseases

            “The increased risk of mortality was associated with beta-carotene and possibly vitamin E and vitamin A, but was not associated with the use of vitamin C or selenium. The current evidence does not support the use of antioxidant supplements in the general population or in patients with various diseases.”

              1. I can’t find the increase the number of tumors and mortality study. I thought for sure I found it on this site, but it is easy to find pro-green tea information, but most of the people I know use the supplements and that is hard to find information about even on this site, even though I feel like this was one site I saw the bad news. I can go to animal studies where they had to stop the study because 14 of the dogs died, no matter how low a dose they went they couldn’t stop the dogs from dying.

                Well, I will go to Consumer Reports. They say to avoid Green tea in the supplement form because of: Dizziness, ringing in the ears, reduced absorption of iron; exacerbates anemia and glaucoma; elevates blood pressure and heart rate; liver damage; possibly death

                1. I will tell you that right now, it is almost impossible for me to find any negative things on any supplement by Google and I didn’t find one negative thing about any of the supplements you were taking unless I knew exactly, exactly what I was looking for.

                  I swear that this site had a green tea extract one where tumors actually grew and there were more tumors, but that could be my brain problems because I came here with brain problems. I tried to scroll through the videos and the podcasts because one of the older podcasts is where I think I heard it, but maybe it was taken down or something.

                  1. Thanks for your sleuthing, Deb. Think I said before, I take no supplements other than a daily multi. Unfortunately, it’s just a gummie, so probably worth next to nothing. It’s one of those Alive for Women 50-plus. :-( Don’t do green tea supplements — not even the beverage, despite all its raves.

                    Some woo-woo: Edgar Cayce, psychic medium from the past century, used to suggest getting our vitamins from food. If we do take the tablets, to hold off every few days to give the body “a rest” or something. True, foods (including the vitamin tablets themselves?) were certainly different back then.

                    From: https://www.edgarcayce.org/the-readings/health-and-wellness/holistic-health-database/cayce-diet-and-nutrition/

                    “Cayce generally preferred that vitamins be assimilated from food rather than supplements. However, he did prescribe supplements in some cases.”

                    1. Lonie, I think that is really interesting. For one thing, cranberries contain lots of mannose and blueberries are mentioned, too. Another site mentions broccoli. I can’t help but recall that cranberries are one of the best, (if not *the *best,) anti cancer fruits and broccoli one of the best anti cancer vegetables.

                      Thanks for posting!
                      ————————————————————————————————-
                      Liisa, thanks for the atta-boy.

                      As you apparently did, I also searched further on mannose and saw that cranberries especially contains it. I’ve been avoiding the Just Cranberry unadulterated juices brand to go with the other ones I drink, but will now add that to my shopping cart.

                      For years I drank cranberry but the bitterness and acidity I felt were what caused my teeth to be in bad shape so I quit drinking it. I’m smarter now and should be able to manage.

                    2. Why drink it straight? I throw a handful of cranberries into my smoothie and find them delightful. Then there’s cranberry sauce(?)–a bag of raw cranberries, two persimmons, and two tangerines, along with whatever spices you want–just pulse in a food processor raw…. No need for sweetener if your persimmons are ripe enough. Recently I tried increasing the size of my handful of cranberries and found the taste better than with just a few.
                      And of course, you know your benefits would increase if you use the whole cranberry instead of just the juice.

                    3. Liisa said:
                      Why drink it straight? I throw a handful of cranberries into my smoothie and find them delightful. Then there’s cranberry sauce(?)–a bag of raw cranberries, two persimmons, and two tangerines, along with whatever spices you want–just pulse in a food processor raw…. No need for sweetener if your persimmons are ripe enough. Recently I tried increasing the size of my handful of cranberries and found the taste better than with just a few.
                      And of course, you know your benefits would increase if you use the whole cranberry instead of just the juice.
                      ————————————————————————————————-
                      Your persimmon comment reminds me a niece hasn’t brought me any persimmons this year… yet. They are grown at her lakehouse property and are great, though messy, to eat.

                      And I guess messy and time consuming are the reasons I no longer go through the process you mention above.

                      For one thing I am kinda busy doing something that will eventually define me… and another reason is that during these colder months I get in and out of the kitchen as quickly as I can as that is one of my colder rooms so I just do something quick and easy (and inexpensive) that serves as sustenance.

                      Probably not maximizing my health but by off and on (mostly on) supplementation I consume many of the foodstuffs that others get as actual fresh food. Seems to be working.

                    1. Lonie, I think that is really interesting. For one thing, cranberries contain lots of mannose and blueberries are mentioned, too. Another site mentions broccoli. I can’t help but recall that cranberries are one of the best, (if not *the *best,) anti cancer fruits and broccoli one of the best anti cancer vegetables.

                      Thanks for posting!

          2. Okay, one was the Iowa Women’s Health Study…

            …Of particular concern, supplemental iron was strongly and dose-dependently associated with increased total mortality risk.”
            ————————————————————————————-
            Years ago I remember reading that women shouldn’t supplement iron except in anemia cases. Reason is, once a woman reaches menopause she stops shedding iron during her monthly period.

            No longer keeping her iron at the proper levels meant that she was now on a par with men and their (our) heart problems and other possible iron-causing diseases.

            Personally I eat 5 or 6 dried plums (prunes) daily to maintain my iron levels. According to my lab results that seems to be working.

    2. Hello Daniyal and thank you for your question,
      I am a family doctor with a private practice in lifestyle medicine and also a Health Support Volunteer for this website. First, let me lay out my general bias against supplements. Then I’ll come back to what supplements I would recommend that you take.

      Sales of vitamins and nutritional supplements in the US in 2013 were about $35 billion dollars. The supplement industry is notorious for being poorly regulated: you can’t be sure you’re getting what the label says you’re getting. See this video by Dr. Greger: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/dangers-of-dietary-supplement-deregulation/

      Dr. Greger and I, as well as most doctors in the field of plant-based nutrition, feel that there are very few supplements needed by people eating a whole foods plant-based diet. Buying supplements buys into a “reductionist” mentality, which is the classic model of modern (Western) medicine. In this model, we’re always looking for what specific chemical can help cure us, instead of focusing on whole foods. Here is a video by Dr. G about this: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/reductionism-deficiency-mentality/. And here is a great video about the benefits of eating whole plant foods: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/food-synergy/

      However, there are certain supplements which vegans DO need to take. Here is an article by Dr. Greger which summarizes these:
      https://nutritionfacts.org/2011/09/12/dr-gregers-2011-optimum-nutrition-recommendations/. And here is my summary list from his summary:
      1) vitamin B12, which we vegans don’t get enough of naturally. You should take 250 to 500 mcg daily of cyanocobalamin; 1000 mcg if over age 65
      2) vitamin D3 — although you don’t need to take it if you get ~30 minutes per day of direct sunlight exposure (but few of us do). You should take 2,000 IU (International Units) per day.
      3) long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA/DHA), 250 mg daily (yeast- or algae-derived, which are pollutant free). This probably reduces risk of dementia — see this video: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/should-vegans-take-dha-to-preserve-brain-function/
      4) iodine, 150 mcg per day — only needed for those (like me) who don’t eat seaweed or use iodized salt.

      That’s it! Most of the other supplements you take are harmless, and turmeric has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. But iron supplements can be bad for you. See this: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/risk-associated-with-iron-supplements/. Also calcium supplements can be risky: https://nutritionfacts.org/2018/03/27/the-risks-and-benefits-of-calcium-supplements/.

      I hope this helps.
      Dr. Jon
      PhysicianAssistedWellness.com
      Health Support Volunteer for NutritionFacts.org

      1. Hello,

        Thanks for the reply, I really appreciate it.

        Following your advice I will no longer be taking Iron and Calcium supplements.

        What about Vitamin C and Matcha? I’ve heard these two have negative affects on the body.

        Also, should I carry on taking Magnesium, Glucosamine sulphate, Coenzyme Q10, Probiotics, Reservatrol, Royal Jelly, Spirulina and Vitamin K2 or do you recommend not taking them?

  18. I have a beet story from last night / this morning.

    I was looking at the fall reaction time and went to Whole Foods and looked at their Beet juice, but didn’t think I would drink it and looked at their pre-cooked beets in vinegar and spices and didn’t think I would eat it and looked at beets in a jar with vinegar and wanted water but didn’t see it. I got beet baby food for my dog to try and picked up a jar of beet powder and looked at that, but decided to wait because I wasn’t sure I would drink that either.

    Then, I went home, fed my dog baby food, yes, I broke the water fast, but he is still severe calorie restriction this week and I went back to work for a few hours then went home and tried to sleep and I woke up and had to go to the bathroom and my dog was blocking the doorway and his biggest dog bed was blocking the other side of the doorway and I tripped over it and slammed my head into the wall and fell and collapsed on the dog bed, and thought, “I am not on blood thinners” and I am not on blood thinners and I seem to be okay, but I didn’t take beets and you never know when you are going to need those reaction times.

  19. Hey, what % increase in neuroplasticity do we talk about with Beet Root Juice added to exercise?
    It is this study from the end of the video:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861951/
    but I don’t understand the statistical terms to answer it on my own.

    What I’d like to know is, if we say children have 100% neuroplasticity on average, and adults let’s say 40%, then where do beets with exercise take them. 70%? 90%?
    Or alternatively, if normal adult neuroplasticity is 100% then to how much do they jump to. 110%? 300%?

  20. Dear Konrad, As one of the volunteers for NutritionFacts.org, I read your question and reviewed the study cited https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861951/
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Sep 1;72(9):1284-1289. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw219.
    Beet Root Juice: An Ergogenic Aid for Exercise and the Aging Brain
    but I’m not sure that limited small study can provide the very specific answer you are looking for. While I agree with you the analysis of results was complex, I do not believe there is enough information from this one study to clarify answers to the questions you posed. Yes, the study, even though small, DID indicate that beet root juice CAN have a synergistic effect with the exercise to boost performance. The authors were careful to point out you that results did not reach statistically significant differences in peak MED capacity and only cite their research as being “notable “ and offering “ potential clinical relevance” not specific statements on exactly how many percentages of improvements in neuroplasticity beet juice can provide. It seems premature to look for that at this point.
    I found a related study Brain. 2011 Jun;134(Pt 6):1591-609. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr039. Epub 2011 Apr 10. Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications which makes that point that neuroplasticity is dependent on many issues. Perhaps the most we can say is that Beet Juice does show improvements in neuroplasticity but specifically how much improvement is yet to be determined. Hope that helps .

  21. The easiest source of beets for me locally is a local farmer who makes/sell beet kvass and lacto-fermented beets. Due to the beets never having been cooked or exposed to heat, would these sources be a beneficial way to add nitrates to my diet? Any guidance is appreciated.

  22. Hello Andrea, many thanks for your comment!

    Beets are naturally rich in nitrates, which are converted into nitric oxide, through a chain reaction in our body, this helps with blood flow and blood pressure.

    According to beatcancer.org, fermenting beets gives all the health-boosting benefits of raw beets plus they’re chock-full of probiotics or good bacteria.

    Moreover, “Health benefits caused by consumption of the lacto-fermented beetroot juice are diverse and consist of reducing oxidation processes in the organism and advantageous modulation of intestinal ecosystem and its enzymatic activities” (Nutrients. 2015 Jul; 7(7): 5905–5915.)

    I just could find one study (in Polish!) which evaluated the nitrate content after fermentation process (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1308742), they conclude that ” In the red beets after the process of fermentation a decrease in the level of nitrates by ca. 91.6% was noted”

    So, in my opinion, it’s still a good way to include nitrates to your diet, plus you’re also feeding your gut bacteria, you can also include more green leafy vegetable which is also good sources of nitrates, as well as hibiscus tea which has been mention a lot by Dr. Greger and also boost nitric oxide production.

    https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/hibiscus-tea/

    Hope it helps!

  23. When beet juice is recommended can you please explain what kind of beet juice you mean? Row beets, washed and peeled or unpeeled, blended and the juice squeezed out, or just blend it and eat/drink the whole smoothie? Or, do the same with cooked beets? ‘Beetjuice’ is too vague to my simple mind.
    Many thanks
    Moses

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