Best Foods for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Best Foods for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
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Which foods and cooking methods to choose and avoid, given the role advanced glycation end products (glycotoxins) may play in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

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Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

“Over the [past] 2 decades there has been increasing evidence supporting an important contribution from food-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs),” also known as glycotoxins, to “increased oxidative stress and inflammation, processes that play a major role in the causation of chronic diseases”—including, potentially, polycystic ovary syndrome. Women with PCOS tend to have nearly twice the circulating AGE levels in their bloodstream.

Polycystic ovary syndrome may be “the most common [hormonal] abnormality” among young women in the United States, a common cause of infertility, menstrual dysfunction, and excess facial and body hair. Now, “the prevalence of obesity” is also higher in women with PCOS. So, since the highest AGE levels are found in broiled, grilled, fried, and roasted foods of mostly “animal origin,” is it possible that this causal chain starts with a bad diet—like lots of fried chicken—which leads to obesity, which then, in turn, leads to PCOS? So, what we eat maybe is only indirectly related to PCOS, through weight gain? No, because the same link between high AGE levels and PCOS was found in lean women, as well.

“As chronic inflammation and increased [oxidative] stress have been incriminated in the [disease process] of PCOS, the role of AGEs as [pro-]inflammatory and [pro-]oxidant mediators may [indeed] be linked with the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities of the syndrome.” And, further, the buildup of AGE inside polycystic ovaries themselves suggests “a potential role of AGEs” contributing to the disease process itself, beyond just some of the consequences.”

“RAGE [is] highly expressed” in ovarian tissues. In other words, the receptor—that’s the R in RAGE—the receptor in the body for these advanced glycation end products—is concentrated, for some reason, in the ovaries. So, ovaries may be particularly sensitive to their effects. So, AGEs might indeed be contributing “to the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome…and infertility.” So, should we just cut down on meat, cheese, and eggs? Or, we can always come up with AGE absorption-blocking drugs.

We know that “AGEs have been implicated in the development of many” chronic diseases. Specifically, “food-derived AGEs…play an important role;” diet is a major source of these pro-inflammatory AGEs. Indeed, cutting down on these dietary glycotoxins “reduces the inflammatory response.” But, stewed chicken just doesn’t taste as good as fried chicken. So, therefore, you can have your KFC and eat it, too. Just take this drug with it every time you eat, to cut down on the absorption of these toxins. And, it works—it actually lowers AGE blood levels. This oral absorbent drug, AST-120, is just a preparation of activated charcoal. That’s like what you give for drug overdoses, and when people are poisoned. I’m sure if you took some ipecac with your KFC, your levels would go down, too. You know, there’s another way you can reduce your absorption—by reducing your intake in the first place.

Simple, safe, and feasible. The first thing you do is stop smoking. The glycotoxins in cigarette smoke “may contribute to” the increase of heart disease and cancer among smokers.  Then, you can decrease your intake of high-AGE foods, while increasing your intake of foods that may help pull AGEs out of your system, like brown rice and mushrooms. And, we can eat foods high in antioxidants, like berries, herbs, and spices.

“Dietary AGE intake can be…decreased [even just by] changing the method of cooking” from the high temperature dry cooking methods to low heat, higher humidity. In other words, moving away from “broiling, searing, [and frying” to more “stewing, steaming, and boiling.” But, what we eat may be more important than how we cook it. For example, boiled chicken has less than half the glycotoxins of roasted chicken. But, even deep-fried potatoes [have] less than boiled meat. 

We could also eat foods raw, which doesn’t work as well for blood pudding, but we can choose raw nuts and nut butters, which may have 30 times less glycotoxins than roasted. And, we can stay away from high-AGE processed foods, such as puffed, shredded, and flaked breakfast cereals.

Why does it matter? Because study after study has shown that switching someone to a low-AGE diet can lower the inflammation in their bodies. Even just a single high-AGE meal can profoundly impair our artery function within just two hours of consumption. Fried or broiled chicken breast and veggies, compared to steamed or boiled chicken breast and veggies. The same ingredients; just different cooking methods. Now, you’ll notice that even the steamed or boiled chicken meal still impaired arterial function. So, you could certainly choose to eat even healthier, but significantly better than the fried or broiled.

Ironically, “the amount of AGEs administered during this [high-AGE] HAGE intervention,” the profoundly-impair-your-artery-function amount of AGEs, “was similar to the average estimated daily intake by the general population,” the Standard American Diet. That’s why you can decrease inflammation in people, putting them on a low-AGE diet. But, an increase in inflammation was less apparent when people switched from their regular diet to a high-AGE diet, because they’re already eating a high-AGE diet, so many of these glycotoxins in their regular diet.

Do we have evidence that reducing AGE intake actually helps with polycystic ovaries? Yes. Within just two months, baseline diet; switch to a high-AGE diet, to a low-AGE diet, and you see parallel changes in insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, and hormonal status, with the take home being that those with PCOS may want to try a low-AGE diet, which in the study meant restricting meat to once a week that’s only boiled, poached, stewed or steamed, and cutting out fast food-type foods and soda. What about instead of steamed chicken, we ate no meat at all?

Rather than measuring blood levels, which vary with each meal, like if you just ate some roasted nuts or something, we can measure the level of glycotoxins stuck in your body tissues over time instead, with a fancy gizmo that measures the amount of light your skin gives off, because AGEs are fluorescent. And so, no surprise, this turns out to be a strong predictor of overall mortality. So, the lower the better, and “the one factor…consistently associated with” reduced skin fluorescence, this reduced AGEs coming out of your body, was a vegetarian diet, which suggests that eating more plant-based “may reduce exposure to [these] preformed dietary AGEs,” potentially reducing tissue AGEs, as well as chronic disease risk.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Wordink via pixabay. Image has been modified.

Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video.

“Over the [past] 2 decades there has been increasing evidence supporting an important contribution from food-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs),” also known as glycotoxins, to “increased oxidative stress and inflammation, processes that play a major role in the causation of chronic diseases”—including, potentially, polycystic ovary syndrome. Women with PCOS tend to have nearly twice the circulating AGE levels in their bloodstream.

Polycystic ovary syndrome may be “the most common [hormonal] abnormality” among young women in the United States, a common cause of infertility, menstrual dysfunction, and excess facial and body hair. Now, “the prevalence of obesity” is also higher in women with PCOS. So, since the highest AGE levels are found in broiled, grilled, fried, and roasted foods of mostly “animal origin,” is it possible that this causal chain starts with a bad diet—like lots of fried chicken—which leads to obesity, which then, in turn, leads to PCOS? So, what we eat maybe is only indirectly related to PCOS, through weight gain? No, because the same link between high AGE levels and PCOS was found in lean women, as well.

“As chronic inflammation and increased [oxidative] stress have been incriminated in the [disease process] of PCOS, the role of AGEs as [pro-]inflammatory and [pro-]oxidant mediators may [indeed] be linked with the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities of the syndrome.” And, further, the buildup of AGE inside polycystic ovaries themselves suggests “a potential role of AGEs” contributing to the disease process itself, beyond just some of the consequences.”

“RAGE [is] highly expressed” in ovarian tissues. In other words, the receptor—that’s the R in RAGE—the receptor in the body for these advanced glycation end products—is concentrated, for some reason, in the ovaries. So, ovaries may be particularly sensitive to their effects. So, AGEs might indeed be contributing “to the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome…and infertility.” So, should we just cut down on meat, cheese, and eggs? Or, we can always come up with AGE absorption-blocking drugs.

We know that “AGEs have been implicated in the development of many” chronic diseases. Specifically, “food-derived AGEs…play an important role;” diet is a major source of these pro-inflammatory AGEs. Indeed, cutting down on these dietary glycotoxins “reduces the inflammatory response.” But, stewed chicken just doesn’t taste as good as fried chicken. So, therefore, you can have your KFC and eat it, too. Just take this drug with it every time you eat, to cut down on the absorption of these toxins. And, it works—it actually lowers AGE blood levels. This oral absorbent drug, AST-120, is just a preparation of activated charcoal. That’s like what you give for drug overdoses, and when people are poisoned. I’m sure if you took some ipecac with your KFC, your levels would go down, too. You know, there’s another way you can reduce your absorption—by reducing your intake in the first place.

Simple, safe, and feasible. The first thing you do is stop smoking. The glycotoxins in cigarette smoke “may contribute to” the increase of heart disease and cancer among smokers.  Then, you can decrease your intake of high-AGE foods, while increasing your intake of foods that may help pull AGEs out of your system, like brown rice and mushrooms. And, we can eat foods high in antioxidants, like berries, herbs, and spices.

“Dietary AGE intake can be…decreased [even just by] changing the method of cooking” from the high temperature dry cooking methods to low heat, higher humidity. In other words, moving away from “broiling, searing, [and frying” to more “stewing, steaming, and boiling.” But, what we eat may be more important than how we cook it. For example, boiled chicken has less than half the glycotoxins of roasted chicken. But, even deep-fried potatoes [have] less than boiled meat. 

We could also eat foods raw, which doesn’t work as well for blood pudding, but we can choose raw nuts and nut butters, which may have 30 times less glycotoxins than roasted. And, we can stay away from high-AGE processed foods, such as puffed, shredded, and flaked breakfast cereals.

Why does it matter? Because study after study has shown that switching someone to a low-AGE diet can lower the inflammation in their bodies. Even just a single high-AGE meal can profoundly impair our artery function within just two hours of consumption. Fried or broiled chicken breast and veggies, compared to steamed or boiled chicken breast and veggies. The same ingredients; just different cooking methods. Now, you’ll notice that even the steamed or boiled chicken meal still impaired arterial function. So, you could certainly choose to eat even healthier, but significantly better than the fried or broiled.

Ironically, “the amount of AGEs administered during this [high-AGE] HAGE intervention,” the profoundly-impair-your-artery-function amount of AGEs, “was similar to the average estimated daily intake by the general population,” the Standard American Diet. That’s why you can decrease inflammation in people, putting them on a low-AGE diet. But, an increase in inflammation was less apparent when people switched from their regular diet to a high-AGE diet, because they’re already eating a high-AGE diet, so many of these glycotoxins in their regular diet.

Do we have evidence that reducing AGE intake actually helps with polycystic ovaries? Yes. Within just two months, baseline diet; switch to a high-AGE diet, to a low-AGE diet, and you see parallel changes in insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, and hormonal status, with the take home being that those with PCOS may want to try a low-AGE diet, which in the study meant restricting meat to once a week that’s only boiled, poached, stewed or steamed, and cutting out fast food-type foods and soda. What about instead of steamed chicken, we ate no meat at all?

Rather than measuring blood levels, which vary with each meal, like if you just ate some roasted nuts or something, we can measure the level of glycotoxins stuck in your body tissues over time instead, with a fancy gizmo that measures the amount of light your skin gives off, because AGEs are fluorescent. And so, no surprise, this turns out to be a strong predictor of overall mortality. So, the lower the better, and “the one factor…consistently associated with” reduced skin fluorescence, this reduced AGEs coming out of your body, was a vegetarian diet, which suggests that eating more plant-based “may reduce exposure to [these] preformed dietary AGEs,” potentially reducing tissue AGEs, as well as chronic disease risk.

Please consider volunteering to help out on the site.

Image credit: Wordink via pixabay. Image has been modified.

Doctor's Note

I touched peripherally on marjoram for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Benefits of Marjoram for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), and on spearmint tea for PCOS in Enhancing Athletic Performance with Peppermint, but this is really my first deep dive. Sorry it took me so long! I dealt with another sorely under-recognized gynecological issue recently, in How to Treat Endometriosis with Seaweed—with more to come.

Because of AGEs, I no longer toast my nuts or buy roasted nut butters. Such a bummer, because they taste so much better. But, as Dr. McDougall likes to say, nothing tastes as good as healthy feels. For more on why it’s important to minimize our exposure to these toxic compounds, see:

If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here.

93 responses to “Best Foods for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

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  1. Thanks so much for doing this video. Would this info support trying a low fat raw vs low fat cooked plant based diet? If ages are a result of cooking methods wouldn’t a raw diet lead to lower amnts and perhaps quicker healing.




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    1. Eva, yes, eating raw plant-based foods will give you fewer AGE’s than eating cooked plant foods. Raw whole foods vegan diets contain the lowest AGE levels of any diet.




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    2. hi Eva, yes a whole foods plant based diet would seem to be best, but there are some plant products that are high in age’s https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3704564/?report=classic (This report is available in downloadable pdf file too if you google it ) Table 1 shows a list of over 500 foods and their AGE content so you can check the foods you frequently eat. After studying this report and the list I now have no qualms about backing away from the nuts, grilled tofu, some cereals, crackers, oils !, avocado etc.




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      1. Susan, I’m assuming that the nuts referred to in the study are roasted? And that raw nuts are better? Same as the grains (toasted, shredded, etc.). If I understand correctly, the way they’re cooked plays a big role in creating AGE.




        2
        1. hi WFPB Nancy, yes, Dr Greger made mention of how his family now avoids roasting nuts or eating roasted nut butters because of the AGEs. From what I can see, raw walnuts might be half the AGE level. The report is worth downloading for a close look at how you are faring AGE-wise. From what I see, oats barely make it on the chart with less than 15 , but processed cereals are way up there rating at 1000 to 2000 per 100 gm. crisped rice and oat cereals come to mind.

          This being said, I agree with bhrollin that a completely raw diet is unnecessary, and might contain some higher AGE foods unknowingly with using higher fat foods, oils or my beloved dried figs LOL etc. I use the slow cooker a lot, and enjoy roasted or baked vegies,




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          1. There is always a danger in basing an entire diet on one factor. I attended a talk yesterday by Dr. Joel Fuhrman, who specifically advocates nuts and seeds, either raw or lightly dry toasted (not roasted). He cites several studies that show a dramatic decrease in several diseases with increased nut and seed consumption, and a noticeable decrease in death rates. He recommended one to three ounces daily with vegetable meals. It also appears that the fats in nuts increase absorption of nutrients in leafy green vegetables.

            Obviously individual needs vary, but a varied, whole foods, plant based diet, as recommended by Drs. Fuhrman or Gerger, go a long way towards addressing any number of problems.




            4
            1. hi Michael, thanks for your comment, and I agree with you. I eat a walnut per day or less (LOL its what Im allowed according to Dr Ornish) Dr Greger has number of videos demonstrating the positive effects of including a small amount of nuts in our diet, and included them on his Daily Dozen list. http://nutritionfacts.org/?fwp_search=walnuts&fwp_content_type=video

              I have heart disease so I have to limit them greatly, but the benefits are too good to miss out on. From looking at the list of AGE values for foods found on a wfpb adding some nuts or seeds would be worthwhile. The questions I have about AGEs are sort of related to Stewart’s comment… How many ‘units’ per day of AGEs can be consumed without negative effects ? And, if healthy eating is adopted, can we in part reduce or reverse some of the damaging effects ?




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            2. Michael,

              This information is specifically for people who need to lower their AGE intake due to PCOS issues that are horribly hard to overcome and very prevalent in many women today. If I didn’t have a daughter with PCOS, I probably wouldn’t worry much about a roasted nut here or there, but that is not the case. We are desperately doing everything we can to help her regain control of her hormones.

              Thanks Dr. Greger for the new information. It’s greatly appreciated.




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      2. It doesn’t list tortillas. We eat corn tortillas warmed on the comal every night with out beans. I think it’s ok, but I would like to know.




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    3. Hi Eva, I would agree that a raw wfpbd would be most advantageous in reducing AGEs. However, given the extraordinary difficulty in getting adequate nutrition that way, it strikes me as more important to look at other factors. I think it best to look to just how much more advantage there is in that rather small reduction v the difficulty in getting there. Frying should be out. Period. But even with fried plant food the amount of AGEs is still way lower than just about any cooked meat. Boiling, roasting or microwaving will likely give potentially good culinary results with very low AGEs and open up a great deal more dietary options that can counter AGEs buldup.




      1
    1. It appears that microwaving foods is one of the better cooking methods, as far as AGEs are concerned. But, I also have seen studies that caution about high nutrient loss when microwaving. I would expect it would depend on the nutrient and the food being microwaved. I don’t know if there are any good studies addressing microwaving.




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      1. Bill Callaghan: re: ” I don’t know if there are any good studies addressing microwaving.” I wanted to share my favorite article about microwaving. It’s not from an author I would normally refer people to. However, no one is wrong about everything and this author nails it when it comes to microwaves. I don’t know if you would consider the article an answer to your question, but I thought you would be interested.

        http://www.drmyattswellnessclub.com/Microwave.htm




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  2. Wow! You certainly packed a lot into this video. The obvious takeaway that AGEs –> PCOS while sound and important is such a small portion of what you included. I expect I will be reading most of your sources on my flight to Atlanta this week.

    OK a big question for me concerns the reversal of effects of excess serum AGEs. As a T1 diabetic, I have had excess endogenous AGEs for over 45 years. My A1c has generally been under reasonable control for most of that time and I have not eaten meet excessively even before arthritis and the threat of being on methotrexate forced me to change my diet completely. Still my serum AGEs were likely too high. Now I eat a lot of what you mentioned as AGEs reducing food and consume very little now. What I really want to know is what is the cumulative effect and to what extent can that be reversed?

    Though I have never seen it quantified reasonable inference from some of the literature suggests that even for a reasonably controlled diabetic on a standard American Diet, most of our AGEs come from diet. My dAGEs are now very low and my A1c is reasonable so I’m hoping this gives me a significant advantage in reversing some of the effects.




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    1. Stewart, I am one of the site moderators. It sounds like you have really done your homework and made some significant changes. Great job! I only learned about AGE’s a few years ago and was blown away! Most people get that the building block for AGEs are proteins and fats that get complexed (glycated) with glucose but the key feature for forming the AGEs is in the presence of heat. Usually a pretty high heat. This is where some people start advocating for a raw diet – or what may sometimes be termed a “high raw” diet wherein at least 50% or more of your food is raw. This conforms with the Dr. Greger philosophy and others in the plant based movement is you adhere to the giant salad for lunch and dinner.

      Like most parts of the body, we pretty much turn over into a new person every few weeks to years based upon how we remodel the older cells. I would imagine that as you adhere to your much healthier way of eating you will reverse the effects of prior AGE’s consumed.




      2
  3. Thank you for doing the video on PCOS – it was highly anticipated! I suffer from PCOS, although I eat a healthy vegan diet for over three years now, I don’t smoke, don’t drink soda and my BMI is around 20. Seems like there’s not much I can do about my PCOS other than going completely raw?




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    1. Theresa, I am struggling with the same thing. I recently got diagnosed with PCOS (although I have experienced the symptoms for four years now). I’ve been vegetarian for more than 6 years (basically almost vegan, because I don’t eat hardly any milk or cheese) and my diet is mostly WFPB (I eat fruits, veggies, grains, etc… not vegan junk food). I don’t smoke, rarely drink alcohol, rarely drink soda. I’m not overweight, and I exercise regularly. And I am still suffering symptoms of PCOS! The doctor can’t figure out what’s wrong. I have literally tried everything. All of this started when I moved north, so I wonder if it’s something around here (like endocrine disruptors in the water) or due to less vitamin D. I am hoping Dr. Greger will do more videos on PCOS. My most recent efforts include increasing the number of times per week that I practice yoga because yoga builds strength and reduces stress…. and if nothing else, I enjoy yoga. I wish you the best of luck.




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  4. Are roasted veggies bad, then? Every Friday evening I roast a large amount of veggies (usually peppers, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, mushrooms, zucchini). I do it in 2 batches in our not-too-small toaster oven. The veggies are mounded up, so the ones not in the top layer are exposed to less air. I roast them for 45 minutes at what the oven says is 450 (though I doubt it gets that high really since they take 45 minutes to get done). I microwave the Brussels sprouts first for 6 minutes with a little water, otherwise they are not done enough by roasting. The roasted veggies make up about half the cooked veggies I eat each week – the rest I steam. I also eat a lot of raw salad. Am I doing myself harm by eating the roasted veggies? They are SO good!




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    1. hi Tim, I posted this article above https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3704564/?report=classic which Dr Greger has cited in a few videos on AGE’s. Iff you scroll down that page there is a table listing many foods, including vegies. Even roasted potatoes are low in AGE compared to animal products , cheese, bakery items, oils etc. A white potatoe roasted for 45 min with a tsp of oil is only 218 on this chart..a sweet potatoe is 78 ,so I think we’re fine with the roasted vegie mix . I make a roasted vegie soup with kale thats great. The roasting does intensify the flavour.




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  5. After reading this and watching the video on this page I would guess that Dr. G. would not recommend a raw vegan diet.
    http://nutritionfacts.org/topics/raw-food/page/3/
    Dr. McDougall does not recommend them either. I’ve seen pretty many people go on a raw food diet but almost none of them stay on it. Too difficult to get your daily calories, very expensive, and a continual effort to maintain food with a very short shelf life. I’ve read that both canned and frozen veggies are more nutritious because they are packaged very shortly after harvest at the peak of nutrition. “Fresh” veggies spend days in transit and on shelves before they’re consumed.




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  6. Hello Doctor!
    I’ve been vegan for a while and trying to keep to a healthy lifestyle.
    Recently heard of the benefits of intermittent fasting (either as an 8-10 hour window for eating each day, or restricting to 500 calories twice a week) and came here to look for an opinion from a source I trust. Couldn’t find any posts or videos on the subject.
    Will you cover intermittent fasting in one of your posts, “ask the doctor”, or videos?

    Thank you!




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    1. There are videos on this site that show that fasting lowers methionine in meat eaters which is probably the main benefit. Vegans nave low methionine without fasting.




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    2. Roi: The question about intermittent fasting is one of our most asked questions. It’s my understanding that Dr. Greger plans to tackle this topic in the not too distant future. Stay tuned.




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  7. Human food for humans (repeat after me…). So this means no meat, dairy, eggs, and grains. Raw food for humans (repeat after me…) So this means, don’t cook it (especially NOT in a microwave). If you have to eat some cooked veggies than steam them. Humans need lots of fruit (repeat after me…) and since you did not eat this way since you were born you need to CLEAN out all the mucoid plaque from your intestines. Look into both Dr. Morse and the Master Fast (both on YouTube and on FB).




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    1. Hi Lisa
      No grain? Raw is better than cooked. Please post research. Steam is better than microwave? Please post research. Mucoid plaque? Again I would like to read that info.

      I am not trying to be difficult but that is what separates this website from other. (Link the statement please)

      Thank you.




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        1. Hi Alexandre, You sure about that? How Not To Die Pages 333-334 mentions various forms for various veggies depending on veggie. Soups. Fabulous. Griddling and microwave were gentlest. “Nuking preserves 95 % of antioxidant capacity.”




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  8. Hey,

    I am wondering if you know if a vegan diet can help cold sores been vegan for nearly a year but been getting coldsores monthly now since the switch please can you give some recommendations please.

    Many thanks




    0
    1. Hi Sara: As you may already know, cold sores are caused by a virus that can’t be cured. Common triggers for outbreaks include viral infection or having a fever (being sick with a cold), hormonal changes (such as those related to menstruation), stress, fatigue, and exposure to sunlight and wind. Try to identify your triggers, then work on ways to prevent outbreaks from there (for example if a trigger is sun and wind – be sure to use SPF and lip balm when spending time outdoors). You can also talk to your doctor about antiviral medications if cold sores are becoming more frequent and difficult to manage. Hope this helps!




      0
  9. I already have been following a vegan diet for 6 years and avoid foods cooked at high temperature (broiling, frying etc). My one vice is coffee. I have been watching the acrylamide situation with respect to coffee, but have not found sufficient evidence to cut coffee yet (I know there are some benefits too to consuming coffee). What is the situation around coffee and AGE? Any data on how big the AGE load is for say one cup of coffee?




    0
    1. hi Daniel DuPlessis, thanks for your question – coffee is my beverage of choice and I didnt think to look it up ! Looks like we’re in the clear re AGEs and coffee.. 1.6 on the scale for filter brewed, and max 7.6 if you add sugar to it. Barely even registers on the scale.

      Dr Greger has had some good things to say about coffee in past videos, and even better things to say about green tea http://nutritionfacts.org/video/coffee-and-mortality/ hope this helps.




      0
  10. Maybe in another 100 to 500 years nutritional science will have all this down but for now it does not matter what your health problem is the place to start is whole plant-based products while focusing on the food that has high nutrients to calories like of course greens, other vegetables and fruits. That then can be refined by Dr Greger’s daily dozen or greens, beans, onions, mushrooms, seeds/nuts and berries among spices on a daily basis. Although a vegan diet is not really pushed on this site I do not consume any animal products, processed foods or soft drinks.

    Maybe it is really not benefically to be soaking nuts, seeds and intact grains but I still do soak nuts sometimes and dry them at 115 F. They are not really toasted and I do not know what it adds to the AGEs but I am not going to wait 100 years to find out.




    0
  11. Great video Doctor Greger, Thank you.

    The notes mention that you NO LONGER roast your nuts or seeds. How do you sanitize them, how do you make sure to minimize on unnecessary of unsanitary handling of them? As it’s pretty common that even as production workers wear gloves, they (workers) do touch other objects or even their attire. Also, it’s not uncommon to have the product sit at a warehouse for a prolonged period of time…mold loves such conditions.




    0
  12. So what is the technique for visualizing the AGEs in skin? People could have AGING parties where they could compare their biological ages and have some fried chicken on the side….

    Does anyone have a link to some pics of skins at various ages?




    0
  13. Could it be that vegetarians have more chlorophyll pigments[1] in their serum which will skew the fluoresence measurements[2]?

    If I look at the method[3] used:

    Skin AF was based on the ratio of the average light intensity per nanometer in the range between 420 and 600 nm and the average light intensity per nanometer in the range between 300 and 420 nm (AF in arbitrary units [AUs]).

    and at the absorbance spectra of cholorphyll a and b then there is a bit of an overlap!

    Eating lots of green leafy vegetables may hide some of the light your serum AGEs are emitting!

    [1] J Cell Sci. 2014 Jan 15;127(Pt 2):388-99. doi: 10.1242/jcs.134262. Epub 2013 Nov 6.
    Light-harvesting chlorophyll pigments enable mammalian mitochondria to capture photonic energy and produce ATP.

    [2] Nongnuch A, Davenport A. The effect of vegetarian diet on skin autofluorescence measurements in haemodialysis patients. Br J Nutr. 2015 Apr 14;113(7):1040-3.

    [3] Graaff R, Arsov S, Ramsauer B, Koetsier M, Sundvall N, Engels GE, Sikole A, Lundberg L, Rakhorst G, Stegmayr B. Skin and plasma autofluorescence during hemodialysis: a pilot study. Artif Organs. 2014 Jun;38(6):515-8.




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  14. Thank you for looking into this topic. I have PCOS and am also disturbed by how prevalent it is among women I know and also how dismissive my OGBYN and endocrinologist were in treating it. I don’t want to take birth control or metformin so any information on the causes and how to mange the syndrome are very helpful. Please continue to look into this pervasive syndrome.

    I don’t smoke, drink, eat meat, and try to avoid sugars and high glycemic foods (though I am not flawless as the low GI diet) and I have been having a relatively regular period for the first time in my life – I still struggle with abundant hair growth however and have felt like there is more about this condition to be explored. I will definitely be looking into AGEs now. Thank you and keep up the info – there is much light needed upon this subject.




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  15. I have a concern not really related to PCOS since I’ve already been tested for that but I’m a person who has been eating a WFPB for 4 years now and within the past year I started having a lot of issues with my hair falling out and thinning out and have been to several doctors who couldn’t really help me. I got blood work down wth an endocrinologist in February and he said everything was fine except my cortisol and testosterone levels were high and he thinks that’s what also causing my hair to fall out so he prescribed me metformin but I refuse to take it. I’m only 25 years old and I used to have sooo much hair and every day my hair falls out so easily and I’m starting to bald in the front part of my head. We did a stress test to make sure the cortisol wasn’t stemming from a tumor or cyst or anything and luckily it wasn’t but does this mean that my hair isn’t going to get better unless I bring my cortisol levels down? I don’t even feel stressed out but I will say I feel fatigued all the time when I never used to.

    Thanks in advance, I’m really concerned about this as it has made me super self conscious and unhappy lately




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    1. Adding onto that, I’ve been on birth control since I was 16 and the endocrinologist said that birth control should actually help with testosterone levels. He also said because I have sensitive skin (pimples) that that’s causing my hair to fall out too. The only reason I got on birth control was to control my skin back then and it has really been the only thing to help me with it. I also exercise regularly but nothing is helping. Literally every time I touch my hair it falls out and I don’t know what to do next




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      1. Anonymous,

        May I respectfully suggest you have a functional medicine physician evaluate your situation.

        It sounds, without giving any medical advise, that your thyroid function is one of the top considerations. Remember the two tests done typically, FT4 and TSH, are inadequate to evaluate the organs function. Not having a more in depth history, the other consideration that clearly stands out is the use of BCP’s. I would encourage you to read the well done work by Dr. Ross on this subject and emphasis that the B6 levels in particular, coupled with the changes in your hormones and from my experience, zinc levels, may be the root cause of the issues, not the diet directly.

        Consider some supplementation and discontinuation of the BCP’s. Good move on the metformin…. it would then decrease your B-12 levels further……and remember that hair takes some time to change as it goes through cycles……. be patient and hang in there.

        Dr. Alan Kadish moderator for Dr. Greger




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        1. Thank you for your reply! So you’re saying even if I had an extensive blood panel done with the doctor and everything came back normal, it’s still possible it could be a thyroid issue? I have no family history of that nor diabetes. Maybe a few things to follow up with is that the year before I switched to a WFPB lifestyle that my hair did thin out but not along the front part of my scalp and it only lasted for a little while. Now it is full on falling out at a rapid rate and you can visibly see my scalp but I was thinking it really maybe it just stress? Another thing is I noticed when my hair started to do this last year, I started noticing white stuff in my stool and have been tested multiple times for parasites, but all came back negative. Got checked for IBS and got an ultrasound and all that as well. I just recently came across something called candida and feel like I have similar symptoms but once again, don’t know.

          I looked up doctor ross but couldn’t find anything on B6 unfortunately

          I feel like if it were BCP related that I would’ve experienced this a long time ago? I really do not know though and obviously am not a doctor such as yourself!

          My next step is probably going to a hair specialist but I just really didn’t want to spend more money trying to figure out my issues because it’s starting to get expensive.




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          1. Anonymous,

            Please consider more exploration of your issues and I do appreciate the cost considerations. Were all of the tests for thyroid done ? With out the full panel your not going to know what’s up……, Did you have an in-depth look at your hormones via a panel such as the Dutch test ? And you don’t need to see a doc to do these tests.

            Seeing a hair specialist is probably not my best suggestion…. The stool test, not just for some parasites……should yield a very big clue as to what’s going on. If indeed white materials are present …. test don’t guess. As an example, consider Genova diagnostics and do a CDSA 2 test and actually find out what’s up. FYI most parasite tests are limited to the obvious critters and there are multiple styles ranging from simple microscopy to dna fragment evaluations….with huge differences in results. You will find that getting the rest of the story will actually direct you to the cause.

            Dr. Alan Kadish moderator for Dr. Greger




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    1. Hi Michelle: You can actually do some really tasty cooking and roasting without oil. You can find some tips from our friends at Fork Over Knives here.




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  16. Could someone please tell me if dry roasting is as bad/the same as normal roasting? I have PCOS and would love to not make the issue worse by eating the peanut butter I bought. (It doesn’t have anything else added to it – just specifies that the peanuts are dry roasted). Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!




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  17. Hi Seraphina, thanks so much for your question! I didn’t know what dry roasting meant until pretty recently.

    Dry roasting simply means that it was not roasted in oil. It was roasted dry, or completely by itself, with nothing added. Therefore, dry roasted peanuts would typically be preferable to (oil) roasted peanuts. I hope this answers your question!




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  18. Hi Leela,

    I am a volunteer moderator who helps Dr Greger answer questions posted to NutritionFacts. I am a whole foods plant based dietitian nutritionist located in Scottsdale, Arizona. I am not 100% sure what you mean by “fortified” soy milk, so it’s a bit tough for me to answer your question with precision. However, I recommend organic, unsweetened plan soy milk for my clients (and drink it myself) along with a wide variety of whole fresh plant based foods. There is a nice, new plant milk on the market called Ripple which is made from yellow peas, with a protein content equivalent to cow’s milk. Although Dr Greger has weighed in with the question, “how much soy is too much?” it of course is not specific to PCOS. Spoiler alert: Dr G recommends sticking to 3-5 SERVINGS of soy foods a day to be safe and avoid any negative effects from increased insulin growth factor (IGF).

    It is an older, non science based recommendation that those with PCOS avoid soy foods due to their purported estrogenic effects in the body. We know now from the science that soy foods have a different type of estrogen (the beta versus the alpha) which may actually serve as a block in our estrogen receptors thus providing protection from estrogen sensitive conditions. So, I do not recommend my clients with PCOS avoid soy foods, but do recommend limiting intake to 3 servings or so a day based on possible IGF issues. Finally, back to Ripple, the plant milk I referenced above. It is made from yellow peas, a legume and great source of protein. So eat more legumes, limit soy, and enjoy a wide variety of foods!

    Thanks for your question –

    Lisa Schmidt, MS, CN
    THE Mindful Nutritionist
    Scottsdale, Arizona




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  19. Hello. I have been vegan now for a little over 2 weeks and I haven’t felt this good in ages (I’m only 29!) My questions is about PCOS. I was diagnosed in 2012 and instantly put on progestrone, metformin and birth control. All my obgyn told me to do was lose weight and take the medication. I was told there is no cure and once you have PCOS that’s it. I was also told the only way to deal with it was to take medication to manage the symptoms. I don’t want to believe this is my life. I want to believe there is a cure and that my diet and lifestyle is what will fix it.
    When she told me to lose weight, I had been trying for years with no luck to lose the weight I had gained in college. After coming off the medications – because of them making me sick – I quit having a period all together. (Originally I was going 3 months or so with none, then I’d get it again.) To this day, I’ve yet to see one since stopping my medication… I know this is not healthy but I don’t want to go back on medication. That’s how I began learning about Dr. Greger and the other wonderful men and women who are working to get awareness out there for whole food, plant based lifestyles. I’m hopeful and thinking I’m going in the right direction however, others around me are skeptical.
    I just ordered the book, “How Not To Die” so I’m unsure if there is further information about AGEs in it. I want to make sure I’m eating what my body needs and not putting in anything that will continue to “poison” it. Currently, I take 200mg of B12 weekly and 2Tbsp of flaxseed daily for my omega 3’s. I eat 5-6 times per day to keep from feeling like I’m starving! I’m relearning how to make grains the star again (I decided to try paleo as many women said it helped them, but it made me bloated and sore. My eyes had dark, black bags underneath and I looked much older than I am…)
    So I’m guessing my main question is.. are there any specific books or studies on PCOS that might help me learn more and help me go in the right direction to overcome this? I kind of just wish there was a study going on that I could be a part of! I apologize this is so long, but I’m passionate about this. I want to get better and I want to help others who know what I’m dealing with.




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  20. Hello Stephanie, Glad to read you are feeling better now following a more plant based diet. Regarding your questions about PCOS: I know you already viewed the video “Best foods for PCOS” but there are 2 others I’d encourage you to view: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/benefits-of-marjoram-for-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos/ and https://nutritionfacts.org/video/enhancing-athletic-performance-with-peppermint/ Both of these will give you some additional suggestions about what you can do to take more control of the PCOS. If you’d like to go deeper, were you aware that Dr. Greger includes the studies he cites with links under “Sources” so you can check out the studies that can give you more help as well? You will find much mention of AGEs in those sources. Because you are just starting your plant-based journey, look for support both online and in your community (Possibly a Meetup?) so you can be successful. There are many good books with tips on transitioning to a Whole Food Plant-based diet. Of course, keep coming back here too! Joan-NurseEducator




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    1. Thanks, I did watch those other two videos and it’s a lot of great info. I will also look into the sources! It gets a little overwhelming but I appreciate the quick reply!




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  21. I just joined this site, and I’m so grateful for all of the information that had been made available in one place. Thank you so much for this.

    I’m hoping someone can further assist me in my diet journey, because I have been struggling for several months now with the following: PCOS, prediabetes, recurrent vaginal yeast infections, possible and probable Bacterial Vaginosis (getting checked this week) and seborrheic dermatitis (which showed up when the yeast did).

    I am currently taking Metformin HCL 500 mg, 4 pills a day. I am taking Diflucan 150 mg, once per week for 6 months (I have about 3 months left, and I still have had some yeast infections while on diflucan consistently)

    I used to be vegetarian from the age of 13, at age 22 I decided to be vegan and I was till about age 25. I was also completely sober until age 25. And I exercised fairly consistently. Still had PCOS, but blood sugar was still on the high end of normal.

    After life-things happened, I started to eat pretty poorly and started drinking alcohol. After about a year, I cleaned up the diet (sort of) without removing meat products or alcohol, and introduced exercise again. By the time I cleaned it up, I think it was too late because I had already been experiencing recurrent UTIs (which I now understand was due to my blood sugar being out of control), and then after all the antibiotics from recurrent UTIs, the yeast infections began, along with the seborrheic dermatitis. It is also my understanding that the high blood sugar is essentially feeding the yeast vaginally and likely on my face (seborrheic dermatitis).

    I also suffer from depression/anxiety, and was recently advised I likely have PTSD, and so it is very important to me to ensure I’m getting all of the necessary nutrients to keep my brain functioning as best it can while I tangle with some

    I definitely want to start on my plant based diet again (I’m getting more structure from the suggested site, Lighter World). However, I’ve been told like most people with PCOS/prediabetes, to lower my carb intake and increase protein. I have so far done this. I’m eating lots of meat and fat, and I do feel much better (no carb comas). However, my skin isn’t any better. My yeast infections feel unchanged (but I will be exploring the boric acid option that was mentioned in the comments on a different topic.)

    Here are my questions (finally, after all that backstory! Thanks for staying with me):

    1. When I move to a plant based diet, should I continue to be concerned about the amount of carbs I’m taking in, or just the type of carbs I’m taking in?

    I don’t want to exacerbate any of my current issues, which I noticed do get worse when a meal is heavy in carbs.

    2. Is there a certain amount of protein I should be getting on a plant based diet?

    I only recently started counting proteins, and I am having trouble reaching the goal even with eating lots of meat. I hate to think what it’s all doing to my digestion and cholesterol levels, but my thinking has been clearer and I have energy (again, no carb comas.)

    3. With the first two questions in mind, should I be easing into a high carb plant based diet to limit blood sugar spikes, or does all the fiber prevent that?

    I’m sure these questions have been answered in some way, and I know I’m not particularly unique in my concerns. But I have been struggling and I do feel worried. I’m hoping I can get pointed in the right direction, even if it’s just to related videos/articles/etc. I’ve been doing so much research, a bit more can’t hurt! (Although if you can answer my questions that’d be great too ;) )

    Thank you so much for reading!




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    1. Please also note that I maintain a healthy weight. Forgot to add that! Also, I meant to say “while I tangle with some emotionally tough stuff”

      Thanks again!




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    2. Dr. Gregor says it’s all healthy: high carb or low carb. Skin issues (like acne) can persist despite eating plant-based diets with no refined sugar/grains, oil and dairy.

      1. You say your symptoms get worse when you eat high carb. Though it’s not scientific, that could be your answer. Does it make a difference in what type of carbs you eat? Like refined vs. whole? Starch vs. sugar? Refined grains are always bad for blood sugar spikes and sugar will cause a quicker rise in blood sugar than starch.
      You can try to more higher protein and fat calories and fewer carb calories.

      2. You don’t need many calories from protein (~5%) to stay healthy. With a WFPB diet, you’ll get enough protein whether you eat high carb or low carb. Most high carb foods have that much.

      3. Eating whole plant foods will prevent blood sugar spikes. If you’re concerned about it, make sure to eat legumes with every meal, as they will curb blood sugar spikes even more. It’s the Second Meal Effect.




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  22. Hello,
    I apologize, my question isn’t really relevant to this video, yet I’m at a loss.
    I’m 18 years old and have never had a normal menstrual cycle. When I was fourteen I went to see an endocrinologist who checked my hormones and said that they all appeared to be in the norm. Yet she wanted to put me on hormones. I refused, for my mother hit menopause at a young age and had therefore been taking hormones for 17 years with some terrible side effects. Shortly afterwards I switched to a plant based diet after reading if its benefits. My period came back within two months, but again it was irregular. Last November was the last time I had it and since then zilch. I went to see a gynecologist who wants me to take norethisterone 5 mg twice a day for ten days to kick-start my period. When I asked what the cause of the problem was her answer was literally “ask God”. I don’t know what the side effects or dangers of this pill are, nor do I know the cause of my lack of period. The gyne said that I’m putting my body in danger by not taking anything and won’t deal with me until I take the pills. I’m at a loss, please help.




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    1. Yes, I’m looking for information about irregular/absent menstrual cycles too and there is very little information on the website.

      Like Dr. Gregor always says, it’s better to treat the cause rather than a symptom. So perhaps find an MD who will do some blood work on hormone levels and see if anything is irregular.

      I’ve always had irregular and light periods. I was tested for thyroid issues when I was very young (and overweight) but the tests said hormones were fine. I was tested again when I was 19 y/p and TSH levels were low. Hypothyroidism. I now take iodine supplements everyday to regulate my thyroid issues.

      Do you have any other symptoms of hypo/hyperthyroidism? I had very obvious signs before I was tested like inability to lose weight, being cold all the time, low energy and hair falling out.




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    2. Thank you for your question. There are many reasons why you may not be getting regular periods. I think you are better discussing this with your own doctors and a gynaecologist is probably best placed to recommend treatments




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  23. Thanks so much for this thorough research! It got me thinking as I have a friend with an autoimmune disease: is there a link between AGEs and Lupus?
    Thanks in advance!




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    1. Hello, yes, there is one study I found! But they were investigating “whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and are related to atherosclerosis.” So no direct link to lupus itself. Results of the study are: “AGEs are increased in SLE compared with controls. Our findings indicate that AGE accumulation is associated with disease duration and might contribute to the development of accelerated atherosclerosis in SLE and, therefore, could be used for assessment of risk for long-term vascular complications.

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17848401




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  24. This seems like the most relevant video to talk about amenorrhea. There are no videos on the website specifically about it.

    I’m a 23 y/o, 125lb 5’8″ female who has not menstruated for more than 6 months post-abdominoplasty surgery. Diagnosed with hypothyroidism in 2014 but currently manage it with iodine supplementation. I hit all my nutrient targets and don’t want to gain weight by eating more calories.

    I wasn’t concerned about it until Gregor briefly mentioned amenorrhea and bone health in a YouTube video around 1:00 mark.

    Anybody have good information on this topic?




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  25. Carobcherub,

    There is a clear link between amenorrhea and bone density. This has been an active topic in medicine for ages…. see:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14501240 to the more current 2017 guidelines at:http://www.jwatch.org/na43828/2017/04/05/functional-hypothalamic-amenorrhea-new-clinical-guideline.

    Post surgical changes certainly will have an impact, however hearing your issues with your thyroid in conjunction I would highly recommend a complete hormone evaluation, preferably salivary and with a complete picture including intermediates. (an example would be a Dutch test)

    This approach would give you a good overview of the whole story and don’t forget to get a full thyroid panel, not just TSH and free T4. Your use of iodine is not necessarily a great idea and should be evaluated in light of the surgical changes and length of time between menses.

    Dr. Alan Kadish moderator for Dr. Greger http://www.Centerofhealth.com




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    1. Thanks for getting back to me.

      Yes, that’s why I’m concerned about my BMD. I have an appointment with an MD mid September, so I’ll ask if I can get an extensive hormone evaluation done around that time.

      Can you expand more about why the iodine would be a bad idea? I don’t see any other way to get sufficient iodine in my diet without using iodized salt or eating lots of seaweed. It’s the most economical option to ensure I get enough iodine. Dr. Fuhrman recommends iodine supplementation.




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  26. I’ve been told that losing weight will reduce symptoms, but that’s precisely the symptom that I can’t seem to get a handle on and it wasn’t addressed in the video. Yes, I have other symptoms, but I find that not being able to lose weight to be the most frustrating since it’s the one that I work the hardest on. I eat a plant based diet mostly consisting of steamed or raw foods. Most of the time I eat whole plant based foods but sometimes I eat the gluten free vegan microwavable stuff (I have Celiac Disease). I walk/jog/run almost every day in combination with other resistance based workouts. Still, it took 7 months to lose 5 lbs, so are there any other foods I should be incorporating or staying away from since the low AGE thing isn’t doing it.




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    1. Natalie: I can understand your frustration. Below is information I share with people who also want to lose weight and already understand the importance of eating plant foods. I hope this helps.

      ———————————-
      The nice thing about your situation is that you already understand half the battle. I’m guessing from your post that you already understand about the importance of a whole plant food diet and have at least a sense of how to implement it. That’s half the learning curve. The other half is understanding the concept of calorie density and how to apply it to weight loss so that you don’t get hungry and you still get all the nutrients you need.
      .
      Dr. Greger covers calorie density (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/eating-more-to-weigh-less/ ), but not in enough detail in my opinion for someone who wants to apply it for the first time. Doug Lisle, one of the experts in the Forks Over Knives documentary, gives a great ‘calorie density 101’ talk officially called: How To Lose Weight Without Losing Your Mind. I have watched the following talk from Doug Lisle several times and think very highly of it. And it’s free!!! And it’s entertaining! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAdqLB6bTuQ
      .
      As good as Doug Lisle’s talk is, it pretty much just gives you a solid understanding of the concept, but not enough practical information in my opinion. For starting to get the practical information, I recommend a talk from Jeff Novick,Calorie Density: “How to Eat More, Weigh Less, and Live Longer,” http://www.jeffnovick.com/RD/Calorie_Density.html If talks aren’t your thing, the following article from Jeff covers a lot of the same information: http://www.jeffnovick.com/RD/Articles/Entries/2012/5/20_A_Common_Sense_Approach_To_Sound_Nutrition.html
      Be sure to pay attention to the charts.
      .
      Chef AJ tells people who want to lose weight to eat “left of the red line”, where I believe the red line is on a diagram of hers representing is about 650 (or so) calories per pound. And “left of the red line” is all the whole plant foods which are below 650 calories per pound. The above article from Jeff Novick gives you a good sense of which foods are “left of the red line” by food category. But if you want to look up the calorie density of specific foods, you can find many foods on the following site: http://nutritiondata.self.com/ Most foods on that site have the option of choose an ‘ounce’ as a size. Then you can multiply by 16 to get the calories per pound.
      .
      It would be perfectly respectable if you are one of those people who are just not interested in the theory. You just want to dive right in and want straight how-to information. If you would rather not think about any of that (or start with the theory and then move onto this step), I have one more suggestion that Dr. Greger also recommends in his book, How Not To Die. Consider going through the free program from PCRM (Physician’s Committee For Responsible Medicine) called 21 Day Kickstart. The program will “hold your hand” for 21 days, including meal plans, recipes, videos, inspirational messages, and a forum (moderated by a very respected RD) where you can ask questions.
      http://www.pcrm.org/kickstartHome/
      (Click the green “Register Now” button.)
      At the end of the program, you will have a very good practical knowledge about how to eat with healthy and “low” (normal for most people) calorie density.
      .
      Another recommendation that Dr. Greger and I share is to get Jeff Novick’s Fast Food videos for tasty, affordable, fast and healthy calorie density recipes. Also, on-line and free is a YouTube series of recipes/cooking shows called something like Chef AJ and The Dietician. I know that Chef AJ will not steer you wrong in terms of weight loss and providing accurate nutrition information.
      .
      ————————
      How’s that for some tips? You mentioned some of the foods that you eat, but I wonder if you have some high calorie density foods in your diet somewhere. If you look at the details and give these ideas a try, please report back and let us know how it went.




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    1. Hey Sarah, thanks for writing! Dr. G would recommend a whole foods, plant-based diet, low in fat if weight loss were indicated, for PCOS. The underlying factor in PCOS is insulin resistance, which occurs die to a diet high in saturated fat and low in fiber. A plant-based diet reverses this insulin resistance.




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  27. Hi team Nutrition Facts. Loving all your work. I recently purchased How Not To Die – it’s fabulous. As recently being diagnosed with PCOS, I would love, LOVE more article pieces from you guys on managing the symptoms of PCOS. I’ve been researching a lot myself and it appears to be quite a grey area. I have seen the pieces on marjoram and spearmint but if you guys can do any further work on PCOS, the different phenotypes, the insulin resistance, is a keto lifestyle good to treat symptoms, how to induce ovulation naturally… well, my list goes on! Any ideas appreciated. Kindest, Farley




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  28. Hi. I’m wondering how much glycotoxins , if any, result from cooking flaxmeal dough for crackers at 400°. Should I bake them at a lower temp? I do love the homemade flaxmeal crackers!
    Thanks!




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