Doctor's Note

Today’s video-of-the-day is a first. Though I don’t always succeed, I normally strive to make each of my videos about two minutes in length to match the typical online attention span. That’s why when this presentation was serendipitously taped last month, I turned it into a short DVD rather than uploading it directly to the site. But the response it got was so positive, that I really wanted to get it online. If you too found it valuable, please share it and pass it along. And if you haven’t already, you can subscribe for free to my videos at…. Tomorrow we’ll return to our regularly scheduled program of more bite-sized servings of the latest in nutritional science.

The DVD of this presentation can be ordered on my website or through Amazon (all proceeds to charity).

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  • Michael Greger M.D.

    Today’s video-of-the-day is a first. Though I don’t always succeed, I normally strive to make each of my videos about two minutes in length to match the typical online attention span. That’s why when this presentation was serendipitously taped last month, I turned it into a short DVD rather than uploading it directly to the site. But the response it got was so positive, that I really wanted to get it online. If you too found it valuable, please share it and pass it along. And if you haven’t already, you can subscribe for free to my videos at Tomorrow we’ll return to our regularly scheduled program of more bite-sized servings of the latest in nutritional science.

    • Gale

      Dr. Greger I so enjoy your morning videos. My only complaint is when they stop at 2 minutes!

    • Jola

      Wow! What a treat!  Thank you for posting this online for us!! :)

    • HemoDynamic, M.D.

      Phenomenal!  Like a said before this video should be required viewing in all medical, dental, nursing, and paramedical schools as well as by the general public before ever stepping foot inside a restaurant or market.

      Absolutely incredible that you made this free!!!  Thank you! ;-}

    • Thank you again for your work. I just pre-ordered the set along with those extra DVDs (cancer prevention, bird flu, etc). Can’t wait for them.

      I shared this link with my mom and she’s now sharing it with others. :)

    • Cateyeblink

      Vegans are an intellectually crazy bunch. Go primal when you realise this is a scam.

      •  Do you have the research to back this up?

      • WholeFoodChomper

        How exactly is a plant-based diet a “scam”? I don’t think name-calling and insults are going to win the primal movement any converts.  You may want to try another outreach/recruitment approach to convince people of the merits of primal eating. 

        If the goal is preventing and treating disease by way of diet, it seems clear from the currently available scientific evidence that some diets are better at preventing and treating disease than others.  It just so happens that “the balance of scientific evidence suggests that the healthiest way to eat [to prevent and treat disease] is a vitamin B12-fortified diet of whole plant foods”. At the moment, it seems that there is not enough evidence (and definitely not a balance of evidence) to indicate that other diets are capable of preventing and treating disease to the same degree that a plant-based diet can for most people. 
        Moreover, I think it is also debatable whether a meat-based primal/paleo/caveman/low-carb diet is a sensible and healthy way to eat for the planet–but that is discussion for another forum. But since you brought it up, you may want to read these:

        In sum, whether you look at it from a health, environment, or human rights perspective a vegetarian diet is most certainly the best choice for human health, the sustainability of the environment, and the best (maybe even only way) that shows compassion toward both humans and other animals.

        • Gingertea

          Nothing wrong with meat in the diet as long as it is organically raised, non-GMO feeds (grain and corn is not natural food for any herbivore animal) as they are raised organically without antibiotics/growth hormones away from factory farms.

          No need to insult each other’s diet/way of life. No one eats solely meat, people add veggies as well, etc., unless following the traditional Inuit diet which is raw meat or a few other tribal diets. To each their own. Sadly, with the Monsanto T-rex on the rampage, cross-contaminating organic fields with its seeds of destruction I worry that in 50 years there will be no natural plant life out there. Then we are all up the creek including wildlife. Well, there are always milkweed pods if Monsanto doesn’t kill those off. These actually taste good when foraging in the wild but will taste like cardboard if altered genetically by Monsanto. Some are people are vegetarians but if they eat pesticide treated foods instead of organic, there are problems…purchasing dirty dozen celery in grocery stores laden with pesticides…not to mention the whole processed ‘food’ industry.

          There is no such way as “The Only Way’ since people have to find out what works for them and accept that not everyone is going to follow the same path.

          • There is a tremendous body of evidence to discourage one from eating animal products. Whether you’re sold on the idea from the compelling and still-growing consensus regarding your health, the undeniable impact such activities have on our environment, or the well being or misery of so many animals, I couldn’t imagine anything easier to argue and advocate for.
            World Watch’s coverage of “Livestock’s Long Shadow,” regarding the impossible environmental reality of raising meat on the scale we do, “Earthlings” for a visceral look at the ethical realities, and the work of Dr. Greger, Neal Barnard, T. Colin Campbell, etc. for the preventive health impacts.
            I hope we can all see more improvement in the near future on these fronts. It’s going to take everyone’s humble and worthwhile efforts, though. :)

          • Mark James Hill

            Same can be said for farming . Its an irrational argument. Fix the thibgs wrong dont through the steak out with the bath water. The point is it unhealthy to eat meat? No. Whether you agrwe in the ethics of current US cattle raising standards ia irrelevant to this conversation. This is where vegans loose credibility. They argue emotionally about political matters and try to convert everyone.

          • Thomas Welton

            That’s the same old argument that is always used, example , it is used for climate change. As long as we burn clean coal, unleaded gas etc, blah, blah, blah. NUTS!

          • sistadana

            no need to insult people but ok to shoot animals in the head and slit their throats. to each his own? I guess that’s why some people felt it was ok to own slaves once upon a time. We must think outside ourselves. we are not the only creature, religion, sex, culture, race etc in the world. We have a history of thinking of only what is best for “us” to a detriment to others. Thankfully, slaves are now free, women have been given equal rights, and hopefully, animals will be recognized next as being equally entitled to live their lives free of suffering and early death simply to satisfy our taste buds.

          • Katie Joy Turner

            sistadana~~Do you really think a farmer is going to raise animals just for pets??? If everyone stops eating meat , there will be no animals!!!

          • Thea

            Katie: Some ideas to think about:
            1) We no longer use horses for transportation. While there are many fewer horses in the world compared to the past, there are still plenty of horses around. Horses are not going away.

            2) Lots of people love chickens as pets. A “farmer” may not raise animals just for pets. But plenty of people will. I know people who live in the country who just like to have llamas around for pets. They do not eat them. I know someone else who has a pet cow. There’s a YouTube video of a teenage girl with a pet cow who she taught tricks to. Etc.

            Given all the available evidence, there is no reason to fear that “There will be no animals!!!” Hope that sets your mind at ease.

          • Dot

            Yesiree! I have a pet chicken (rooster) named Buddy. He was an inconvenient product of the backyard chicken farming craze. I rescued him, and he is WONDERFUL! Smart, funny, playful, loving. Imagine if the best dog in the world had feathers — that would be Buddy.

          • Thea

            Dot: I love stories of people’s pet chickens. I had no idea about the inner life of a pet chicken for most of my life. I feel so happy to be educated now. Buddy sounds awesome. Thanks for telling me about him.

          • Mark James Hill

            People keep chickens for eggs and cows for milk and beef horses yes as pets to ride. Not many people keep these animals as pets. Its expensive ti do so for cows and horses. My froend who is a vet actually gets very angry with people who keep horses as pets becaus there is no point to doing so. We eat horse in Japan amd everything else to.

          • Thea

            Mark James Hill: No point to keeping horses as pets? That statement is not logical to me. Either there is good reason to keep other animals as pets or there isn’t. There’s nothing special or different that makes one domesticated animal like a dog an OK pet and another domesticated animal like a horse not OK pet as long as all of the animal’s needs are being met. The issue of cost is irrelevant as long as someone can afford to provide all of the person’s needs. I would never go to a vet who viewed nonhuman animals the way your friend does.
            Some cultures keep dogs as pets. Some cultures eat (and first torture) dogs. Some cultures keep horses as pets. Some cultures eat (but first torture) horses. A history of doing something does not make that activity automatically OK. To explain what I mean: Some cultures used to practice human child sacrifice. And some cultures today practice slavery. This is just *not* OK. So, saying “My culture does so and so.” is not a good argument. Some cultures simply have to change.

          • Ben Dahlstrom

            Eating and orturing any animal are def wrong

          • Eva

            According to science and evolution (I recommend you see the three-episode series by Niels Shubin) ALL creatures on this earth, and by All I really mean All (if you watch the series you’d understand) are actually coming from the fish in the sea some 200 million years ago. We basically carry the same genes throughout time. It is amazing how we evolved from a small fish and now we claim fish and animals have no soul and are some stupid creatures for us to eat and exploit, and we, the great humans, should rule the earth. Alright, we have the head-start, but exactly this should make us even more responsible, and not more careless. We are all relatives, but we deny the other creatures on the planet the same rights we humans have – to live as they please. And Katie, if you’re worried some animals would I should tell you that most wild animals on the planet already disappeared thanks to us and some like the tigers and lions won’t be found in the wild any more 30 years from now. They are gone by 98%. Don’t worry about the chicken and cows, they are a sturdy bunch and have lived without us and before us :-)

          • Khemary Sok

            I finally found a place where someone has brains! You know how hard it is to talk with someone about matters like this – I was called a complete moron once because I was suggesting how the human body has evolved and it’s in our DNA/genes to survive… this woman told me that the only reason why humans survived was because of sex and reproduction…. I SAID WOW… clearly she doesn’t know anything. I appreciate your comment because there are animals dying because of US… and they are going to be animals that will survive without humans involvement.

          • Mark James Hill

            Oh god now your bringing your religion into what i choose to eat?
            There are predetors and prey its how the weak are weeded out. We are the top tier predator. Thats how nature works. All that being said we can do it sustainably. But they are Not the same as people thays my religeon. There is zero scientific evidence we came from fish or primordial ooze its a guess amd has no place in this discission

          • Ben Dahlstrom

            Look to the stars for where primate to early human dna changed. You know the story about the “forbidden” fruit? It is from a source beyond atheism

          • Ben Dahlstrom

            All animals off limits. Humans were and are given choice to help others have life

          • Matt

            Eva, the video you watched is an educated explanation of a theory proposed 150 years ago. Remember it is a theory. There are almost 50 theories out there, all with different explanations and scienyogic discoveries have disproved all of them including the primordial ooze theory from which you are referring to. With a Masters in biological science I have studied the topic in great depth. I’m not trying to justify meat consumption in any way.
            It would help your position if you left out the video reference as that discredits your argument. Take care

          • Sista dana

            Omg really? “Well what the hell will all the negros do without their masters?” Does THAT sound ignorant now that we are 150 years away from slavery? Obviously, number one, that wouldn’t happen over night. But we all now should reduce our consumption. What would follow is a reduction in breeding of animals, and then fewer and fewer animals. Some farm animals would be accepted at animals sanctuaries. Two, if we ever got to the point that there were “no animals”, then so be it. Bringing them into the world only to kill them is not doing them any favors. Your comment is honestly so stupid I simply can’t spend any more time responding.

          • Mark James Hill

            Comparing killing animals to keeping slaves jas to stop. Peiple are not animals. Animals are animals they cannot reason. Huge difference here. This is why evolution is a horrible theory. Peiple make sweeping generalities amd jump to conclusions

          • Matt

            Mark is correct. As advances in scientific technology improves we begin to learn the many flaws in evolution. Let’s not use this theory as a basis for any argument here. Thanks

          • Dogly

            Because of eating meat, we are deliberately breeding into existence billions of factory farmed animals, and then killing them before the first year has passed. Is this the existence that anyone would choose to be born into? If they are not deliverately bred these farmed animals will not be born. This would be a good thing. Think about this from THEIR point of view. Practice your empathy.

          • Mark James Hill

            You want to be a cow? Empathy for a cow? Omg they are not thinking about any of these things. They live eat hang out go to slaughter and we eat live hang out die.
            The circle if life. You have too much time on your hands.

          • Ben Dahlstrom

            There are many studies that show that even plants react to vibration. Investigation is important to know why a vegan diet is important

          • sistadana

            argh….I hope you read the great arguments here. this is SUCH an ignorant argument.

          • Dot

            Fantastic reply / comment by sistadana! I belong to an on-line petition site called care2. Most of the people who comment there are in favor of animal rights, but there are a few carnists who endlessly go on about their cave man rights to do whatever they want with animals because it is the natural way of things. Ugh! Glad times are changing and they are on the way out! I’m vegan, and I feel great — have more energy now in my 50’s than I had in my 20’s.

          • Siesta Dana

            Thank you!

          • Josee Bayeur

            When people ask me if I believe in the food chain, I say I believe in evolution because I hope we are evolving towards compassion and out of cruel brutality.

          • Dogly


          • Mark James Hill

            People ar not animals. Animals are raised for consumption. Its your personal viewpoint. How about plants arent they living?whats the difference because theu dont have vocal cords its ok to cit them down and chew them even raw! Omg. The tjought of tjpse helpless baby carrots. Do you cry when a wold takes down a deer?
            Your argument is pathetic. We are the top tier animal if we want toclassify us as that. If it makes youfeel better let run free and each one will be caugt or shot. Thosw animals wouldnt be alive if they werent raised for food. They are simply farmibg animals like you farm vegetables. Do animals have a soul?who knows. Do plants?who knows. Grow up people disagree with you. You can go live in Oregon orMaine or east butt to live on a commube with like minded people just dont try to convert everone else to your religeon. Please and thank you

          • Susan Johann

            People are not animals?! Since when?

          • Khemary Sok

            WOW. I appreciate your comment tremendously. I will have to share this with my family and friends.

          • Eva

            Hey Khemary, I’m kind of happy to know that someone appreciates what I share. I believe in science, but I believe in it when it has a heart. :)

          • Bethanymonday

            Yes, “to each their own”, as long as it doesn’t (unnecessarily) harm others. Eating animal products harms lots of people: primarily the animals being killed (and don’t try to argue that a painless death is harmless: if it is, would you be ok with an unexpected bullet in the back of the head?); the environment, and the humans and other animals that will suffer from the destruction of it; the people going hungry because their food produce is being shipped overseas to feed US cows and pigs; the cost to society of trying to fix the damage done to meat-eaters’ health. So not a really good idea, all round.

        • Helen

          I don’re think the vegan or vegetarian diet is the best diet for people or that any studies have shown it to be. In every case that I have read about a study it has compared the vegan to the standard American an diet. Vegetarian diets rely on high starch and low fat. This absolutely doesn’t work well for a lot of people. When the question. Of the best diet for people arises, I think it would be helpful to focus on that alone and not mix in arguments about kindness to animals or the environment since these are different questions.

          • Helen

            High starch low fat can be said for meat eaters too. I am vegan and eat a balance diet. You can’t say that all vegans eat a certain way.

          • Mark James Hill

            You have to get caloriws frim somewhere. Ive seen 2 types of vegans the fat type mwaning obese or skinny fat which is low muscke content hight pecentage of fat but looks relatively thin
            And the anhorhexic bones showing skeletor looking ones. Which one are you?

          • Thea

            Mark James Hill: I caution you to be polite in your posts. As a moderator for this site, I’m letting you know that rudeness is not allowed.
            To address your point: Some of the top athletes in the world, the ones making world records and winning Olympic metals are going vegan and winning those awards after the change. I don’t know how many vegans are in your social circle, but the great many vegans in my social circle look pretty much like everyone else, though above average over all in terms of weight and muscle tone and general air of health.

          • Mark James Hill

            Fat and skinny fat are not rude terms they are simply accurate descriptions. Sime people are fat and in India for example there are many fat vegetarians.

            i see a lot of comments based on bad science. Ie observational studies not clinical reasearch. They make claims that are absolutely not based on definitive evidence! All observational research shows is correlation and even that can be misleading. Its used to get funding for further research and so any catchy one liners like meat kills etc gets attention and therefore funding even if its false. And it is.

            And your biased observations of your friends is the same type of so called evidence. Most likely they have other healthy habits now and before they were vegans. Vegans are preachy and its not simoke a food choice for them. Its always political because that is what it means to be vegan.

            Name the athletes. I dont believe you. Ive heard this argument before but those athletes did better before they were vegetarians. People can survive for a few years as vegans but performance always drops.especially men. Carl Lewis? 2 years after going vegan he didnt even quslify for his events at the olympics. Like i said you can go for a little while but performance eventually suffers.

            84% of American vegans and vegetarians go back to eating meat. Why? Because its not a sustainable diet. Too many caveat and exceptions supplements etc. If you eat healthy you dont need suppliments

            No vegans in my social circle because i cant stand them. They are obnoxious by nature. If you dont like my honest and blunt viewpoint either dont be a vegan or dont read my posts. But you still have to deal with the actual scientific facts from clinical reasearch NOT OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH.

          • Jiji

            Neither can you say that all meat eaters eat a certain way. Your second statement is the key in my opinion. Balance!!! Moderation in everything helps in the long run. If being Vegan or Vegetarian is the ultimate solution to all health problems then Vegans and Vegetarians would live for ever or at least never get sick but yet I’m sure that’s not the case.

          • Josee Bayeur

            This site leaves aside such concerns as kindness to animals and to the environment. Dr. Greger is concerned primarily with the nutritional aspect of our diet, and he’s backing everything he says with a ton of scientific evidence, actually, the most I have ever seen.

          • Mark James Hill

            Amen finally some sense!

        • Mark James Hill

          Your incorrect there is alot of evidence that diets more inclusive than plant based diets show similar results. They are simply not fad diets like paleo. Look for the european studies where cultures also eat meat and dairy and fishALONG WITH fruit and veg . In other words compare other people who eat healthy instead of comparing plant based diet people to the general population. Of course if you eat crap and dont exercise then start eating all the healthy foods this diet suggests of course you will be healthier but not necessarily healthier than peiple who eat the same things and also eat meat dairy and fish. Does that make sense?

          • Mark James Hill

            My guess is the largest improvement with this sort of diet is tje element we are most deficient in…FIBER

      •  i wouldn’t call them “crazy”. if a diet works for someone, that’s fine. my problem with the stats being thrown about is that this all flies in the face of evolution. the facts pretty clearly show that high protein diets helped propel the growth of the brain and allowed the human species to flourish. so for hundreds of thousands of years, it was good and now suddenly it isn’t?

        personally, i take issue with the western mentality that every problem needs a “solution”. oh, autism cases have spiked up? wow, it’s funny how vaccinations have gone up, too, so let’s blame them. it’s the ability to understand and diagnoses problems that has developed and allowed us to understand these problems. i think moderation is key to a diet. not to mention there are going to be some disease, etc., that genetically run in families. to simply point the finger at meat and say that all of our ills are from one thing is naive. and again, considering our brain’s growth being due to proteins from fish/meat, i can’t sit here and say it’s all been bad.

        • carfree

          I believe the brain is made up of mostly fat, and it runs on glucose. What role did protein supposedly play that you think was so important? I’ve never heard that before.

          • mikeysbro

            brain is made up of around 80% choline..lecithin

          • Orgo-borgo

            why do you think God provided yo momma with teats to produce milk and not a couple of carrots or mangoes? thats “animal protein” deary; thats what make a babys brain grow- the richer, the better. maybe thats why so many children these days are “special” and/or sickly and/or have so many allergic reactions to everything these days- fed soy based ‘formula’ instead of good ol’ mommas ‘dairy’, not veggie harvest brand canned boob alternative- organic or otherwise ;)
            ALL food production is being destroyed one way or another; “we the people” better get off our collective, sedentary asses, quit bitching on blogs and get in on changing the game- before it changes us at the genetic level..

        • Daniel Dunér

          Trying to use that kind of reasoning to “figure things out” has turned out to be a scientific dead end. There are simply too many factors to take into account. People have spent millenia trying to use clever reasoning to figure out how the world works, but it’s only since scientific revolution and the introduction of clinical & empirical research that we have gotten any real answers.

          Trying to reason about evolution (for example) can give you ideas on what to research.

          It may sound reasonable that meat is crucial due to evolutionary adaptations in the human body. But it seems equally reasonable that our much longer evolutionary history as predominately plant-eaters is of greater importance.

          It may sound reasonable that the extra energy/protein from meat helped build bigger brains. But another reasonable theory is that increase was related to cooking in general. Or that bigger brains were needed to solve more complex social problems as societies grew more complex (independently of food sources).

          You also have to consider that the average human of the last 50,000 years only lived some 50 years, and as a result evolution hasn’t really acted on some of the health problems our societies are facing right now. It also sounds reasonable that the need for easily accessed energy (from animal products) used to outweigh the long-term problems associated with intake of animal products. But today the health risks associated with animal products suddenly outweigh the benefits, seeing how the production of animal foods are the less sustainable and ethical option today.

          These are just a few out of dozens or hundreds of “reasonable hypothesises” about human health and human evolution. But there is only one way to sort out what truly works for modern humans. It’s called empirical, clinical research. That research shows us how things truly work. From that data we can try to create theories on why things are like they are. But as soon as new data is presented the theories have to be adapted to take the new data into account. So you can’t simply come up with a theory like “evolution tells us that we should eat meat”, but instead you have to look at the empirical evidence and try to explain that in evolutionary terms (if that’s what you’re interested in).

          “Reasonable hypothesises” tell us nothing about reality, only empirical evidence does. The empirical data currently seems to support that a plant based diet is superior. Which is the end of the story (until other empirical data is presented). No reasoning about evolution can get around that hard data (go ask any serious evolutionary biologist!)

          • Mike Maybury

            I get tired of people referring to the average age ( such as 50 above). During this time many people lived far far longer than this. Through most of this history many infants died in the first five years of life, thus virtually halving the ‘average’ age.

          • Daniel Dunér

            Life expectancy at birth is indeed lower and is estimated at 20-30 years. The number I gave was life expectancy at older age, for people who lived beyond childhood. For rough estimates, see:

            But these are averages. Naturally there were plenty of people who led longer lives than than the average population.

          • Mark James Hill

            Well you can study modern populations like the Japanese amd there dietary habits and changes over the last century and see am obvious correlations between body size and protein intake. Brain size or development happens over much longer periods. Do you neceasarily need protein from meat no. Is meat bad for you no. Does is cause disease ni conclisive scientific evidence. You may find some studies to suooort that theory but there is much more modern evidence that refutes it.

        • Bryan

           How on earth can any thinker believe in the infantile theory of evolution?  No wonder some believe in the nonsense that sprouts from that……………

          • Mike Maybury

            what alternative to evolution do your have? creation- of which there are so many totally different stories in many religions are like lovely dreams that any of us can dream or imagine.

          • Mark James Hill

            Nobody said creationism they simple said evolutionary theory as it is is a joke and infantile. Please refute that statment instead putting creationiam or any other theory on trial. The accusation was concerning evolution.
            Yes there are other theories evolution is just the popular one but has little definitivw evidence. Ididnt say no evidence. Its non repeatable evidence and circumstantial. I believe in some level of natural selection but not species jumping.

        • I believe it’s the Aeillo’s and Wheeler’s original paper that a lot of people are referencing when claiming that eating meat lead to increased brain size. However, I’m almost certain that Aeillo and Wheeler are saying that the increased brain size lead to eating more calorie-dense foods, which would include meat.

          So with that said, our brains are fueled by carbohydrates, plus newer evidence suggests human brains size increased as a result of actually thinking.

          “The so-called expensive-tissue hypothesis, which suggests a trade-off between the size of the brain and the size of the digestive tract, has been challenged by researchers at the University of Zurich. They have shown that brains in mammals have grown over the course of evolution without the digestive organs having to become smaller. The researchers have further demonstrated that the potential to store fat often goes hand in hand with relatively small brains — except in humans, who owe their increased energy intake and correspondingly large brain to communal child care, better diet and their ability to walk upright.”

          Also, pertaining to how healthy organic meats is: well if ancient peoples had to eat it to survive, then of course they did what they had to do. However, if they lived long enough, this finding suggests that heart disease and other illnesses like arthritis could set in:

          “Otzi, who was 46 at the time of his death and measured 5ft2, also had brown eyes, had relatives in Sardinia, and was lactose intolerant. Otzi was also predisposed to heart disease.”

          “Researchers examining the contents of his stomach worked out that his final meal consisted of venison and ibex meat
          Researchers examining the contents of his stomach worked out that his final meal consisted of venison and ibex meat.


          Researchers examining the contents of his stomach worked out that his final meal consisted of venison and ibex meat.


          Was organic meat the cause of his heart issues and arthritis? Was it the lack of organic meat? Was the meat neutral? You decide.

          • Markus

            The article fails to mention that one has found also grain and veggies in his stomach…


            Einkorn (primitive form of wheat) has also been found at his clothes.

            Ötzi was a child of the neolithic era, just look at this ancestors, found 5000 years before him in the ame region….perfect sets of teeth, 1 ft huger than him…the difference between neolithic and paleolithic ages in term of foods are the grains, not the meat!

          • Tan

            I can’t read the language of your link. Assuming it says what you say…

            The organic meat was pointed out to suggest that despite the absent of modern chemicals, this individual was still susceptible to heart disease and other illnesses. You’re saying that the grains and veggies made him ill and… short?

            Living in extreme cold temperatures, likely he wasn’t foraging nor planting. Likely any plant calorie consumed came from the remnants of his prey — meaning most of his food would come from meat. That means according to your own reasoning, meat is to blame for his illness and short stature.

            The Eskimos were at almost 100% meat diet (organic) and can you make a case that they were healthy? Can you make a connection of their short stature to … plants?

            If you got a hold of Otzi’s arteries, if there was something embedded in the walls, clogging the arteries, do you think you’d find plant products… or cholesterol?

          • Mark James Hill

            As long as the scientific info is not cherry picked i can agree. Take this drs recommended diet and add meat and there would be no difference in health. We can see this when comoarisons of healthy vegetarians with healthy population that also eat fiah and dairy. Clean that colon out and youll feel better ahould be the main take away not restrictive religeously or politically based diets.

        • Kevin Talmadge

          You are throwing a lot of misinformation around…sounds like selective confirmation bias when you read, and a need to rationalize a carnist diet…

        • Thomas Welton

          Try playing puzzle and word games after eating meat, Then play the same type of games after consuming nut, brazil, almonds, walnuts, and higher scores due to more brain activity! Try it, it’s a fact.

        • Khemary Sok

          Well, we have done so much with the development of food processing and handling. It’s no longer the same… animals aren’t treated as they were back then… we are talking about mass scales of animals being “produced” for the human consumption. So during this process they’re given food and supplements that keep them alive only to have them on a plate… We give them antibiotics and we find them the cheapest “food” to feed them with… so yes food is different from way back then and I feel maybe the reason why it isn’t good for us anymore is because of the lifestyle we have and also the way the animals were raised… :-)

        • Dogly

          You CLAIM human brain growth was because of meat. I say it was that, once out of the protection of the trees, those with bigger brains, survived to sexual maturity, and reproduced, while the less intelligent, smaller brained individuals died before reproducing.

        • Mark James Hill

          Agree and when you say moderation i will add variety.
          Modern medical science has allowed us to detect disease mire often and earlier it doesnt mean incidence has risen just awareness.

          Once i asked my grandfather what his friend died of . He said …lack of breath.
          The point is he dint care the giy was dead.
          Its important to care why and help prevent the causes but there is no conclusive evidence meat and or dairy is the cause of disease.period. you van cherry pick research all you want but the concensus in the medical community is clear. This guy is in the minority. So you have to ask why.

      • Matthew Ciuccio

        I wonder how this has 7 likes on this website. Interesting.

      • Eating lots of plants is primal.

        • beccadoggie10

          Eating a plant based diet is the future, which is here, today! That is, if the right to life really matters. If you don’t eat plants, you don’t get the vitamins and minerals your body needs. That’s basic nutrition in a clean world. But, this world is neither clean nor non-toxic. And petrochemicals like benzene which are in weed killers and are carcinogenic, accumulate in the fat of animals and people. Benzene rings create dioxins and organochlorine chemicals, which are persistent organic pollutants and are deadly to the body’s of the animal (inc. humans) kingdom. They increase inflammation, cancers and likely all the diseases that are out there, and they increase death at a younger age.

          But if you want to die, that’s your option. Just don’t force others to eat as you choose.

          • I think you’ve misinterpreted me. I’m simply stating that our ancestors ate a whole lot of plants. Therefore, if one advocates the “primal” diet, then eat like our ancestors by eating loads of plants.

      • Mike Bendzela

        Cateyeblink, I agree. The “doctor” is pushing the dietary cholestrol myth. It has been debunked.

        • No sources in that debunking web page; it just has the vague reference of “multiple studies”: in other words: useless. Nutrition research is as biased as the cigarette company funded cigarette “research” of the 60s and 70s. So, unless the funding source of the nutrition research is known to be neutral, the research is suspect.

        • You may want to consider checking out this video series starting with topic “Cholesterol Denialism”:

        • Toxins

          Just because people who get heart disease have cholesterol levels considered “normal” does not mean cholesterol is not at play. The issue is that cholesterol level standards are far too lenient, and even normal levels are much too high.

          • DoSomeResearch

            Nope. You’re wrong. Anyone following the majority of new research coming out about fat vs carbs, etc and CVD knows that the main culprit is excessive carbohydrate consumption. The consumption leads to small dense particle of ldl which is the type of ldl that attaches to artery walls. Cholesterol is used by every cell in the body. It is an important nutrient and relied on heavily by the brain. Studies have shown total chol levels is not a good indicator of CVD. People with low chol have just as high mortality rates then people with high chol.

          • Toxins

            Firstly regarding choelsterol.. “Given the capability of all tissues to synthesize sufficient amounts of cholesterol for their metabolic and structural needs, there is no evidence for a biological requirement for dietary cholesterol. Therefore, neither an Adequate Intake nor a Recommended Dietary Allowance is set for cholesterol. There is much evidence to indicate a positive linear trend between cholesterol intake and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and therefore increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A Tolerable Upper Intake Level is not set for cholesterol because any incremental increase in cholesterol intake increases CHD risk.”

            Secondly, the current optimal levels of cholesterol are too high. an LDL of 70 or below and you are heart attack proof.

            The low carb movement is actually a fad, and those on a low carb diet have higher mortality rates.

            Low-Fat Versus Low-Carbohydrate Weight Reduction Diets
            Effects on Weight Loss, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Control Trial

            This study looked at 24 people who were overweight/obese and divided them into 2 groups. One group was low carb, high fat and the other high carb, low fat.

            High carb group: 20% calories from fat/60% calories from carbs

            Low carb group: 60% calories from fat/20% calories from carbs

            In addition, the study was designed so that participants would lose 1 pound per week, so calories were reduced by 500 per day.

            Volunteers were given pre weighed foods given as daily portions and were assessed by a dietician to make sure that they were adhering to the diet. After 8 weeks, this is what was found to be significant between the two groups. The low carb, high fat group experienced arterial stiffness which basically means impaired arterial function. What this means is that the people on this diet experienced low grade inflammation which can lead to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions and can become heart disease. “It is possible that the high fat content of a low-carbohydrate diet exerts detrimental effects on endothelial function, which raises concerns regarding the long-term safety and efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets…Currently, supported by evidence from long-term trials, we believe that a low-fat diet should remain the preferred diet for diabetes prevention.”


            Benefit of Low-Fat Over Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Endothelial Health in Obesity

            20 subjects participated in this study. “The [low carb] diet provided 20 g of carbohydrates daily, supplemented with protein and fat content according to the Atkins’ diet recommendation.19 The [low fat] diet provided 30% of the calories as fat, modeled after an American Heart Association diet.” I wouldn’t exactly call the low fat diet “low fat”, but regardless, its far less fat then the low carb diet. Both groups were given 750 calories less with pre made meals so they would stick with the protocol.

            After 6 weeks, there were significant differences between the low carb and the low fat group. The researchers performed a brachial artery test which basically tests to see if arterial function is impaired or not. Typically, the arm is cut off from circulation for about 5 min., then they release the arm, and measure how dilated the blood vessels are. If the blood vessels are constricted, it represents arterial impairment whereas dilation indicates good arterial health.

            On week 2 of the diet, both low carb and low fat groups had poor arterial health and were not significantly different, but by week 6, those on the low carb diet had far worse arterial health then before, and those eating low fat had far better.

            This again shows that this type of diet is promoting heart disease risk.


            Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Two cohort Studies

            This study group gathered a larger segment of the population and included “85,168 women (aged 34-59 years at baseline) and 44,548 men (aged 40-75 years at baseline) without heart disease, cancer, or diabetes.”

            The researchers look at both low carb diets that were plant based and low carb diets that were animal based. Here is what they found.

            Low carb/animal based:

            Higher all cause mortality risk
            Higher risk of heart disease
            Higher cancer risk

            Weaker associations were found with the low carb/plant based diets.

            “In our two cohorts of U.S. men and women with up to 20-26 years of follow-up, we observed that the overall low-carbohydrate diet score was only weakly associated with all-cause mortality. However, a higher animal low-carbohydrate diet score was associated with higher all-cause and cancer mortality, while a higher vegetable low-carbohydrate score was associated with lower mortality, particularly CVD mortality.”

            “These results suggest that the health effects of a low-carbohydrate diet may depend on the type of protein and fat, and that a diet including mostly vegetable sources of protein and fat is preferable to a diet with mostly animal sources of protein and fat.”


            Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study

            Another study performed in Europe examined another large population.

            Participants From a random population sample, 43396 Swedish women, aged 30-49 years at baseline, completed an extensive dietary questionnaire and were followed-up for an average of 15.7 years.

            Its interesting to note that like many other studies, “several well known patterns are evident, including the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases with increasing level of education and physical activity and the increased risk with tobacco smoking and history of hypertension.”

            The authors also point out that “Although low carbohydrate-high protein diets may be nutritionally acceptable if the protein is mainly of plant origin and the reduction of carbohydrates applies mainly to simple and refined ones, the general public do not always recognise and act on these qualifications.” Which is basically saying that complex carbohydrates from plant sources or even simple sugars from fruits are not comparable with processed carbohydrates such as white flour, added sugars and other processed carbohydrate based foods such as deserts.

            The aim of the study was to look at the relationship with heart disease risk and low carb diets. They used a scoring system based on how much protein and carbohydrates were consumed. The scores ranged from 2-20. A score of 2 indicated high carbohydrate and low protein whereas a score of 20 indicates low carbohydrate and high protein.

            What the researchers found was that as the score increased, there was an increased rate of heart disease as demonstrated by the cut out below from table 3.

            “In practical terms, and taking into account the rough correspondence in the ranking of energy adjusted and crude tenths of intake, a 20 g decrease in daily carbohydrate intake and a 5 g increase in daily protein intake would correspond to a 5% increase in the overall risk of cardiovascular disease.”

            “With respect to the biomedical plausibility of our findings, vegetables, fruits, cereals, and legumes, which have been found in several studies to be core components of healthy dietary patterns,34 35 are important sources of carbohydrates, so that reduced intake of these food groups is likely to have adverse effects on cardiovascular health. Moreover, several studies have reported that meat consumption or high intake of protein from animal sources may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.”


            Low-carbohydrate–high-protein diet and long-term survival in a general population cohort

            Another European cohort study examined data from 2,944 Greeks. The aim of the study was to see whether low carb diets had a strong relationship with all cause mortality. The study notes that low carb diets are popular for weight loss, but they also note that other diets such as zone, weight watchers and the Ornish diet as well as the Atkins diet all produced similar weight loss after 1 year. “It is, thus, of considerable interest, to examine whether prolonged consumption of LC/HP diets is compatible with long-term health.”

            Here is what the study classified as low carbohydrate: 20% carbs, 25% protein, 55% fat

            Here is what is classified as high carbohydrate: 50% carbohydrate, 10% protein and 40% fat.

            Although both diets are very high fat when compared to a healthier, lower fat diet, we are examining the effect of reducing carbohydrate consumption. It is also important to note that we also don’t know what the majority of the carbohydrate sources were, as they could be highly processed. Nonetheless, here are the results.

            In all model tests performed in the study, low carbohydrate/high protein diets had a strong positive relationship with mortality. Models 1 and 2 did not control for calories.

            Model 1: “increasing protein intake was significantly associated with total mortality, whereas increasing carbohydrate intake was associated with nonsignificant reduction of this mortality.”

            Model 2: “the [low carb, high protein] score (absolute values) was positively associated with mortality, although the association did not reach statistical significance”

            Models 3 and 4 controlled for calories, but model 3 did not control for complimentary changes in calories when either protein or carbohydrates are reduced

            Model 3: “mortality was significantly associated with reduction of energy-adjusted carbohydrate intake and nonsignificantly with increasing protein intake.”

            Model 4 shows the most compelling results as it accounted for calories and changes in the low carb, high protein score were unrelated to caloric intake.

            Model 4: “In this model, increasing LC/HP score was significantly associated with mortality… It is worth noting that in all these models mortality tends to be inversely associated with intake of unsaturated lipids and positively, although not always significantly, with saturated lipids.

            What they find from this data is that “an increase of protein intake by about 15 g/day and a decrease of carbohydrate intake by about 50 g/day) was associated with a 22% increase in overall mortality”

            “In conclusion, we have found evidence that dietary patterns that indiscriminate focus on low intake of carbohydrates in general and high intake of proteins in general, and reflect diets that have been frequently recommended for weight reduction, may be associated with increased total mortality if they are pursued for extended periods.”


            Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

            Unfortunately, I was unable to find the full text of this study so it is difficult for me to view the details and all I can do is base my conclusions of the study based on the abstract which is not something I like to do. Regardless, the study revealed a very interesting finding. It showed that when subjects of the study went on a low carb, high protein diet for 4 weeks, they had a 25% increase in C-reactive protein. C-reactive protein is a marker of inflammation which basically means that this group of people were promoting the development of a chronic disease. In contrast, the high carbohydrate subjects decreased their levels of C-reactive protein by 48%.


            Low carbohydrate–high protein diet and mortality in a cohort of Swedish women

            We go back to the Swedish cohort study and examine overall mortality as opposed to just cardiovascular risk. The study looked at 42,237 women for 12 years. What they found was this, the higher the protein intake, the higher the mortality and inversely with carbohydrate intake. The higher the fat, both saturated and unsaturated, the higher the mortality rate. And most importantly, the authors note, higher mortality was not correlated with energy intake. The authors note “Increased protein intake and decreased carbohydrate intake appear to be equally unfavourable for cardiovascular mortality”

            The data shows that both heart disease and cancer rates increase when consuming a lower carb, high protein diet.

            “After fine controlling for all assessed mortality risk factors that could act as confounding variables, as well as for total energy and saturated fat intake, women with lower intake of total carbohydrates and higher intake of total proteins, in comparison to those with higher intake of total carbohydrates and lower intake of total proteins, had significantly higher total mortality and, in particular, cardiovascular mortality.”


            Comparative Effects of Three Popular Diets on Lipids, Endothelial Function, and C-Reactive Protein during Weight Maintenance

            This study is quite interesting. It examined 18 adults aged 20 or over for 6 months. The aim of the study was to examine their health when on 3 diets, the Atkins diet (high fat, low carb), the South beach diet (Mediterranean) and the Ornish diet (low fat, high carb). They found no significant differences between the 3 diets in terms of calories consumed. The results are interesting as seen in the figure below.

            They found higher LDL in the Atkins diet and lower LDL in the low fat Ornish diet. They also found significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein in the atkins diet as opposed to the Ornish diet. What was also found was that the atkins diet had poor results for the Brachial Artery test which again shows impaired arterial function. “High saturated fat intake may adversely impact lipids and endothelial function during weight maintenance. As such, popular diets such as Atkins may be less advantageous for CHD risk reduction when compared to the Ornish and South Beach diets”


            It is interesting to note that TOTAL cholesterol decreased on an ornish diet including HDL, and that the triglycerides increased on an Ornish diet.

            A review examining 108 randomized control trials found this.

            “This systematic review and meta-regression analysis of 108 randomised controlled trials using lipid modifying interventions did not show an association between treatment mediated change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk ratios for coronary heart disease events, coronary heart disease deaths, or total deaths whenever change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol was taken into account. We found a statistically significant, substantial association between change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk ratios for coronary heart disease events, coronary heart disease deaths, or total deaths”

            “Our findings contribute to accumulating evidence that simply increasing the amount of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesterol does not necessarily confer cardiovascular benefits”

            They also note that HDL that is dysfunctional and pro inflammatory may be produced under certain dietary conditions, “recent data suggest that a low fat, high fibre diet, in combination with exercise, converts high density lipoprotein cholesterol from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state.”

            Conclusion: “Available data suggest that simply increasing the amount of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesterol does not reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events, coronary heart disease deaths, or total deaths. The results support reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol as the primary goal for lipid modifying interventions.”


            Another study examining the effects the different lipids in terms of heart disease risk found that “triglyceride concentration was not independently related with CHD risk after controlling for HDL-C, non–HDL-C, and other standard risk factors, including null findings in women and under nonfasting conditions.21,22 Hence, for population-wide assessment of vascular risk, triglyceride measurement provides no additional information about vascular risk given knowledge of HDL-C and total cholesterol levels, although there may be separate reasons to measure triglyceride concentration (eg, prevention of pancreatitis).”


            In addition, please see here

            And here

          • Nick Venables

            Right on, dude. You took that boy to school. HCLF vegan for the win!!!

      • beccadoggie10

        Not only is a plant based diet NOT a scam, but it is no longer primal. It is the future unless you want to be on drugs for the rest of your shorter life of eating meat (flesh), eggs, and dairy. If you want to avoid most recombinant DNA in foods, you can grow your own vegan foods in your backyard. On the other hand, if genetically modified crap doesn’t bother you. Enjoy the recombinant DNA in pharmaceuticals of all kinds in the USA.

        Looking at the side effects of drugs like Boniva and other drugs that supposedly build bone, they significantly increase pain. I do not want to go there. Eating the large quantities of calcium from yogurt and dairy that I had eaten all my life did nothing to keep my bones strong as I approached the age of 65. What they did was increase my body size –not my bone size. And, when I fractured my spine this year, they increased my pain.

        I can eat a quart size pan full of collard greens and not even come near the calories of drinking a quart of milk, but have more calcium. Now granted, I love milk –organic milk that is. But, even organic, low fat milk has cholesterol, and much more. It has low levels of dioxins, organochlorine pesticides and other fat soluble chemicals that collect and concentrate in my body fat and increase the risk of cancer, immune system damage, and a whole host of diseases. And, with corporations today changing the DNA of food seeds of plants fed to livestock to make the seeds resist more herbicides including Roundup, (Agent Orange) 2,4-D (which the Bush-Cheney EPA admitted is contaminated with 2,3,7,8 TCDD dioxin –the most toxic form of dioxin ever inadvertently created by mankind), dicamba (also contaminated with dioxins) and other toxic pesticides, which are building up in the air (according to the U.S.G.S.) come back to earth with the rain (and snow), and build up in animals and people who top the food chain. Why are you eating meat, dairy, eggs and poisoning yourself????? I tried to get my dog to eat vegetarian before she died. Unfortunately, the vet took her off the food that was making her better and put her on the food that killed her.

        The only way to eat and survive is a plant based diet.

        • EatTheVegans

          You are beyond ridiculous.

          • sistadana

            YOU are ridiculous.

      • Kevin Talmadge

        Troll alert!

      • duke6024

        Really so your saying doctor Greger has no life he has nothing else better to do if really a scam you may as well call him a mass murderer i am sensing your eating to much meat and i never applied any of this fully it is just common sense there is no way that every single study and all test test the people and the countries involved are consider a scam. What an absurd claim obviously this is the comment from a brain that is clouded with toxins.

      • Mark James Hill

        I dont agree iys a scam. But the crazy pary i agree. Why so zealous?

    • 7in1

      Fantastic presentation Dr.Greger!!!! I have NOT watched anything more smarter than that, in my life ! My admiration and respect !!

    • Absolutely Mind-blowing! I have shared this video, and others, so many times I cannot count. I would like to share with you, that at least four people that I know of have become vegetarian and working towards vegan because of it. THANK YOU.

    • colonyofcells delacruz

      In this june 3 2013 jama adventist 2 results, why the seafood vegetarian living longer than vegan ?

      • If you look at the overlapping confidence intervals, you can see the study is not (yet) able to differentiate between the different classes of “vegetarians.” As the researchers write in the discussion, they’re hoping to be able to do direct comparisons between vegetarian groups in a much anticipated later follow-up. The cohort’s only been followed for about 6 years, and so far the only main take-home we can tease out is that all classes of “vegetarians” clumped together live longer than even the healthy meateaters tracked in the study (Adventist vegetarians live up to 10 years longer than regular meateaters). Another major goal they describe is to study specific causes of mortality and associations with specific foods within the broader dietary patterns–exciting stuff!

    • Jessica Madden

      This is the third time of watching it! I don’t mind that this video is long as it sums up all the reasons into one video on why to eat plant based. This video is powerful! I want to remember all the facts so when people who don’t understand why I want to eat this way I can give them facts that they can’t argue with! Thankyou for your hard work, Jess :)

    • Meg Klein

      Ive only watched half of this so far but I think its gonna change my life after @ 10 years of huge fast food weight gain after some life trauma… and not knowing how to get back on track…. go paleo? vegan? is grain bad? etc etc. No longer feeling conflicted and hopeless. THANKS

      • Thea

        Guest: I’m so glad you aren’t feeling so conflicted and hopeless. I agree that once someone is exposed to this information, it is compelling.

        Just in case you didn’t know it, Dr. Greger has released 2 other summary videos. If you managed to get through this one and want to check out the other two, here they are:

        Well worth your time and effort. With each video, I suspect that you will feel more and more confident about your choices. Good luck and let us know if you need any how-to suggestions.

      • Helen

        Try not to get overwhelmed. Drink more spring water, eat more fruits and nuts..start slowly and you will notice the difference. take the doctors advice and try eating plant based. I feel amazing! So go for it.

    • Hello Dr. Michael Greger! Since I became a vegan more than a year ago some of my friends and family started to get worried about my health. They think that humans need animal products to be healthy so I made this compilation video which proves once and for all that vegan diet (or rather a plant-based diet) is the healthiest diet for human beings. I’ve been thinking on making a video about how awesome you are as well so this video mostly involves you and the great work you’ve done! Thank you for everything that you are doing! We are really lucky to have you on our side!

      • Thea

        Berkay: Nice video. It can be so *hard* when you do not have support of family and friends. Sometimes you are fighting ignorance. Sometimes you are fighting those who have their own internal conflicts. I bet making that video was cathartic.

        If possible, you might also want to reach out to plant-based groups in your area. Having some friends in your life who already “get it” can be a huge help. Just an idea. If you are interested, you might start with searching for a group through the Meetup site. Good luck.

    • tim

      i like your videos.

      quick question? is it safe to eat white rice that sat out for a few hours?

    • xhegwana

      Hi Doc. I have just watched your video on an apple a day. very informative. it confirms
      what I had read sometime ago in a book called ‘the grape cure’. what I would
      like to find out about though is that I have Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). I am
      therefore discouraged from eating green vegetables as these have vitamin K which
      depresses the INR and leads to the proliferation of blood clots. I am keen to
      become a vegetarian but not sure if this is the appropriate way given my
      condition. broccoli cabbage and kale are my favorite foods that I am supposed
      not to eat. any suggestions for people with DVT?

  • Dr. Greger, thank you very much for uploading this video. I’ve really been wanting to see a live presentation by you for a long time, but haven’t been able to get out to any of them. I can’t wait to watch this info-jam-packed video! Thank you again.

    • Michael Greger M.D.

       Ooh, is that a cup of tea in your avatar? Good choice!

      • SJ M.D.

        Hopefully not coffee with MILK !!

  • ellen

    Thank you so much for posting this! SO wonderful that it’s free! 

  • Angela Bedson

    Hi!  I’ve been raw vegan for 13 years (in August) and have just come across your work (via Ruth Heindrich).  Absolutely love it and will share, share, share with as many people as I can.  Thank you so much for all that you are doing x

  • BPCveg

    Dr. Greger,

    I realize that you have so much science to cover each year and, as you indicate, this undoubtedly puts a lot of strain on your available time and resources. I believe that your website has the potential to be a unique place to discuss the latest science. I feel, however, that the discussion component would be more meaningful if greater effort could be devoted to addressing scientific questions and comments from readers. I have followed all of your videos and read many of the background articles. Regrettably, however, relatively few of the concerns that I have about the science have ever been addressed.

    I hope that you take this feedback in the spirit of improving an already great website.

  • Possibly the best presentation ever.

    Loaded with amazing information — lots of things stood out to me, like how our body cannot defend against the endotoxins; I mean, we’re not vultures! It’s seems so common sense.

    And I found it interesting that vegan men have higher testosterone? Did I hear that right?  That goes against what so many men think, since testosterone = “manly-men” in their minds. It seems that belief is so prevalent. Men seem so afraid of being unmanly, and vegetables = wimp, vegan = weak; while meat = virility. I mean all the meaty commercials make it so sexy…Gotta have it! They’ll go to their graves with meat in their cold dead mouths!
    Sexist thinking abounds. (Read Carol J. Adams, Sexual Politics of Meat if interested; it’s fascinating)

    So much great info; I do love that the studies are getting so specific now! It’s getting harder for detractors to blow off the facts!

    A thousand thank you’s, Dr. Greger. When are you coming to Los Angeles?!!

  • Paula

    Hi — I am a vegan animal activist and took the time to watch today’s video. 

    I’ve been hearing more and more anecdotal stories about people “waking up” to the vegan message and being motivated pretty much solely by the health factor. If vegans could get their vegan-reluctant friends and families to take the time to watch this video it, I think it will blow their minds, like it did mine (and I’m already vegan).

    I am fired up to get this information out into the airwaves somehow.  I do have a 1/2 hour show called “Glass Walls” on Queens Public Access TV (and I also know two other people who have shows on Public Access) and would like to know if I could get a dvd or a tape of it.  A Sonydvcam tape is the required format at QPTV (and being a total newbie at tv editing and production I have had many obstacles because of it) but any format you could supply I will try to work with to get it aired.

    Thanks Dr. Greger … I think the time is ripening that people’s ears will be perking up to your educational efforts.

  • Steve

    Dr. Greger,

    I think you might be off a little on the leading cause of death.  As far as I can tell, birth is the leading cause of death.  :).  Just having fun.  Thanks for all you do.


  • Best presentation that I have seen. Dr. Greger thank you so much! The best time investment I have done. Thank you for exposing us to this compilation of science-based information.

    • Eileenmcv

      My exact sentiments, Wendy!!

    • Cate

      You people are nuts. No offense, love you, but you’re nuts.

      • Johnnydrz

        I agree Cateyeblink, Primal / Paleo is the only way to get healthier. 

        • WholeFoodChomper

          The “only way”? Clearly, that is debatable and depends on your definition of healthy
          (see links below) .  At the moment, it seems that there is no one and “only way to get healthier”. That in actuality, there may be many ways to eat to get healthier and be healthy.

          If the goal is preventing and treating disease by way of diet, it seems clear from the currently available scientific evidence that some diets are better at preventing and treating disease than others.  It just so happens that “the balance of scientific evidence suggests that the healthiest way to eat [to prevent and treat disease] is a vitamin B12-fortified diet of whole plant foods”. At the moment, it seems that there is not enough evidence to indicate that other diets are capable of preventing and treating disease to the same degree that a plant-based diet can for most people. 

          Moreover, I think it is also debatable whether a meat-based primal/paleo diet is a sensible and healthy way to eat for the planet…but that is discussion for another forum.

          • Toxins

            whole food chomper, well said. This video has attracted many of the paleo proponents. I also recommend this free e book written by Dr. Greger which thoroughly refutes this fancy “atkins” diet.


          • tiki

            as a wholistic healthcare practitionerI always ask anyone picking up a statin in the retail setting if anyone told them to avoid partially hydrogenated oil. Many have not even heard of it. I explain what it is, how it’s formed, how to avoid it and which other oils to use.

      • L Paitson

        oops blinked and you missed it ;)

      • Seriously, if that’s all you have to say with no proof whatsoever, you’re just blowing steam.

  • carfree

    Thanks so much for this full-length video! What a great surprise!

    I keep thinking that the US will some day reach a tipping-point, and the meat myths will come tumbling down, but it never seems to happen.  In answering people’s questions regarding my diet, I have changed my tactics, somewhat. As a way to appeal to their innate selfishness, I tell them that I don’t care what anyone else eats, as long as I can have the best for myself. I don’t need the best car, the best home, or the best telephone on the market, but they can’t take my veggies from me! That’s sacred!

    Thanks again! 

  • I bought this on amazon and was so excited about it but couldn’t figure out how to share it with everybody I know. You have solved that. Thank you!

    • ifyoucareenough

      Oh good, nice to know it can be bought on amazon.  Thx for that info Kristen!

      • Yes and I think proceeds go to charity. :)

        • Valnaples

          I bought mine from this website a few weeks ago…proceeds to charity…LOVED this video!!!! It really is life-changing and life-SAVING as someone else has asserted!

  • M84103



    •  There is some debate from Dr. McDougall that isolated soy proteins raise IGF-1 levels even more so than milk. Search McDougall igf1 at youtube, he has a video. So if you are making the effort with a plant based diet, it makes sense to stay away from highly processed soy. But regular soy cakes are fine.

    •  Hi Kay, IGF-1 is elevated by a variety of causes. Casein the predominant protein in dairy causes a rise and protein free diets cause a decrease. So not consuming excess protein seems to be a good idea. There is a difference between animal and plant protein but many similarities as well Animal protein generally contains more sulfur based amino acids then plant protein but they all contain  the same essentials amino acids. The body uses what it needs but then eliminates the rest. Tthere is no way you can not get enough protein and the essential amino acids you need if you consume adequate calories. It seems like it is wise not making a point of eating alot of protein rich foods. The best referenced information on protein that I have seen can be found in articles in Dr. John McDougalls three newsletters dated 12/03, 1/04 and 4/07. You can find these by going to his websites and looking up the newsletters. The articles are on Protein History, Where do I get my protein and Protein overload. Hope this helps.

    •  Plant protein does not raise IGF-1 levels, only animal proteins have this negative effect on our bodies.  If you get a chance to hear any of Dr T Colin Campbell’s lectures or Amazing Discoveries, Dr Walter Veith, they clearly present the evidence that animal proteins are the culprits in cancer and disease proliferation.  Check them out.

      • Renee Hamkins

        Do you know if the results are the same whether it’s organic/grass fed animals or factory farmed animals?

  • Tom

    Extremely Generous Michael. THANK YOU. Wonderful information. Life changing. Life SAVING!!!

  • Don’t forget to 5-star this video, Folks!!! :^)

  • Kartesrick by Dr. Mercola, is the best information on nutrition. I started watching it based on a recommendation by non other than Dr. McDougall.
    Wouldn’t it be great if we could get this particular video shown in every high-school in America and every other country.

    • ifyoucareenough

      Methinks you meant Dr. Greger.   Puhlease … not Mercola.

    • Jola

      Not Mercola, Greger. BIG BIG BIG difference!

  • Nouh

    Thanks a lot Dr. Greger, always a pleasure.

  • Cjlamar

    Amazing presentation – thank you!

  • shelley charlesworth

    WONDERFUL – ! Thank you Dr Greger this is just fabulous!

  • Drwitkowski

    Thanks, Mike! I share you with everyone!!

  • 1morcker

    This video is as entertaining as it is informative, as are all your videos!  Thank you so much, Dr Gregor!!

  • Laurie Jess

    We spoke in Golden, CO. Thank You, I’m so happy to now be able to share this! ✿¸.•°*”˜ƸӜƷ˜”*°•.•.¸ღ¸☆´ ¸.✿´´¯`•.¸¸. ི♥ྀ.
    (¯`v´¯) ….♥ Thank You Dr. Greger ♥ 
    ☼*¨*• ˚°❀ღ ˚°❀ღ•*❤*•…

  • Canaveral70

    As ususal, Dr Greger is brilliant, funny, compelling, and I could go on for hours with compliments. Thank you, Dr. Greger, you are a national treasure. Who needs Dr.Oz when we have Dr. Greger?

  • Jan Carrie Steven

    Thank you so much for this!  I would love to know if there is any research regarding ALS and a vegan diet.

  • Louisef

    Thank you, Dr. Greger, you make the world such a better place!!

  • Platt

    Awesome work!  Thank you so much for everything you do to educate the American public about the science behind nutrition.

  • Thea

    Are you on the fence about spending time with this video?  I DARE you to watch 10 minutes and 31 seconds only.  Not a second more.  I bet you can’t do it.

    Thanks so much Dr. Greger for posting this video.

  • Cory

    Dr. Greger,

    Can you please reference the specific diet used in the studies you detail from 13:45-18:00 in your video? You keep referring to a plant-based or vegan diet having those specific effects, but the studies note a “low-fat, high fiber diet.” The link here for one of those studies describes the diet as follows:

    “During their stay at the Center the men were given prepared meals with 12–15% fat calories, 15–20% protein calories and the majority of calories (65–70%) from unrefined complex carbohydrates high in fiber (>40g/day). The man ate ad libitum except for animal protein that was limited to 3.5oz of fish/fowl served 3 days/week and small amounts in soups or casseroles 2 days/week. ” 


    • Going8pe

      THANK YOU for giving me something to share with friends and family to explain one of the many reasons why I am a vegan! I hope it saves many people from suffering diseases and ill health. I only wish this information was taught in every school around the globe.

  • Janeveggi

    Thank You for making this excellent speech available to all. I will share it with all who will listen. I live a plant strong, vegan life and feel wonderful!

  • marko

    i gotta say as a meat eater, i will seriously try to cut back to just fish and see how i can break the habits.
    I enjoyed watching you immensely, you’re hilarious :) 

  • Todd

    Dr G.,

    I remember a few years ago John McDougall talked about higher IGF-1 concentrations in Isolated Soy Protein (in shakes, faux meats, protein bars, etc.).  Has this been borne out over time?

    • Michael Greger M.D.

       If you look at the chapter list for my volume 10 DVD you’ll see it’s coming up–stay tuned!

  • Ren Mendoza, PT, DPT

    How I wish you had more time for the quiz show format Dr. Greger! I am so grateful to have listened to your presentation! You clearly draw a line between the diet fads and the hidden truth in clinical nutrition! Kudos to you!

  • Craigholman

    This is one of the most outstanding presentations.  I watch the daily presentations each day.  I have thought how nice it would be to have a summary of health promoting lifestyle is this manner.  I hope you will do this again in the future with future research.  I will forward this to many.  Thanks.

  • Margaret Robey

    Fabulous video! Thanks again for all your great work!

  • Mike Quinoa

    Brilliant! Thanks so much for posting this, Dr. Greger. It should be required viewing by every North American. Your comic timing and sense of irony are superb. Thanks for doing what you do.

  • Marielle

    Brilliant, eye opening presentation!!! Thanks for your great work!

  • Writercook

    You are fabulous. Special thanks to who introduced me to your videos and website. Your information and delivery is outstanding. After watching your video…someone has to have a screw loose if they eat meat and dairy… I will always follow you…

  • Qixu2008

    Dr. Greger, according to Buddhism, vegan can have lower accidence.
    I just want to be a vegan by my own feeling,  not necessary by scientific proof.
    But I know public need such proof.
    Thanks for video!

  • Yogini El G

    Thank you, Dr Greger.  In short, this is the best informational video on diet and nutrition with scientific basis… and a great way to share with others.  
    Thank you for your dedication and passion in this effort.

  • Aysenur Fidan

    This was so informative video that convinced me going back to vegan diet again. I have been following vegetarian diet for two years and I became vegan almost one year ago. But I have started to consume cheese and foods which has egg and milk in them ( such as cakes, chocolate with milk, coffe with cream, ice cream… ).  After 3 months of enjoying with all these sugary and milky foods, I started to feel effects of this diet not just in my body but also on my mind. Thus, I was thinking about going back to vegan diet and your video made me take this decision with no question. Thnaks a lot! :)

  • Jonathan

    You cite a study that uses people eating an Egg McMuffin as proof that eggs and meat cause inflammation? Seriously? How about a study where people eat high-quality foods instead of a preservative rich product of “meat” and “eggs” with a big ol’ gluten chaser? Getting inflammation from an Egg McMuffin proves one thing: Egg McMuffin sandwiches are bad for you. 

  • Dthompson929

    You rock Dr. Gregor!  I really enjoy your videos.  You have made such a difference in my life,and my family’s life.   Your videos are inspiring, engaging and informative. Viewing them has helped me stay focused on staying true to my plant-based values!  

  • Dr Greger, that was one of the most comprehensive nutrition videos I have ever seen! Amazing! thank you so much! 

  • Vegandaoist

    Best Lecture on veganism ever heard!!!!!!!!!!!1

  • Cpgraetti

    A wicked awesome video Dr. G!  but what is a vegan with cholesterol around 250 to do to get it down to 150?

  • Angela Taylor10

    W”hat about Inuits(eskimos) and what do all American olympic athletes live on?

    • GSH

      Hi Angela,

      I just read 2 really good books on this topic written by 2 athletes who are vegan endurance athletes.

      Eat and Run by Scott Jurek and Ultraman by Rich Roll. They train and compete hours and hours a day on a vegan diet.

    • WholeFoodChomper

      Evidence indicates that modern-day Inuits (Eskimos), suffer from heart disease and other forms of atherosclerosis (, and that modern-day hunter-gathers who base their diets on plant foods are free of such diseases. Also, osteoporosis (, is an epidemic
      among meat and fish consuming hunter-gathers, specifically the Inuits. 
      It seems that Olympic athletes live on a variety of diets:

      • Mike Maybury

        Referring to your last paragraph, I am in my 80th year. Since the age of 17 I followeed a wholefood vegetarian diet. As a result, I am sure, I had ‘flu once as an adult and have no regular aches and pains. I haven’t had a cold for over 10 years.
        Although quite good at athletics as a kid, this did not carry into my adult life. I was active in business, and took moderate exercise, including for many years, about 4 hours dancing every night.
        At many points, including now, I have felt that I am having the best time of my life, which seems to indicate that my physical and mental well-being is OK.
        I notice other peoples’ lives a lot and have a real feeling that my life has been the happiest that I have ever considered, far far happier than many of the famous and wealthy people about whom we can read.

        • Thea

          Mike: I’ve seen your recent posts on this site and wanted to thank you for sharing your experiences. While I am late to the game compared to you, you have inspired me.

  • Annie

    sadly having trouble hearing this.  seems to have two commentaries running at once. Help please.  blessings  Annie and the animals .  Want to be able to pass this on to mynetwork.

    • Angela Taylor10

       You have probably clicked on it twice so have two versions running. Shut it down totally and try again.

  • Sheila

    Thank you so much for this video and all your incredibly awesome work. It completely baffles me how all this information is rarely discussed or presented as an option for disease prevention within our culture and medical system. I can understand that there is no money to gain in ‘prescribing’ natural whole foods – but it is so troubling the amount of marketing, money and human suffering that continues on and on – decade after decade …. Thank goodness for people like you! I will continue sharing your site and of course, follow your research.

  • Piggyparade

    Dr Gregor, you’re the bomb!  I’ll bet the meat industry is quaking in their muck boots at this very moment!  ;-)  God bless and keep up your great work!  Thanks for sharing this excellent presentation with us!

    • WholeFoodChomper

      Love the piggy pic! Oink!

  • Qixu2008

    I like more people become vegan, then apples and berries would lower down the price as cheap as chicken!
    People hesitate to become vegan, because the only advantage of meat is easily to satisfy people at the moment. People usually notice the moment feeling rather than feel the future impact. As to me, I am used to be a vegetarian, so usually I can feel  irratation soon after eating meat. 
    Trust our own feeling, not only depend on scientific proof, which is easily to be disputed by a narrow view.  I believe housefly can work for the food, but it can also bring some unknown bad thing. ..I like banana very much, but it contains high potassium, kidney disease people can not consume a lot…I guess milk is good for replenishment temporary for malnutrition, but is not good for long period consumption…

  • Angela

    I was always confident about my choice but now I have even better medical support because of your video. But the irony is that the most ‘annoying’ people who don’t agree with me are from medical environment (my relative who is ex-nurse, one friend who studies medicine). They are too narrow-minded and sceptical about it because they olny belive in what they are/were tought. It’ such a shame that my med-student-friend even sent me one picture in which there are religious symbols on the right and the phrase ‘belief’ and science on the left and phrases like ‘arguments, experiment’. and she said that I am on the right side of this picture because I am vegan!!! When I sent Neal Barnard and Colin Campbell videos she refused to watch them saying that this is all fraud. And she is the future doctor!!! and not interested in these topics! Recently I drove back home with my relative ex-nurse who offered me some milk-and-egg filled cookies, I politely refused and she said: ‘oh, you’re still following your abnormal diet!’ and looking at me with disapproval. And that’s me who never eats chemical foods(even vegan ones), I aim at low-fat, low-oil, low-salt organic natural foods, and that’s me who being abnormal… and healthier than all of them.. *okay face*. Well, I’m learning to stand for my choices too, recently my family and I were in one town which is popular for its meat, we decided to eat in a cafe, and EVERYTHING they had in the menu was with various kinds of meat, dairy sauces or pizzas with cheese. I said that I wished some vegetables and potatoes, waitress said that they serve that only with meat and there is no seperate price for it. When I told her I’m not meat-eater she was confused but in the end I got what I wanted. I guess I’m used to being ‘crazy’ among ‘normal’ people and I’m even starting to like it! :)

    • Thea

       Angela:  Thank you for sharing your story.  I was getting frustrated just listening about your relatives.  I can just imagine what it must be like to have to deal with them personally.  Good for you for being the one to actually stick to the science.

      • Qixu2008

        It’s not only due to personality, dear.  If someone give me videos about we must eat meat, I will refuse too. Am I stubborn? Maybe, but, obviously we have been always fooled by allerged scientific proof!  However, True wolf comes this time!

  • Zostar

    Thank you so much for posting this entire video!

  • Dr_Vaska

     Thank you very much Dr. Greger! I really admire your work!

  • Michele Castillo

    Thank you for sharing this educational AND entertaining video. I’m vegan and working to open the eyes of my extended family. I think I’ll pay them to watch this video! 

  • Luke Thomas

    You rock!!  You are the BEST!! 

  • carfree

    I noticed that the first few minutes have been edited out since I first saw the video. It showed the warm, warm welcome that the audience gave you when you first took the mike. You deserved that, and I’m glad I saw the original version before editing took place.

  • Anthony

    Your intentions are admirable, and the goal of reducing dependency on prescription drugs is very desirable. I agree that drug corporations, CAFO meat industry and what-not are all bad things.

    However, the data you have chosen to present in support of a vegan-diet is cherry-picked, misleading and incomplete. What kind of meat were these people eating? What kind of fat? Were they also eating processed starches? Consuming massive amounts of sugar? Were they smoking/drinking as well? What were their activity levels? I’ll bet it was CAFO produced animal products, highly processed oils such as canola or peanut, processed meat products IN ADDITION TO THE PROCESSED STARCHES THAT COME ALONG WITH THEM, such as a burger for McDonald’s, not a grass-fed skirt steak with baked sweet potatoes and sauteed kale.

    Comparing the worst of meat-eaters to the “best” of vegans does not equal scientific evidence.

    I eat eggs from soy-free, pasture-raised chickens daily for breakfast. I eat free-range, grass-fed beef and pork from local farmers. I eat plenty of healthy fats such as olive and coconut oils, vegetables and fruit, and a moderate amount of dairy. I do not consume processed foods, grains, legumes, or I am in impeccable health. My cholesterol is 141, and I have not been sick in 3 years (knock on wood). I ran the world’s toughest obstacle course a few weeks ago. I feel strong and resilient. Not many of my vegetarian/vegan friends can say the same.

    Your recommendation for a vegan-diet is ill-informed and simply bad advice. Grains are destructive to our GI tracts. SOY IS TERRIBLE, even worse for men. Diabetes is NOT caused by fat. It is caused by the addiction to carbohydrates and sugars that a vegan diet is full of. Vegan diet also does not equal ethical eating. GMOs and pesticides are abound in your hallowed plant-based diet. Millions of field animals are killed while farmers harvest the grains you consume ad nauseam.

    Anyone interested in real health, go to, or research the Paleolithic diet and see if it something you agree with.

  • Thank you so much for uploading it! I am a dialysis nurse and am completely dismayed at how much animal protein our (non-veg) dieticians are telling our patients to eat! They could be suggesting some quinoa instead!  anyway, love listening to your videos.

  • Magnificent! I have been on a vegan diet for a couple years after reading Colin Campbell’s “The China Study.” This video gives me a lot more ammunition, thank you!

  • Ashley

    LOVE this video! So AMAZING! I am so glad there are websites like this. I am sharing this video wherever I can. Thank you! 

  • Vegan

    have no compassion for those murderers who kill animals and eat their corpses. if they stop and become vegan, then they are welcomed to the humanity. else. let them die sooner. better for animals. (they dont get murdered) better for corpse eaters (they are dead – so – they create less karma for their miserable souls.) win win.

  • Gale

    Speaking of that I read today in the paper that the meat industry went crazy this week when the USDA recommended to its employees to try a meatless Monday in a memo. They took the memo down after complaints from the meat industry. A executive called it treason and said who ever was involved in that memo should be fired!

  • Hi! Just curious, when you compare the effects of cholesterol from a single egg a day to 5 cigarettes a day for 15 years, did you mean the single egg a day for 15 years as well or was the duration different? LOVE your work!

    • Guest

      The way i understood it was ”one egg per day for your whole life was the equivalent to 5 cigarettes a day for 15 years”

  • Jproto

    I really enjoyed this. I became a pesco veggie person, thought I’d try it, and you know, I do feel better!

  • wcabrera

    Incredible nutritional fodder.  THANK YOU!  Loving your presentations, your humor and SO glad to have another highly respected physician backing my nutritional soapbox.

  • wcabrera

    Incredible nutritional fodder.  THANK YOU!  Loving your presentations, your humor and SO glad to have another highly respected physician backing my nutritional soapbox.

  • Ashley

    Hi Dr. Greger,

      I find myself constantly referencing material presented here with my students, friends, and random strangers.  I tell as many people as I can about your site.  Thanks for giving us all such great information while keeping the mood light and fun!

  • larrythebassplayer

    nice! thanks!

  • Communicate_connect_manifest

    What does the vegan diet look like that is being referred to ? can you cook the veggies ? I want to change my eating habits but honestly i can just eat raw lettus and a strip of carrot… 

    • WholeFoodChomper

      Dr. Greger does not recommend any specific type of vegan diet.  Overall, he recommends a balanced diet that is low fat, whole grain, and plant-based (that is, non-meat–this includes poultry/fish/eggs–, non-dairy, whole grains, mostly fruits and veggies (cooked or raw).  (In fact, it is better to eat your veggies cooked than raw most of the time…see Dr. G’s video on the topic.)

      There are many plant-based ways to eat. To go vegan, is not that difficult really, but like all changes it takes time and getting used to until it sticks. There are SO MANY wonderful resources out there that can guide you along the way.  Like Dr. Barnard’s “21 Day Vegan Kickstart Program”. 

      I also really like NutritionMD a lot as well.  Loads of information about nutrition, recipes, and how to construct a  vegan grocery shopping list (and so much more). 

      You may also want to read Jack Norris and Virginia Messina’s _Vegan for Life: Everything You Need to Know to Be Healthy and Fit on a Plant-Based Diet_.

      Also, check out Dr. Greger’s “optimum nutrition recommendations”: 

      A trip to the library or bookstore, or a good search on the internet, should yield a plethora of information on plant-based/vegan resources.  You may want to start here:  

      Wishing you and your son the best of health!

      • Angela

        Cooking foods increases absorbtion, but this is the price we pay for decreased amount of enzymes. Cooked òver 40 degrees = dead(plants or meat), raw = live, as for myself, I feel a lot better on raw food than on cooked, but it requires a LOT of eating, a lot of time to get enough energy, if I had nothing to do I would always eat raw food, but now I eat steamed veggies and potatoes if I have no time for buying kilos of fruits.

        • WholeFoodChomper

          Personally, I like practical diets as well. Can’t just sit at home and eat all day. By far, the best part of plant-based eating is not having to count calories, fat, etc. That, and knowing that my body is being powered with goodness with each bite that I take. Knowing that I am easing the burden on the planet and the suffering of animals and meat processing workers is a pretty grand feeling as well. :)

  • Terryjan

    Very interesting and informative. Thank you Dr. Greger!

  • Tara Martine

    Thank you so much for posting this video!!!  Thoroughly enjoyed it!  A question for you – I recently watched this presentation by Dr. McDougal:  He discusses IGF-1 and states that while dairy raises IGF-1, soy protein isolate raises it even moreso.  What is your opinion about this?

  • MWA

    Highly recommended! “Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death” is worth watching all the way through. Thank you, Dr. Gregor, for bringing to light many scientific studies and articles I only learned about because of your video.

  • Alice

    Best Video Ever! Thank you!

  • Terrytown1

    This is FABULOUS! Finally, the TRUTH – not only the amazing value of a vegan diet, but the cherry on top – an exposé of governmental leader’s personal interest at the cost of public interest at its finest. KUDOS!!! and THANKS. I’ve been longing to hear these words for a long time.

  • Great video! Being vegan for 11 years, it just confirms my choice everyday!

    Though, I was wondering what are the leading cause of death among vegans. Are there any statistics on that?

  • Renee Hamkins

    Was any of this research done on organic grass fed animal products or just factory farmed animals? Just wondering if the results would be any different.

    • Toxins

      Most of the issues in animal products are due to inherent compounds such as cholesterol, xenoestrogens, endotoxins and other substances. Even if the meats were clear of contaminants, these compounds are inherent of meat and cannot be separated.

  • Was this at summerfest in Milwaukee?

  • amazing, thank you! 

  • Paulette

    I think this was a great video, everyone should see it

  • BlogDiva

    I absolutely loved this video. I actually recently started moving toward a plant based diet and trying very hard to get my teen, family and friends to follow suit. :)
    I have shared this video with all of my Facebook friends and will continue to do so.

  • Teresa

    (I apologize for running my comments together. I am unsure if hitting the Return key will get me a new paragrapgh or cause an unfinished statement to be sent.) Seems to me that your favor of the vegan diet overlooks the significantly overwhelming evidences of poor quality (unhealthy) foods generally available in North America. There is unwise, ignorant use of harmful pesticides, insecticides, over-farmed soil, and artificially and inadequately enhanced soil. Common farming practices are based on doing what produces the most abundant and attractive, without doing what is best for the health of people, who will eat the produce, and that of the animals and farmed fish (which people will, also, eat). If those who can afford truly organic produce and meat/poultry/fish would buy them, then more farmers would see the market exists, and follow better, healthier practices. Also, if more people reduced their dependence on low-nutritional-value, boxed foods, and greatly increased their intake of healthy, organic produce there could be better heath, in general. Ultimately, there is no “magic” formula for individual health and longevity, considering the death rate is 100%, and we don’t get to choose our genes.

  • Such a great talk, thank you so much for sharing and I love what you are doing!

  • Iza

    Dr. Gregor, it was a treat! I hope I’ll be able to pass this very informative and fanny as hell lecture to some my omnivore friends. Thank you so much!

  • Ms

    Thank you Dr M Greger for this priceless information which I will share – thank you also for your exemplary and entertaining delivery !

  • Ms

    Thank you Dr M Greger for this priceless information which I will share – thank you also for your exemplary and entertaining delivery !

  • Bek

    Commercially raised meat is no different than any other processed food. Of course it’s going to be bad for you. Same with commercially raised eggs, and fish, and all the rest of the food you say is bad. Grass raised, hormone and antibiotic free animals do not have the same meat composition as feedlot animals and there is science to back that up. Perhaps the problem isn’t so much in the meat, but in what the meat eats before we eat it. Grain is not a natural staple for a cow or a chicken. :)

  • OD

    Dr. Greger, thank you for the excellent video! I think it would be helpful if you can copy all the sources cited in this video from all the separate videos where they are included to here. It would be much easier to find the relevant sources this way.

  • I recently watched the recent video titled “Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death”.  I thought it was a very facinating video, but it left me with some questions.  We have recently cut a significant portion of meat out of our diet to where we may eat meat only once or twice a week and still consume eggs, milk, and cheese fairly regularly.  I have not yet been ready to take the full plunge of being a full vegetarian or a vegan. 
    You mentioned a number of different studies that showed the differences between vegans and meat eaters.  Do the studies tell what types of meat was eaten in these surveys?  Is there any difference in results in eating different types of meat?  Is it all the same?  For example are the results the same for eating organic grass fed beef as they are for eating irradiated, hormone and additive filled, altered beef?  Would the results be the same for eating venison or wild game such as turkey, dove, and quail as opposed to beef, chicken, or pork? 
    Would the studies regarding dairy be different if all the participant had only goat or sheep milk or chees instead of cow’s?  Is there a difference between goat, sheep, and cow milk and cheese?  Are there any studies showing differences between raw organic cow or goat milk as opposed to processed pasturized and homogenized milks and cheeses?
    Is there any study to show whether or not better quality animal protiens and fats would produce better results?  By better quality, I mean without pesticides, herbicides, chemical additives, not grown in a lab, etc.
    Basically it comes down to the questions of “Are all animal protiens and fats the same?  Do they all produce the same results?”

    • Rami Najjar – NF Moderator

      there is a diverse number of issues regarding animal product intake. There are inhenerent issues with animal products. Some of these issues include endotoxins, xenoestrogens, contaminants. increased IGF-1 levels and others.

      here are the videos on endotoxins.

      chronic inflammation is the primary cause for most chronic illnesses and endotoxins found in animal produts make these foods inherently harmful. endotoxins cannot be avoided with these foods

      Here are some videos on dairy consumption regarding xenoestrogens.

      Xenoestrogensare quite harmful and are great at promoting breast cancer tumors. theseestrogens are an inherent component of milk and cannot be avoided no matter how the milk is processed.

      Dr. Greger is getting to IGF-1 in his future videos but here is a summary regarding it.

      IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor) is the primary promoter of cancer growth.
      “Little people” actually have a IGF-1 deficiency and there is almost no recorded case of these groups of the population dying of cancer. IGF-1 is
      present at higher levels in children to promote growth but significantly tapers off as an adult. Increased IGF-1 levels as an adult shortens ones lifespan and promotes tumor growth as this is essentially a growth hormone. Meat, dairy and eggs significantly increase IGF-1 levels in the body and decrease the IGF-1 binding protein in the body. This binding protein binds up the IGF-1 so the body cannot use it.

      Why is it that excessive protein promotes these spiked levels of IGF-1? When we dump a high load of protein that resembles the protein structure of our body, our liver reacts to this protein by releasing IGF-1. Our body has all of this raw material to work with so it has the cells grow and divide to use this excess protein up. Our body has no storage mechanism for protein so when an excess is consumed, it must be used and/or released from the body. Our protein needs are fairly low so when we eat a couple eggs for breakfast with a glass of milk, a breast of chicken for lunch and a filet of fish for dinner, we are getting over 110 grams of unnecessary protein. And then we have people who work out and take protein supplements further exceeding this and get close to 200 grams of
      protein a day. This massive load of protein is not only completely unnecessary, but it is very harmful in the long run as we are accelerating the aging process and promoting tumor growth.

      The goal then, seems to be to consume adequate, but not excessive protein intake. It appears though that it is not just about excessive protein but the protein structure itself. This is why studies like this one show that protein intake does not affect IGF-1 levels in vegans.

      It seems that because animal protein so closely resembles the protein structure of our own body, our liver reacts by releasing IGF-1. Plant proteins on the other hand (excluding soy protein) have a different protein structure from that of our own body. We have to break apart the amino acids and put them together again in a way that resembles our own protein. In this way, our liver does not over react. That is why plant protein is preferable.

      Here is a summary on eggs

      Eggs are considered good sources of lutein and omega 3 and an excellent source of protein. For these reasons, they are considered health foods. I am going to present the real science behind eggs showing that this is false. Firstly, chickens only have lutein due to the fact that they have a varietized feed, these nutrients are not inherent of eggs. A spoonful of spinach has as much lutein as 9 eggs. We cannot really consider eggs an appropriate source of this nutrient. As for protein, all whole foods are complete sources of protein so this statement to its benefits is insignificant. Energy needs satisfy energy expenditures which is equivalent to protein needs. As long as you eat whole plant foods when your hungry till your full, then your getting enough protein.

      Regarding Omega 3, current levels of omega 3 in eggs are highly inadequate and one must consume around 30 eggs to reach an acceptable level of omega 3 for the day. A male needs around 1.6 grams of omega 3 per day, a female needs around 1.1 grams a day. Omega 3 processes to EPA which is also processed to DHA, which is highly anti inflammatory. Omega 6 processes down to arachadonic acid which is highly inflammatory. The fact that eggs are the top source of arachadonic acid nulls and voids benefits received from the omega 3 in the egg itself. High intake of arachadonic acid is linked to autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, as well as a clear link with cancer development.

      The Harvard physicians study followed 20,000 doctors for 20 years and those that ate just one egg a day had significant increase in all cause mortality.

      In fact, David Spence, director of stroke prevention/atherosclerosis research center and one of the worlds leading stroke experts, said that based on the latest research, you can eat all the eggs you want IF your dying of a terminal illness. Eggs are not considered health promoting nutritionally speaking.

      Eggs have been linked with heart failure

      As well as type 2 diabetes.

      Furthermore, in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, David Spence, David Jenkins (the inventor of the glycemic index) and Jean Davignon (director of atherosclerosis research group) posted a review on eggs claiming that the egg industry has been downplaying the health risks of eggs through misleading advertisements. As soon as you eat one egg, you expose your body to several hours worth of oxidative stress, inflammation of ones arteries, endothelieum impairment (what keeps you blood running smoothly) and increases the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidize (beginning stages of heart disease).

      The egg industry has claimed that cholesterol from eggs is not important and does not raise cholesterol levels. The fundamental flaw in the study the egg industry has used to make this claim is that they measured FASTING lipid levels at night and not levels through out the day after egg consumption. “Diet is not all about fasting lipids; it is mainly about the three-quarters of the day that we are in the nonfasting state. Fasting lipids can be thought of as a baseline; they show what the endothelium was exposed to for the last few hours of the night.”

      A single egg yolk contains approximately 215 to 275 mg of cholesterol. A safe upper limit can be capped at 200 mg if one is looking to prevent heart disease. One egg far exceeds this daily upper limit.

      In regards to egg whites, although true they are a good source of protein, this is possibly the only positive statement that can be made of it. Here is some evidence of a major component of egg whites, Methionine, possibly causing human harm.

      1. Egg whites are high in the amino Acid Methionine. Rice has 14 times less of this amino acid and beans 7 time less. When one consumes Methionine in a large quantity (like that found in egg whites), it is broken down into sulfuric compounds. these sulfuric compounds are buffered by the calcium of the bones. the result, over time, is osteoporosis and kidney stones.

      2. Cancer cell metabolism is dependent upon methionine being present in the diet; whereas normal cells can grow on a methionine-free
      diet feeding off other sulfur-containing amino acids.

      3. Insulin like growth factor is raised significantly by Methionine. raised levels of IGF-1 = accelerated aging/tumor promotion.

      4. Sulfur from Methionine is known to be toxic to the tissues of the intestine, and to have harmful effects on the human colon, even at low levels, possibly causing ulcerative colitis.

      The balance of evidence is clearly against even moderate consumption of eggs.

      this represents only some of the problems seen with animal product consumption.

  • anonymous

    all of this nutrition crap isnt goin to help anyone since the government is trying to reduce the population by any means neccesary.

  • Foxyrobin

    Dr Greger, that was a very interesting video.. I found that i have high chol, That my GP wanted me to take medication. But i made some diet changes and the Chol. has gone down to 6(cutting out cakes,biscuits,pasteries and eating more veg n fruit). Watching your video i found to be inspiring to make me reconcider why i eat meat as part of a presumed healthy diet.I will be looking into changing my diet to remove meat from my meals. Thankyou for a very informative and entertaining video.

  • Bryan de Pree

    Regarding the comparison of eggs and smoking as derived from the Nurses study, this would apply to meat eaters.  This is a major shortcoming of that study; the results might be very different for those on a plant based diet.

  • Toxins

     You follow a fad diet my friend. There is no real science to support such a diet. Following the carbohydrates are bad bandwagon is simply false

  • Cortex

    According to this, the average life expectancy in some parts of India must be >200 years!

  • Indiaed

    Dear Dr. Greger,
    It seems from the 1999 meta analysis study below that vegans do not live any longer than meat eaters but that vegetarians live longer than both meat eaters and vegans. Just as surprising is that the number one nutrition related cause for vegan deaths was heart disease followed by strokes and then cancer! How can this be? Can you explain? Terrific website!

    Thank you,



    actual research:
    Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML,
    Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K. Mortality in
    vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings
    from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):516S-524S

  • Umfatimah

    Thank you for this important information!! Yess!! we want to prevent Not decrease risk of atherosclerosis and chronic disease

  • tomblakeslee

    Very entertaining presentation but the logic for reducing cholesterol more because people with heart attacks tend to have normal readings is flawed. The fact is that cholesterol levels are just a way for drug companies to make billions selling useless statins. They have very little relation to heart disease.

  • Ginger

    Fabulous, absolutely awesome and fabulous presentation!  Thank you. 

  • Eatemvegies

    When the studies were done on the endotoxins that meat caused, what type of meats were used?  Were they grass fed, pasture raised cattle or stock?  I think it would be interesting to see that difference……

    • Toxins

      the issue of being organic, grassfed or free range should make no difference in regards to endotoxins. Even dark chocolate produced endotoxins but this was neutralized from the phytonutrients. The issue has to do with bacteria fermentation and as you know, you cannot eat meat raw due to the many colonies of bacteria living on the meat.

  • Joerhea

    Dr. Gregor,

    Thank you for the video, unfortunately I can ever seem to get it to play the whole way through. Can you repost the video or would you be willing to send it to me via email . My fiancé has suffered from depression for sometime now, and I as well. I think we both would benefit from a plant food diet, but getting her to switch may be tough. Is there evidence that eating animal products can lead to depression? If so, where? Any info would be a great help.

  • Sally G

    Hello –

    Being that I am approaching my 7th survival year after surgery/radiation, a statistically important year for Naso-Pharyngeal Chordoma people, I have wondered why the chordoma, still snuggled around my brain stem/larynx, has been practically dormant for so long. I have been a vegetarian since my teens and a vegan since 2004, two years prior to the diagnosis in 2005. Today, I take no medications, have no pain and no further symptoms -yet. I am 61 years old too. I’m no tri-athelete either. Is my situation improved because of my vegan, generally whole foods, diet? I doubt many others afflicted have been long time vegans or even vegetarians.
    Thanks for making this connection between brain/bone cancers and diet.

  • LumLum2500

    Dr. Greger is a physician, nutritionist, teacher, and stand-up comedian all rolled into one.  I have watched this video over and over and never get tired of it.

  • Jim

    What about salmon?

  • Soren Nielsen

    Meat is not the problem, but the refined sugar the western world are consuming in large quantities. Sucker excrete etc. zink, which is very important for our health.


    For some reason, the video would not open, but, I listened and you are amazing Dr. Greger! So helpful and so interesting. Thank you! Pam


    This is how to do a presentation! Real information from an expert, assisted by a quality presentation format, in a readily digestible forms, with an appropriate level of factual detail. Just fantastic on so many levels.

  • Supreya

    RE Cholesterol- could it be that the research is skewed.
    If our intake of cholesterol is too low, the body will make enough to make up the shortfall! No wonder cutting cholesterol intake/taking medications has done nothing to reduce the incidence of heart disease.

  • I would like the part involving the graphic at 17:08 in a shorter video to post :) is it available somewhere? Most people I know (23 yr old male) wont sit down and watch almost an hr video :(

    • WholeFoodChomper

      Hi Ryan,

      This hour long video was a special treat that Dr. Greger made available to all of us visiting this site (see his note above). I did a quick search using the search tool on this site using the terms “cancer and exercise” and was able to locate what you are looking for right here: Is It the Diet, the Exercise, or Both?
      . The entire video is 3:44 minutes long, and the specific part you are interested in starts at 3:13. As you will see, if you do the search yourself, there are a lot of mini videos on the topic to explore (and share) there.

  • David Tyler Martin

    Thank you Dr. Greger for your humor and information. You are a bright light in the medical industry.

  • Bravo! This is a much watch video for ANYONE who has children, or parents, or siblings, or friends, or those who eat on a daily basis…. ;)
    I will share… Please let me know what else I can do to spread the word!

  • Please, translate it to russian!

  • Benjamin Grunewald

    Dr. Greger,

    I know you are aware of what the good folks at VegSource are saying about nuts. According to various articles and a video on that site nuts DO cause excessive weight gain and do NOT protect from diabetes, enhance endothelial function, etc. I love nuts and have been recommending them to loved ones for their purported health benefits but now I am feeling very unsure about their benefits. I just bought 20lbs of almonds to eat and give as gifts so I do have a dog in the ring so to speak. I trust your judgement and I would very much appreciate it if you could address this subject again in light of what is apparently a big controversy in the plant-based community.
    Ben Grunewald

    • WholeFoodChomper

      Hello @0417ef2be48c8cf1c97b8dec33afb372:disqus,

      I hope you do not mind my chiming in here. I read your comment and thought I could share a response since I do believe that Dr. Greger has already addressed this issue in his nut videos (search for “nuts” on this site or use the Health Topics index also on this site) as well as in the original Jeff Nelson nut article (in the comment section of the article).

      Please also read Gr. Greger’s introductory comment to the Nuts and Obesity: The Weight of Evidence video, where he states: “The evidence is stronger than ever that the consumption of nuts does not lead to the weight gain one would expect.”

      Sounds to me like you’ll be okay with that 20lb bag o’ nuts. ;-)

      • Benjamin Grunewald

        I saw all of Dr. Greger’s nut related videos before I happened on VegSource. It is precisely the material in Dr. Greger’s videos that is called into question from what I understood. The conflict seem s to be in interpretation of some of the data. Also, it sounds as if the nut-skeptics have some newer studies that seem to refute the benefits described in Dr. Greger’s work. Dr. Greger has replied to one of the written articles and now there is a new video and I just would like to know why there is such seeming disagreement.

        • WholeFoodChomper

          Benjamin Grunewald, Mea culpa.

          After reading in Dr. Greger’s introductory note that he went back and actually revised and up-dated his nut video (extending it by 8 minutes “to cover all of the studies published in the 5 years since”) on August 25, 2012, in light of Jeff Nelson calling attention to Dr. Greger’s “mischaracterization of the 2007 Natoli & McCoy review”, I thought the nut matter was resolved.

          Goodness, does this debate have no end? Now, I too am curious to know where this matter stands at the moment. I will enjoy my handful of nuts until I hear more. ;-)

          • Benjamin Grunewald

            Just watched the revised and extended nut video. Good enough for me. I don’t think there is any way to refute all the evidence Dr. Greger presented there though the Vegsource people are certainly trying. I will continue to eat and recommend nuts as part of a whole food plant based diet. Thanks Dr. Greger and WholeFoodChomper.

          • WholeFoodChomper

            My sentiments exactly, Dr. Greger’s nut explanation is good enough for me, too. :)

      • Jean

        The weight is in the dose. Dr. Greger doesn’t recommend pigging out on nuts. Seems to me I’ve even heard Dr. McDougall say to really limit nuts when reducing weight but if at healthy weight one could consume more.

        • Rachelle Charlebois

          Doesn’t this all boil down to…”too much of a good thing, is NOT a good thing”…sometimes simple logic and common sense suffices,…in most if not all matters, even and especially when it comes to food?

  • bgrune

    Dr. Greger,

    Please make a video that examines coconut sugar as a sweetener. I and several other viewers have requested this in the comments for your Healthiest Sweetener video. I am posting this request here in hopes that it might be noticed. Perhaps you could just add a short section onto your Sweetener video. It appears that coconut sugar may be among the healthiest sweeteners if not the healthiest. My info however comes from the makers of the sugar so I am hoping you can get the “straight dope” on this rising star of sweeteners. I have been eating it in moderation and recommending it to others so I hope it stands up to your scrutiny.

  • Steev Cal

    My spouse and I recently switched to a veggie diet that borders on Vegan (very difficult to eat totally Vegan). We have always been big meat eaters and as a result I have had high cholesterol and high blood pressure (Like needing Meds high for both of them). I’ve discussed these with my doctor and tried to get him to help me with diet issues but he has told me every time that “Cholesterol and Blood Pressure cannot be controlled through diet alone, medications are required”. Well I guess I am kind of stubborn because I started to do some research and what I have found is astonishing, amazing, unbelievable and as I have found from my personal experience, quite true! We have both noticed a few very simple things. 1). We always thought we would miss the meat because of the flavor but that is so not true! The flavor of the food does not come from the meat, it comes from the preparation of the food. Marinades and spices are used in all foods to give that zesty flavor we all crave and savor. 2). I always thought I would be weak and sickly if I didn’t eat meat. Not so at all, my energy level and stamina has increased and so has my strength with no change in my daily routine. I have gotten sick every year in the fall, for nearly 20 years, and it’s always taken over 2 weeks to get over it. This year all I got were the sniffles and a slightly sore throat for 3 days. 3). My mental acuity has gone through the roof!!! I used to have to write everything down or put it in my day planner, calendar, smart phone to remind me, or something like that. Now without even trying I am remembering appointments, peoples names, and I even remember to check my calendar regularly to see if I did forget anything and I haven’t. 4). I dropped 15 lbs. and in no time and my spouse lost close to 20 and we are still taking it off. 5). Probably the most important of the great things about this is that within 6 weeks my Blood Pressure dropped into the normal range for the 1st time in over 10 years. Note there was no scientific study done here, just me living my life in a totally non meat eating way. Note also that the only change was eliminating meat and almost all dairy. Say what you will about the need to eat meat because I’ve read it or heard it all! Veggie is the way to go for us and I don’t think it will ever change. Check out this video if you haven’t already “Forks over Knives” It’s a very well made documentary.

    • Thea

      Steev Cal: Thank you so much for sharing your story. Very inspirational.

    • @d9a8c65ee5b665adb0cbd70655e7fab7:disqus,

      About a year ago, my significant other and I started eating primarily PBD (no meat, dairy, just PBD at home w/ more flexibility when we go out or travel). Compared to how we used to eat (an animal-based product at just about every meal) we made huge and dramatic changes to the way we eat (I mean, HUGE). Admittedly, I am more hard core about our PBD eating than he is, but still he has made some major changes to his eating style.

      You’d think with all the major changes we made to our eating that we’d see some of the same fantastic outcomes that you and others have described experiencing when converting to PBD eating. Alas, neither of us has lost any weight, my blood pressure is still on the elevated side, and his doc still has him taking statins and hypertension meds (he recently got some labs back and his cholesterol numbers were not that good).

      I’ll be honest, all this has been a bit demoralizing and perplexing. Although, at times I struggle convincing him “why we are eating this way”, still we persist knowing that the overall benefits of the PBD are worth it. I just wish that we’d see some improvement in outward health markers (cholesterol, blood pressure, body weight). I will say, though, that I feel better (more alert, energetic, better GI functioning, better sleeping, etc.) on a PBD.

      Has anyone else had similar experiences after converting to a PBD?

      • ifyoucareenough

        I have been vegan for about 6 years. I am still not slender, but that was never in my constitution. My cholesterol is still high but that may be due to genetic factors and a disability where I can’t exercise like I used to. That being said, I am vegan for life … my primary motivation is for the animals. “No animal harmed” is a beautiful thing to me. Taking the blinders off and not being complicit in murder gives meaning to my life.

        Perhaps you and your SO can see it that way too :) ?

        • ifyoucareenough:

          Thank you for sharing your experience and your words of wisdom with me. It helps to be reminded of the many other reasons to eat a PBD.

          Eating a PBD is more than a diet issue for me, as well. It is about being a good steward of our environment, respecting and caring for all of our animals and the people who work in the food industry. And, you bring up a very good point regarding genetic predisposition to certain health conditions, as well.

      • ifyoucareenough

        Oh, I will mention that a terrible, embarrassing gagging cough condition diagnosed erroneously as LPR (laryngopharangeal reflux) that I had for decades bit the dust soon after nixing the dairy. That’s huge to me. Will the doctors listen and urge their patients to go dairy-free? Very few.

        Don’t give up on being vegan. The animals need you, and there’s more at stake than just the animals.

  • dimqua

    Can you please make a transcription of this video? I would like to translate it into Russian.

  • Great video with great information, thank you!

    love Data! I would still like to see the Data on the all the potential
    variations of Portlandia Diets below. I would love to see the Data on
    the first 2 weeks, 1 Month, 3 Months, 6 Months, 1 Year, 2 Years, 5
    Years, 10 Years, 20, 30 etc.

    LIke this…
    Non Organic, Factory Farmed
    Non Organic, Non Factory Farmed Meat with no Hormones or Antibiotics
    Organic, Non Factory Farmed Meat with no Hormones or Antibiotics
    Organic, Non Factory Farmed Meat with no Hormones or Antibiotics with reduced meat
    Organic, Non Factory Farmed Meat with no Hormones or Antibiotics one meat dish a day
    Organic Plant Based Diet
    Organic Vegan Diet

    But include these potential variables…
    BPA Free

    all Food in Plastic, No Tupperware, No Drinks in Plastic Containers, No
    Food Stored in Plastic, this includes Produce at the Grocery Store, No
    Food Microwaved in Plastic.
    Organic Diet, Non Factory Farmed Meat with no Hormones or Antibiotics, Minimal Plastics &

    Wild Caught Fish

    No Food Microwaved ever, hardly ever, a several a week, several a day.

    No Food Processed with Preservatives ever, hardly ever, a several a week, several a day.

    No Bleached Sugar ever, hardly ever, a several a week, several a day.

    No Bleach ever, hardly ever, a several a week, several a day.

    No Artificial Sweeteners ever, hardly ever, a several a week, several a day.

    who take Vitamins on a regular basis…a couple times a day, once a
    day, a couple times a week, only when not feeling well.

    too often we are told about the horrific ways that we Farm Meat. We are
    told that the answer is to stop eating meat instead of Farming Healthy
    Meat. As if it is impossible to meet the Meat Demands for a Growing
    Global Population. I have found many Sustainable Solutions. I also
    believe in the Native American perspective of thanking the animal &
    giving respect to the animals during & after their life.

    This is one of the best ways that I have found to eat healthy meat in a sustainable fashion. Now since the Fish
    Farm increases the local bird population, what if we ate some of those
    Sustainable birds? Wild ducks, geese, osprey and turkey are native to
    this area we could reintroduce into the Fish Farms Ecosystem. We
    only eat that which is Sustainable. We do not create too much to be a
    burden on the environment. Nor do we do anything that would damage the healthy Sustainable Symbiotic Relationship with the Ecosystem.

    Here is an example of Sustainable Fish Farm that creates a clean Ecosystem…

    Sustainable & Humane Foie Gras!
    time this man runs into a problem he solves it how it should be solved,
    with Nature. We need to find the Harmony of (Wo)Man & Nature
    Working Together.

    Be Helpful, Not Hurtful

    • Paula

      “I also believe in the Native American perspective of thanking the animal & giving respect to the animals during & after their life.”

      How noble and generous of you. Don’t you think this is a just a little bit bit of a self-serving rationalization? What good does this do the animal? The animal wants to live its life unharassed and free just like you and I. I doubt they would thank you for your thank you. It’s 2013 already and it’s time to stop the archaic, maladaptive thinking. Dire circumstances of survival is the only caveat that would make taking an animal’s life not murder.

      “As if it is impossible to meet the Meat Demands for a Growing
      Global Population”

      Ha, I think you give humans too much credit. We’ve shown very little social responsibility so far … unregulated in our popping out of babies … and tragic in the way we care for those babies … we’re more stupid than smart. Ok well if you want to stick your head in the sand and that makes you feel better, go ahead.

      Then at the end you say “be helpful, not hurtful”. Really? Helpful to me, and people who have these issues through with both their hearts and their minds, is that being helpful means no animal harmed. It’s really a beautiful thing both personally, and collectively … I highly recommend it.

  • Paula

    The human behavior of breeding animals is, in itself, a disgusting and dark thing. Please read “Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust”, by Charles Patterson.

  • I’m no scientist, neither am I suggesting that my opinion is any more than just that. All I can say is I feel it’s naive to suggest that meat is a major cause of weight-gain. I think there are a thousand more obvious issues at hand and that changing to a vegan diet simply corrects health issues as a result of improving the overall nutritional profile of what people are eating.

    I also think it’s too simple to suggest we all become vegan. I truly believe there is room on all of our plates for raw plant foods and we can certainly benefit from adding more, but to entirely eliminate meat is just not realistic or healthy.

    Human beings have lost the plot when it comes to food and food production. Over-consumption of processed foods is the real issue, lets get back to basics and have healthy food cooking classes in school that teach children how to make real food.

    • Paula

      I wish some consciousness-raising would go toward looking at animals from a non-anthroprocentric mindset. Are animals really “meat:”? I say no, they are beings in their own right. Not put here for human’s objectification as “meat” and use.

      I wish “meat” would disappear from our vocabulary.

      If aliens came to earth and saw you as “meat”, would that then make you meat?”

      • Rachelle Charlebois

        well said,…KUDO!

  • Sharing with everyone, including my physicians. Thank you for making this available!

  • kathryn

    Thank you so much for this video. Watched and shared!

  • Grapelove


  • Zia Patty

    Told with great humor and clarity – this is a valuable message. The comparisons are vivid enough for me to re-think my vegetarian diet and escalate to true vegan diet.

  • beccadoggie10

    I learned immediately that animal products induce pain within four hours after consumption. There is nothing like a painful spinal injury to get me off meat, dairy, and wheat and reduce nut consumption.

  • You are amazing and much appreciated. Thanks for you enlightened presentation in El Paso last night. Literally changed me.

    • Thank you for your kind feedback. I’m always conflicted as to how much speaking I should do, and whether I would reach more people just staying put and devoting more time to my online work. It’s certainly nice to be able to be able to answer questions in person and get real-time feedback.

      • Rachelle Charlebois

        Please…KEEP keeping on, don’t change for anything or anyone, you are a GOD/Dess sent!!

  • Tikune

    I’ve eaten a purely plant-based diet for seven years and believe it’s one of the best decisions of my life (after marrying my wife). I loved this video, and just saw you speak at ‘New Year, New You’ in Marshall, TX, which was a great experience.

    I wonder if you wouldn’t address a somewhat depressing hypothetical question that occurred to me as I enjoyed your presentation on the 15 leading causes of death.

    What would the 15 leading causes of death likely be in the U.S. if nothing was changed other than everyone following your dietary guidelines perfectly from cradle to grave?

    1. Banana peels?

    I looked to China, but doubt that’s as relevant and helpful as their diet is increasingly westernized.

  • Hannah

    Such vital information! Every student doctor, nurse, naturopath, dietician, nutritionist, etc should HAVE to watch this!Thankyou so much for your amazing work

  • sense and sensibility

    This is a shame and a disgrace. Ephesians 4:14. Following people who proliferate their “beliefs” for money. This guy is the perfect example of every wind of doctrine. He is in it for the money, and he knows you vegans utilize only part of your brain. Buy this crap, and make him rich.

    • Tikune

      While I completely agree that you should be leary of the snake-oil salesman types who “proliferate their beliefs for money”, I just want to draw your attention to the fact that Dr. Michael Greger is offering all of the information on this site for free.

      It’s truly wonderful that all of the proceeds from the sale of Dr. Greger’s videos are donated to charity and that he has not commercialized this popular site with advertisements or product-selling scams. It’s as astonishing as it is refreshing!

      In fact, even the content of Dr. Greger’s DVDs are posted here for free for any of the 2 billion internet-connected people on Earth to benefit from without paying him even 1 cent.

      For me, this fact really reinforces the integrity and veracity of the information he presents here.

  • TBOX

    Superb, eye opening presentation. Thanks for sharing and giving us all an informed choice.

  • Karna

    Can this video be purchased on DVD? I want to get copies for my kids.

    • Thea

      Karna: Yes! The DVD is $10. Between this video and may I recommend also, Forks Over Knives, your kids will get a great education. You can find both videos on Amazon (which you get free shipping if your total order is over $25). I haven’t checked lately, but you used to be able to get the Uprooting… video from Dr. Greger’s site.

    • Sure! My website or Amazon. All proceeds to charity.

      • Helen

        Hello, I am squeezing in my message in here because the comments are really long. I wanted to say that your work is hands down the best I have seen. Your so clear on how you articulate your thoughts and its refreshing to hear so much evidence to back up the vegan life style. I was wondering if you do your own research studies. I am still amazed on how vegan blood kills cancer cells. Any possibility that future studies on transfusing vegan blood into patients with cancer. It would be nice to see the outcome. I have been vegan for almost 2 years and feel great! Thanks again Dr for passing on the wonderful news

  • ifyoucareenough

    I am vegan activist for 5 years now, and for life, because my #1 motivation is for the animals. When I started out I was very militant, but now 5 years later after hearing the myriad of reasons against veganism, I have to take pause and accept that for some people animal protein is necessary for them to feel well. How does one argue with the experience of people who say they tried to go vegan but didn’t feel well? There is so much being said about “nutritional type”. Is it possible that some people genuinely cannot do well on a vegan diet? Is there any consensus of what evolutionary biologists say?

    I am so confused. Dr. Greger (or anyone else) , could you please address why veganism is so controversial from a medical standpoint?

    • Thea

      ifyoucareenough: I’m not an evolutionary biologist, but I have some thoughts for you.

      First: Dr. Greger has a video on a rare genetic disorder where a
      boy’s body was not able to make one of the non-essential amino acids. Humans can get all of the essential amino acids that we need from a vegan diet – but that is assuming that a person’s body can make all of the other amino acids. If not, then the person either does have to eat meat or take a pill. It is possible that you have talked to some people who have this (rare!) genetic disorder. But it is my guess that most of the time, one of the following had been more likely going on:

      Second: When someone says that they tried vegan and didn’t do well on it, I have to wonder what their diet was like. You can eat chips and white pasta and white bread and processed foods and oil drenched sauces and call yourself a vegan. That is not healthy eating, however, and no wonder they felt bad. No one is saying that eating “vegan” by itself is good. Healthy eating is about whole plant foods with B12 and D supplements.

      Third: Even someone eating healthy foods might be missing out on a key ingredient like supplementing B12. Once again, it is a case of the human doing vegan wrong, not a case of something being wrong with whole-plant foods based eating.

      Fourth: Some people have higher needs for certain nutrients at certain times of their lives compared to other times. If they are not paying attention to their special needs, then there could be problems. For example, menstruating women typically need more iron compare to other humans. They can get the needed iron from whole plant foods, paying special attention to getting some vitamin C (if I remember correctly) with the plant iron to increase absorption – or they can just give up and say that the vegan diet didn’t work for them. With the incredible lack of education out there, how are people suppose to know what they are doing wrong? Their doctor is unlikely to be able to tell them….

      Fifth: I don’t think people should discount the power of suggestion and self-fulfilling prophesies. If you get in with a crowd who constantly tells you that you need meat and dairy, you might subconsciously start to believe it. And such a belief could lead to feeling bad without those foods. I don’t have any science to back this up. I just personally suspect it is a factor in some cases of people giving up on vegan eating.

      To address the question of: “Is there any consensus…” There is not a consensus among people, but I think there is a concensus in the actual science. Once you start doing the research, watching videos such as this one, watching the other videos on this website, reading books like The China Study, etc, etc. – it becomes pretty clear that the big picture on the healthiest diet for humans is a whole-plant food based diet, supplemented with B12 and D. We may tweak our understanding of healthy foods as time goes by, but the general big picture seems unchanged for decades.

      Hope you found these thoughts helpful.

      • Thea

        I have one more thought for you concerning: “could you please address why veganism is so controversial from a medical standpoint?”

        I don’t think it is controversial from an actual medical perspective. However, there are medical professionals, most who are not educated in nutritional science (check out Dr. Greger’s videos on the amount of nutritional education our doctors get), who do not support a vegan diet. Why?

        Here’s my answer (and it is one that I have read in several other places): Going back hundreds (thousand?) of years, eating meat has been strongly associated with economic success and higher social status/class. It is deeply, deeply engrained in many societies. Doctors are people too and come from our society. It is just as hard for medical professionals as it is for the non-medical to even imagine that eating meat is not good for us. Again, I highly recommend reading The China Study which does a good job of addressing this kind of bias and showing that the controversy does not have much to do with the science. Also, check out Dr. Greger’s video on the tomato effect.

        Again, I hope you found this helpful.

        • ifyoucareenough

          Thank you Thea, your comments reinforce my take on the thing too. But with all the Weston A. Price type detractors who also talk a good game and have billions of followers, I am just expressing my intense frustration that it seems like a sisyphean effort to change the paradigm.

          I made the mistake of going on a Dr. Mercola message board recently, and it was quite an unpleasant education to witness the extent of the emotional deadening, ignorance and resistance out there. Makes ya want to stop the world and get off. Just feelin’ depressed. I’ll be okay.

          • Thea

            I understand the need for some moral support!

            I just had a conversation with a person who happens to be a social worker. I was explaining the ways in which dairy is bad for you. He couldn’t wrap his head around it and insisted it is good for you. I said as nicely and calmly and non-judgmental as you can imagine/an honest question: “Is it possible that you are not aware of all of the science?…” He did think about it for a second. Then he strongly shook his head, “no”.

            There is nothing you can do with people like that. He didn’t want to discuss it after that. We do have a long ways to go. At times like these, I find it helpful to spend some time dwelling on how far we have come. Think about how much more awareness there is about animal cruelty, health, etc than there used to be. Thanks for your hard work in this area. People like me appreciate it.

          • ifyoucareenough

            There’s so much “dealing with the devil” that has to be done — like this appalling thing: where donations to dog & cat shelters are largely made by carnists and the assumption is that if they don’t serve meat they won’t get the attendance/donations. I think they should challenge those assumptions (and I intend to write some letters) because I can’t, or don’t want to believe that people give money on the condition of what the food is going to be.

            Anyway, I know I’m digressing. Thanks Thea for your kind reply, and I appreciate you too :)!

  • Amazing thank you so much Dr.

  • GoingVegan2013

    If Vegans are not dying from these causes of death, what are they dying from? What are the leading causes of death for Vegans? I switched to Vegan after your video & the movie, “Forks Over Knives.” Thanks.

  • omlove313

    I wish their were more educators like you sharing this type of information. Thank you again for all that you do.

  • iVegan, CPT

    Beautiful! I cried at the end because people like you are the reason I still have hope in humanity. I will do everything I can to make sure to tell as many people as possible about you and your wonderful site. I cannot thank you enough for your work Dr. Gregger!

  • Jim Smith

    Dr Gregor, I’m interested in recent research into Salvestrols and wondered if you had come across any papers which they have been discussed, tested or reviewed? Kind regards, Jim.

  • Gumbo

    The message is too important; this must be shared.

  • iVegan, CPT

    The information in this video, combined with the beauty of how you give the message is amazing! I cried at the end because I am so happy that there are people like you working so hard to make the world a better place. Thank you for being you Dr. G.

  • depp604

    In your video you are in favour of eating nuts because they have good health benefits. Dr’s Essestyne and Ornish prohibit them in their diets for treating Heart Disease. Why the different opinions?

  • Also see Dr. Harriet Hall’s critique of this video at Science-Based Medicine: Death as a Foodborne Illness Curable by Veganism

    • vetstud2

      Harriet Hall’s critique is so flawed, it’s stunning. Don Matesz examines it here:

      • Thea

        Awesome vetstud2! I (a mere lay person) was going to say something about the obvious flaws of Hall’s arguments, but I could never have done as good a job as the page you found. Thanks.

    • CAW

      Does Dr. Gregor have a response to Dr. Hall?

    • Thea

      PythagoreanCrank: I had seen Dr. Hall’s critique some time ago. I find that too many of her arguments don’t make sense from a scientific perspective. But rather than write up a long critique myself, someone named Don Matesz already did it and quite well. If you are interested, you can see some of the flaws of Harriet’s post here:

      • Eskil Jonsson

        Unfortunately Don – a acupuncture proponent (pseudoscience) – didn’t check Hall’s references properly (although Hall could do a better job of not spewing her agenda at the start of the article and have better referencing).

        1. Greger is citing Esselstyn’s research in the end of this video which Don missed which has not been replicated by any other researcher and had flawed methodology to begin with. Even Ornish research was flawed and hasn’t been replicated either.
        2. The Nurses’ health study statistic was cherry picked and meta analysis’ show no effect of dietary cholesterol on heart disease, especially not comparable to smoking. However saturated fat is a risk factor which Hall should have acknowledged and which Greger should have used instead.

        There are numerous other points but the thing is that both Greger and Hall are agenda driven and not reliable sources here. Greger is exaggerating a lot and cherry picking. Hall is trying to dismiss the entire idea of a healthy plant based diet and has numerous ad hominem fallacies in her article.

  • Dr. Leo Rebello

    I nominate you as the Best Joker of Medicine. In your next presentation you may put red nose and catch the younger generation… They need more of what you are saying.

  • Linda

    Why aren’t you on the presidents council? Or maybe Flotus council ( even though she loves the camera)or Bloomberg stopping 32oz drinks! Does anyone think these things work? Answer NO, only your video tells the truth. Thanks so much

  • Pam

    Please give more info on Type 1 Diabetes and a whole plant food diet. Some diabetics view starches as the enemy. I would like more evidence or tips that would convince friends to shift their Western diet to a healthier one.

    • ifyoucareenough

      I second that. Although it still doesn’t mean that doctors will change what they are telling their patients. And doctors are still “god” to patients. My boyfriend, who is a committed ethical vegan, has a son who is a type 1 diabetic. His son is very accessible to becoming an ethical vegan because of what he has learned from his dad, but his doctor told him that he needs animal protein in his diet. So he eats alot of fish, and some chicken.

      I don’t have the nerve to say a word of interference in his son’s diet. Would anyone here be able to? It’s too delicate.

    • Thea

      Pam: If you have not already read it, you might want to check out the book: “Dr. Neal Barnard’s Program For Reversing Diabetes”. He addresses Type 1 in the book. It may not be as much information as you would like, but I don’t think that we have all the answers for Type 1 yet either. I think this book will help answer your questions though. I thought the book was awesome.

  • Melodie Thompson

    Thank you so very much.

  • I just want to know how a person, on a very limited budget, can eat vegetarian or vegan?

    I am 51, female, obese, unemployed.

    I eat very little beef or pork, I eat ground turkey, chicken legs and thighs, tuna and, if they are on sale, fish like Salmon, perch,whiting, cat fish or talapia.

    I only get corn, carrots, peas and, when on sale, tomatoes, lettuce and bell peppers.

    I eat fruit but can’t always afford them. Bananas, tangerines, clementines , apples, oranges, pears.

    I also eat a lot of pastas! They are inexpensive!

    I love healthy foods but don’t have the finances for them!

    But, I have noticed a huge change in my health in the past 4 years!

    BP is a little higher than normal, I’m having pain on right side of chest and in my back, may be caused by Gall Bladder, have noticed a lot of stiffness in hands and body, I have tendonitis in both hands, had CTS in both hands, Numbness and tingling in my lips, feet get cold and can’t get warm, I have allergies to dust, mold and pollen, I’m sick every year at the same time, from September to April and sometimes even break out with cold sores, I am always coughing and sneezing and have to keep a box of Kleenex close, I also have a very bad allergy to any Nickle product. I touch anything with Nickle in it and get these hives or patches on my skin where it came in contact with the item! They itch and look more like ring worm but are not. I’ve had some of my problems since childhood, but most have started in the past 4 years! Maybe even longer than that!

    I had just lost 51lbs over a 5 month period, but then the severe back pain started and left me close to immobile for days at a time! It was in the lower lumbar area!

    How can a person, like me, on a very tight budget, say, like about $50 a week for 2 adults, on a good payday, eat a very healthy, vegetarian diet to get healthy and lose excess weight??

    I have no idea how severe my health is because we have no health insurance and can’t afford to go to a doctor or the hospital!!

    I have also been depressed lately, but I just though it was from losing my 2 cats in the past year and not being able to find a job. But, from what you’ve said in your speech, it could be my diet causing all my health issues??

    I need help but don’t know where to turn.

    I want to get healthy so that I can find work! I also need work so that I can get healthy! A “Catch 22 Situation”!
    Any ideas will help!
    Thank you,
    Brenda W.

    • Good for you for wanting to make some positive changes in your eating habits and lifestyle! Trying to eating plant-based and whole foods on a limited budget is most definitely a real economic challenge for many many people in the U.S. I have a few suggestions that may be helpful to you.

      First, watch as many videos as you can on this site. There are many suggestions on how to integrate healthy food into your diet. Dr. Greger even has “cost savings” indexed in the “Health Topics” side bar. Look under that category to get info on how to get the most for your buck.

      Second, The Environmental Working Group (EWG) has put a helpful resource guide called Good Food on a Tight Budget. I think you might some very helpful tips in there.

      Third, seek out the available food banks in your community, and get groceries that are as unprocessed as possible. You may also want to see if there is a discount grocery store in your area where you can purchase either frozen fruits and veggie or canned fruits, veggies, and beans (without salt, sugar).

      Fourth, see if there are any other resources in your community that can assist you economically (e.g., food stamps, food support, financial support, etc.)

      Fifth, seek out as much information on the plant-based eating as you can either on the internet or at books borrowed from the library. The more you read and learn, the more you will be able to figure out ways to eat as healthfully as possible on a tight budget; it will also keep you inspired to maintain the changes you are making. (Maybe you can start cultivating a list of economical plant-based recipes to prepare.)

      Finally, you may want to explore the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine website (among many others out there), and you may want to check out “Vegan Unplugged: A Pantry Cuisine Cookbook and Survival Guide” by Jon Robertson from your library. It is meant to be an emergency preparedness guide for vegans, but I think it offers some great options for those on a limited budget as well.

      Does anyone else out there have any additional practical tips or economical recipes to share with Brenda?

      Brenda, wishing you all the best of luck. Please keep us updated on your progress.

    • Thea

      Brenda: I recommend investing in two cookbooks: “Eat Vegan on $4 Per Day” and “Vegan On the Cheap”. It’s very possible to live healthy on a tight budget. I can attest personally to the recipes in the Vegan On the Cheap book. Yummy!!! And affordable!!! I’ve only tried a couple recipes from the other, but they were both good. I met the author and she told me about her research to make sure that the recipes truly are affordable.

      A thought for you: Replace your animal products and foods with white flour with dried beans, lentils and whole grains and you will be doing your body a wonderful service and put a savings in your pocket book. Dried beans are very cheap and extremely nutritious, filling, tasty and flexible. You can do everything from soups to stews to casseroles to desserts with beans as the main ingredient.

      That’s my 2 cents. Best of luck to you.

    • Good for you for wanting to make some positive changes in your eating habits and lifestyle! Trying to eating plant-based and whole foods on a limited budget is most definitely a real economic challenge for many many people in the U.S. I have a few suggestions that may be helpful to you.

      First, watch as many videos as you can on this site. There are many suggestions on how to integrate healthy food into your diet. Dr. Greger even has “cost savings” indexed in the “Health Topics” side bar. Look under that category to get info on how to get the most for your buck.

      Second, The Environmental Working Group (EWG) has put a helpful resource guide called Good Food on a Tight Budget. I think you might some very helpful tips in there.

      Third, seek out the available food banks in your community, and get groceries that are as unprocessed as possible. You may also want to see if there is a discount grocery store in your area where you can purchase either frozen fruits and veggie or canned fruits, veggies, and beans (without salt, sugar).

      Fourth, see if there are any other resources in your community that can assist you economically (e.g., food stamps, food support, financial support, etc.)

      Fifth, seek out as much information on the plant-based eating as you can either on the internet or at books borrowed from the library. The more you read and learn, the more you will be able to figure out ways to eat as healthfully as possible on a tight budget; it will also keep you inspired to maintain the changes you are making. (Maybe you can start cultivating a list of economical plant-based recipes to prepare.)

      Finally, you may want to explore the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine website (among many others out there), and you may want to check out “Vegan Unplugged: A Pantry Cuisine Cookbook and Survival Guide” by Jon Robertson from your library. It is meant to be an emergency preparedness guide for vegans, but I think it offers some great options for those on a limited budget as well.

      Does anyone else out there have any additional practical tips or economical recipes to share with Brenda?

      Brenda, wishing you all the best of luck. Please keep us updated on your progress.

    • Sorry to read about your situation. Thea had some excellent suggestions. In my experience eating a plant based diet is alot less expensive then the standard American diet. Pasta is an excellent choice but so are potatos and rice. Rice can often be purchased in bulk. The cost of meat, dairy and eggs are high even with the government subsidies. You need to come up a basic menu that works for your family… 1-2 for breakfast, 3-4 for lunch, and 6-8 for dinner works for most folks. If you have access to the internet through public library or friend you can get excellent recipes and information about health from Dr. John McDougall’s website. You might start by viewing his free lecture on The Starch Solution… look under free lectures and check out the many free recipes courtesy of his wife, Mary, as well. If you have some space you might consider planting some herbs or vegetables to help offset the cost of food. Farmers markets can be helpful if you have access as foods that are seasonal as they tend to be cheaper. I would build the diet around starches with a variety of vegetables and occasional fruits and beans. The only supplement you will need if you eat a well designed plant based diet is Vitamin B12 which is inexpensive as a tablet or can be obtained by eating foods such as soy or almond milk which are often enriched. You should view the series of videos by Dr. Greger in February 2012. Unfortunately many of us have conditions courtesy of years of poor eating which we are stuck with but the body given the right nutrition can stablilize, reverse and often cure many of these conditions. I have been impressed by the progress of my patients who eat healthy. Good luck.

  • How vegan is vegan?
    Dr. Greger: I have taken your “Leading Causes of Death” video to heart, and am trying to follow a vegan diet; but I wonder how strictly it has to be followed in order to have the benefits you describe. I eat strictly vegan at home, but when I go to a potluck meal, is it OK if the salad has some shreds of cheese sprinkled on it, or if the strawberries are dipped in milk chocolate rather than dark chocolate? Does it make a significant difference if the vegetable oil French fries are fried in have also had fish fried in it? If the fifth item on the “contains less than two percent…” list on a label is “sweet dairy whey”? How much animal-product contamination negates the nutritional benefit of a plant-based diet ? Thanks!

    • Thea

      Kennita: Congratulations on making such a significant change in your diet.

      I’m not Dr. Greger, but maybe these thoughts will be helpful to you.

      >>How strict do you have to be?
      I don’t think anyone knows the answer to that. Even if such an answer existed, I think it would be a huge, “it depends” based on a variety of factors. There wouldn’t be a clear, “three bites a week is fine, after that, you are hosed”. So much depends on your genetics, environment, and what you are really eating.

      I think we can say that the occasional cheat is probably fine health-wise. But how much is occasional? Once a year? Once a week? ??? What I have picked up from Dr. Greger’s videos and other materials I have read is that our health on animal foods is a sliding scale. It also seems that it doesn’t take that much animal food to push people into real risk levels. Thus, it falls on you to decide how much risk you want to take. One bite of milk chocolate a month. Probably fine. After that, you are on your own. ;-) (Of course, I just made that up to make a point.)

      If it was me, I would not make as many exceptions as you do, because it all adds up. On the other hand, you do not want to start to feel deprived, because then you might give up completely. So, I recommend thinking about what is really important to you. Is that bite of milk chocolate vital, but the potlucks could be something you take a stand on? Or vica versa? So, start down a healthier path by just making those exceptions which are super important to you, but making fewer other exceptions. Try to go down a path that takes you in a healthy direction rather than going cold turkey or doing nothing. That’s just my opinion.

      Another thought I have for you is to find other motivations. I know lots of people who are only semi-motivated by health arguments. Even people who wholly acknowledge that a whole plant food diet with b12 supplement is by far the healthiest diet, find themselves making lots of exceptions or unable to change at all. BUT when they learn about the ethical and environmental arguments for a whole plant food diet, they become very motivated. Those little exceptions no longer seem palatable.

      In that light, you might consider watching movies like: Vegucated, Food Inc, Earthlings, Glass Walls (available free on youtube), etc. And read a book called The Veganist, which one of my staunch meat-eating co-workers found motivating. It doesn’t take much research to find the environmental information either. Consider the strong link between a plant diet and slowing global climate change. And find articles like this one (that broke my heart):

      Learn that stuff and you will find yourself *wanting* to no longer make those exceptions that also happen to hurt your health.

      That’s my 2 cents. In the mean time, celebrate your existing progress. Good for you!

      • Thanks for the input! I do pretty well (at the Ostara potluck, I skipped the chocolate chip cookies, but had one Whole Grain Fig Newton (which had whey somewhere low on the ingredient list). I think I can keep it to that level pretty easily; absolute zero-tolerance would probably be too stressful.

        I’ll try to find some of those movies you mentioned — thanks!

        Live long and prosper,

    • Toxins

      I agree with Thea, moderation is extremely difficult to maintain as a lot of a little unhealthy foods here and there can quicklyy become the bulk of the calories.

  • guest

    when the correlations are so unbelievably surprising, it is perhaps simply because they are not to be believed….. Correlation is NOT causality!

    • Thea

      guest: re: “when the correlations are so unbelievably surprising…” That’s your ignorance of the science showing. These results are not only not surprising, but quite common. Time to take notice?

  • ifyoucareenough

    I think a fundamental out-of-the-box look at the use of the word “meat” would put everything into clarity. It is just a linguistic euphemism, and a way of distancing ourselves from the truth — the truth that “meat” was once a whole animal with a face, and emotions, and a desire to live unmolested just like we do.

    I ask, are animals really “meat”? Or do they exist in this world for their own reasons. If aliens came from another planet and saw us as “meat” would that then make us “meat”?

    It’s time to take a hard look at this word that we never question … a word that objectifies and commodifies animals to the status of nothing. It’s one and the same with the dehumanization of women and men who are imaged as “meat” in our sick society. Relegate to “the Other”. Feel no empathy.

    Come on non-vegans — time to open your heart and evolve.

    Let’s phase out the word “meat” from our vocabulary.

  • Help! I want to share this with my sister but she is hearing impaired! Is there a transcript or video with captions available???

    • Gina

      Nick, there is a little button that says “cc” under the video in the tool bar. Click on that to turn on closed captioning.

  • Dr. Greger — You are totally the best! This is an awesome video. I am recommending this video to everyone I know. This information should be available in Spanish!!! I would love to help get the word out to the Latino community. Let me know how I can help.


    Irene from MyHealthyCocina — Health Starts in the kitchen.

  • Yaroslav Plutenko

    Mr Greger, may I embed Russian subtitles in this video and upload on my YouTube account? I’ll provide all references to original video and this site – I just ask permission in order not to violate copyright.

  • MaryJS

    Bravo! Love it! My grandson was diagnosed with MDS at the age of 17. One of the things I asked just about everyone that I spoke with at the time, in the medical profession, was the importance of diet. Everyone said the same thing, “it’s not important!” I suppose they gave up on him right from the start. I’ll never know if things might have been different with a vegan diet. The MDS eventually became Leukemia and he died at age 20. Anyway, I really enjoyed this presentation on “Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death”, taped on July 12, 2012, and would really like to be able to see more of these informative videos. Also, aside from the obvious, what would be the best way to begin a vegan diet? Is there a way to subscribe to these longer videos?

    • Thea

      MaryJS: I just sent a reply to Shaheen with ideas about how to get started on eating healthy. Check out those ideas.

      I also wanted to express condolences. That’s such a sad story. My thoughts are with you.

      Concerning the videos: Most of videos Dr. Greger posts on this site are 2-4 minutes long, though some are longer and happily so! Even though the videos are shorter than this one, they often tell a story / are part of series. I recommend finding the first video of volume 1 (I’m not sure how to do that as the search didn’t work the last time I tried it), watch it, then use the the “Next Video” link on the panel on the right of the screen. You can keep doing that until you have eventually seen all the videos all. So, you will have watched literally hours and and hours worth of videos to meet that desire of yours to see longer videos. Well worth your time as there is a lot more information out there than was in this one video. (Though I agree that this one video is great too.)

      Good luck.

  • Ken Eckert

    I really enjoyed this video and intend on showing it to my communications students as a good example of effective academic presenting (with the hopes that they’ll take the content in as well).

    Living in Korea I’ve gradually reduced my meat intake as Koreans traditionally treat meat as more a garnish than a basic ingredient (becoming what I’d call a ‘lessetarian’). I would like to know what the good doctor thinks about yogurt, something I still enjoy a great deal with cereals and nuts. Bad but not so bad? :>

    • Thea

      Ken: Good for you for going on the lessetarian path. Hopefully you can go on a lessetarian path with your dairy consumption too. From all of the dairy videos I’ve seen on this NutritionFacts site, plus what I have read about dairy in books like The China Study and Building Bone Vitality – diary is AT LEAST as bad as meat.

      I think one of the Dr.s in the Interviews follow up DVD for Forks Over Knives refers to dairy (ie, yogurt, etc.) as “liquid meat”. That really stuck with me.

      I don’t know if they sell such things where you are, but companies do sell plant-based yogurts. I vastly prefer the coconut ones to the soy ones, but it is a personal preference and I suspect that the soy ones are healthier. Also, I there are recipes out there for making your own plant-based yogurts. (For example, check out the book Artisan Vegan Cheeses.) So, if you are interested, you DO have options.

      That’s awesome that you are pointing your students to this video. I agree that it is an extremely wonderful example of how to present academic materials in a way that people can take in and enjoy. Good luck to you and your students.

  • Shirley Litton

    Saw this talk at the Vegfest in Tampa a couple months ago. I’m glad it’s on video now!! So incredibly interesting AND entertaining. Thank You Dr. Greger for your vast curiosity and desire to educate the public!! I am definitely passing this on!!

  • Shaheen

    What to eat everyday?


    • Lots of great recipe sites on the web. I like Happy Herbivore if you dont know what to cook, she has a recipe plan you can buy for really cheap and you can relearn how to cook. Don’t buy prepackaged foods. They are just as bad for you as prepackaged non vegan foods. Good luck you can do it! fatfreevegan is another great site!

    • Thea

      Toni’s ideas are very good. There are some great sites that give you plenty of free ideas.

      Two other ideas for you are: 1) cookbooks. There are two book that I think are good for beginners: Everyday Happy Herbivore and Vegan On the Cheap.

      2) Do one of PCRM’s (Physician Committee for Responsible Medicine) 21 Kickstart programs. They hold your hand through 21 days with meal plans, recipes, inspirational messages, etc. And it’s free.

      Once you get started, you will be amazed at the variety and fulfillingness (I know I made that up) of the food dishes available to people who eat healthy.

      Best of luck to you!

  • This is soooo good! Tweeted it!

  • Guest

    This was a very eye opening video for me and helped play a part in my decision to become vegan.

  • loveitvegan

    Thank you for this great video! I am posting a link to it from my whole foods recipe blog!

  • SCMeredith

    Hi Dr. Greger,

    I have seen rumors going around about fruit from the Graviola tree aka Sour Sop, aka Soursop. The claims are that it is an effective cancer killer. Have you seen any conclusive evidence one way or the other?

  • Tom

    Doc, Have you ever studied h202 treatments?

    Love your work! I started cutting all breads, meats out of my diet and started eating raw and cooked vegetables and four months later I have come down with ulcerative colitis. crazy right.

    So, now I am doing h202 treatments in hopes it will clear up the colitis?


  • Judy

    What about the theory that cholesterol is a myth?? In The Great Cholesterol Myth, Bowden and Sinatra show the source of heart disease is SUGAR and inflammation. Just as many people die of heart disease who have low cholesterol as have high. Total cholesterol tells you nothing about your risk for heart disease…in fact our brains NEED it so total cholesterol should be between 200-250. Organic Eggs, olive oil, coconut oil, butter…saturated fat…all encouraged. What matters is the kind of LDLs you have. So how can two such opposing theories be correct? Dr. Greger, can you address this?

    • Toxins

      The theory is based on misconstrued science and goes completely against what countless studies have shown for years. Perhaps the appeal is that it is rebellious and against the “system”, but there is truly no justification whatsoever to think that carbohydrates cause heart disease. Dr. Greger’s link below will take you to his free e-book carbophobia which gathers the science on this subject.

  • Curious

    I have several questions:
    Did any of this research account for whether plant based diets did or did not include genetically modified veggies?
    Did they account for whether or not meat eaten was organic, not treated with antibiotics or steroids?
    Did they account for consumption of refined sugars or starches among either meat eaters or vegetarians?
    Are there studies that evaluate igf1 levels among people who do or do not consume refined starches and sugars? Among those
    who do or do not consume gluten?
    Great presentation. Glad to see it.

  • Curious

    I also wonder if any research examines use of yogurt versus fluid milk and cheese? Organic yogurt versus non? Seems like fermented versions should be our friends, as they help keep the gut flora in balance.

  • Curious

    In a prior session you mentioned oregano kills bacteria? So if ,eat is cooked with oregano, would that kill the bacteria mentioned in this presentation?

  • John

    Thanks for all of the good information and the good presentations. Have there been any studies on the effect of not ingesting food and water for 24 hours and its effects on health? Don’t babies need a certain amount of animal protein for their brains to develop properly?

  • Gaz

    Dr Greger, did you mean that the recording was made surreptitiously?

  • william torrence


  • Stephen

    Bravo, Dr. Greger! Fantastic presentation! Exceptionally informative and well-conveyed message. And what a powerful message it is. Keep up and great work!!

  • edward.h.williams

    Dear Dr. Greger, Have watched this video many times and was very interested in the link between bacteria from animal food in the gut being implicated in heart disease.However there must be another culprit too. If I am not mistaken the first autopsy to list heart disease was in 1929. Many sources have stated that it was non existent at the turn of the last century. I think we were eating a lot of animal foods back then. Of course I could be wrong but if not something else must have come into our diet that is also responsible. Oils and trans fat maybe? Sugar? This has been eating at me. What do you think is the full story on Heart disease. I’m a big fan. Thanks so much. Nedder

  • Rose Drew

    My problem is, I cant do dairy (casein and lactose issues), cant digest nuts, so cant envision living on lentils. Now we hear bad things about soy. I do like a protein-packed meat meal (humanely raised and hopefully quickly slaughtered) from time to time.

  • JKure

    My father has been vegan for 20 years. He lives healthy active lifestyle. But on the last blood exam the cholesterol levels were very high… I am second guessing his and my veganism.

    • ifyoucareenough

      It’s probably famillal hypercholesteremia. I have it. Red yeast rice seems to have brought it down considerably.

      You’re not vegan for ethical reasons? I’m curious why.

  • Noah N. Chelliah, MD, FACC

    Dear Dr. Greger:
    I am a triple board certified interventional cardiologist and have been in practice for 30 years. I am absolutely thrilled with your work. I give a lot of free lectures on the benefits of vegan diet and daily exercise which I recommend to all my patients. I have started to use some of the information you have provided in my presentations. But I would like to use some of your graphs and other illustrations in my presentations. Is there anyway, you will be willing to post your graphs as power point slides that I can use in my presentations? You would be doing a great service to us medical colleagues who want to disseminate this information to the public.
    I will, of course, acknowledge you as the source of these graphs and will give you full credit.

    Noah N. Chelliah, MD, FACC, FACP, FCCP

  • Marité

    Truly something! Thank you! question: if meat is not safe not due to protein or fat but to a bacteria, is organic, all natural, etc, whey protein safe?

    • Thea

      Marite: If you get a chance, explore some of the other videos on this site. You will see that there are some inherent health risks with the animal products themselves regardless of how the animal is raised. Good luck!

  • Time to get real?

    I would love to see the study’s that compare healthy plant and meat based diets with SAD and then vegan and vegetarian. And I would love to see how all these studies were controlled as I imagine vegans and vegetarians make many many choices unrelated to nutrition that affect their health status. I don’t imagine all this potentially sensational meat bashing is going to make the average American or anyone else for that matter change their culture and habits – in fact it’s liable to make them revolt, so realistically this information is potentially quite counterproductive isn’t it?

    • Thea

      “Time to get real”: This isn’t meat-bashing for the sake of sensationalism. This video and the many others on this site are sharing the very real fact that the body of scientific evidence shows that the best diet for health is a whole plant food based diet supplemented with B12.

      Anyone who wants to get healthy and is willing to learn about the science would be quite persuaded by this video. I personally know two people who have completely changed their diets based primarily on seeing this video. (Or at least this video started it.)

      It is true that people who are very invested in their current habits will look for any reason to not change. (They might say something like: “I’m sure there’s significant flaws in those studies Dr. Greger shows. I’m so sure of it, I’m not even going to bother to look.”) In that case, this video, while not counter productive, will not change such people. But then, nothing likely is. FYI: If you really are interested in seeing the studies, each study is cited under the individual videos on the rest of this site. Though you will have to hunt for the correct videos first to find the citations.

      That’s as real as it gets.

  • Fondy Tam

    Quinoa is now my new best friend…

  • Alphonso

    This type of misinformation is indicative of why western civilization is in decline…

  • Diane

    Thank you so very much for your enlightening work.

  • Carrie Youngs

    Dr. Gerber,
    your video ” Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death” helped me in the most powerful way.

    I love you,

    Gaia Cunningham

  • Carrie Youngs

    Was that you?

  • Yazmin

    Thank you for this wonderful, humorous and informative video!!

  • Elaine

    Love the DVD. As a 64 year old who converted to veganism 2 years ago, your website and dvd’s are terrific education to keep me on the path of better health and to help fine-tune my shopping. Thanks!!

  • Marco Tulio Tamez

    Awesome as usual!…You leave no room 4 doubts! and thanx a the great humor! your info is the best tool I use to show people the truth about Nutrition! (16 years Vegan,3 years Raw Foodist,Yoga teacher,Ayurvedic consultant)

  • Benjamin David Haley

    Dear Dr. Michael Greger,

    I have shown this video to my mother who was recently diagnosed with Stage IV triple-negative breast cancer, and my five sisters, all of whom have dairy and meat-based diets. Four of my sisters being nurses, and my mother also being a nurse, they really appreciated your professional approach to the topic of plant-based diet and I feel they were very moved by it. I wish to thank you personally as your video may have done much more for my family than you may know.

    From the deepest place in my heart, I thank you.

    • Thea

      Benjamin: That’s so nice of you to share this story! I’m keeping my fingers crossed for your whole family.

      Just in case you were not aware, I thought I would let you know that this video you commented on is the first year-summary posted on NutritionFacts. Dr. Greger has recently posted the second summary, which may also interest you and your family:

      I also highly recommend the video: Forks Over Knives.

      Finally, if you are looking for some assistance in implementing a plant-based diet, the free PCRM 21 Day Kick-start on-line program is awesome. As are several cookbooks such as: Let Them Eat Vegan, Vegan On The Cheap, and Everyday Happy Herbivore.

      Good luck to you all!

  • Rachel

    OMG. I have had problems with my thyroid for years. I have not been able to loss weight. I have tried everything. Diets, diet pill, Jenny Craig, WW. I was also diagnosed with RA. After having a bad reaction to Hydrochloriqun I opened my eyes and quite eating wheat, milk. In two months my RA was gone. Today after seen my Endo today and telling him how I quite eating wheat, milk and some eggs how I been loosing weight and my RA is gone. He told me to watch you Youtube. and how my goodness I wil be a Vegan from now on. Thank You for opening my eyes to health. I am in charge of my life, and your right DR’s need to tell you a little more about diet. (and not the Genny Craig one’s). thank you again, You are my new Superman.

    • Thea

      Rachel: Congratulations on finding the healthiest diet in the world! It’s always easier to prevent a disease than reverse one and there are no guarantees. That said, you are on to a diet that will give you the best chance/lowest risk when it comes to diseases, including RA.

      One thing to keep in mind: A healthy diet is not just “vegan”, but what people call “whole plant food based”. You can get an idea of what that means by signing up for a free program like the 21 Day Kickstart or getting a good cookbook like Let Them Eat Vegan and Everyday Happy Herbivoir.

      I wish you all the luck.

  • Julia

    I really find your video’s very good and informative but I don’t agree that a vegan diet stops cancer for everyone because Robin Gibb was a vegan, although I understand it can significantly reduce the risk.

  • Gayle Delaney

    This is FANTASTIC! Dr. Greger, you are a fabulously entertaining speaker and you explain what so many have left unclear. Thank you for the details and the references, and for your blithe spirit. I wish you had more longer, yes, longer videos.

  • raz

    This video is making me go vegan.

  • Sensible

    Moderation is the answer! Moderation is plant based foods and moderation in animal based as well. Eat a healthy mix of both, don’t over eat and cut the fat out as much as possible. If vegan was the answer, all vegan’s would live to 90 or 100. Has anyone done a “scientific” study of life expectancy between vegans and non-vegans? I have vegan Indian friends whose parent died in their 60’s and early 70’s. Of heart attacks and strokes!

    The culprit in America is stress caused by lack of true faith and meaning in people’s lives! STRESS CAUSES CANCER!

    • ifyoucareenough

      Right, animals are expendable nothings. They have no place in our consciousness as beings in their own right.

      What “meaning” can one possibly have in one’s life, if one views animals as absent referrents? What “true faith” can one have if one deems, by some devine edict, that animals are less deserving of life and peace than humans?

      • ICareForMankind

        Obviously you are a misguided animal rights activist. Your kind would rather humans were eliminated (aborted) so cows, chickens and pigs could live.

  • Dr. Alona ross

    Dr. thank you very much for your video! I am a 30 years and vegan for 3 years already! but my patients don’t believe me. I worked in Russia for 15 years, in Israel 13 years. In Canada live 5 years. Now all send to your website

  • NormanAllen

    I wish PBS showed this video every month. PBS should become the broadcaster for the public, the disorganized, disenfranchised, alienated people whose work and resources supports everything.

  • Stake lover

    How many vagans or vegetarians do you know who lived to be past 100 yo?
    All the people who lived past 100 and whose lives have been studied in details ate fish, meat and even bacon. The whole vagan thing is a big scam.

    • Toxins

      No native population is 100% vegan, but there are those that get close. The Okinawans for example are very close to vegans and have the most centenarians per capita.

      Caloric Restriction, the Traditional

      Okinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging

      The Diet of the World’s Longest-Lived People and Its Potential Impact on Morbidity and Life Span

      Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1114: 434–455 (2007).

      TABLE 1. Traditional dietary intake of Okinawans and other Japanese circa 1950

      Total calories 1785

      Total weight (grams) 1262

      Caloric density (calories/gram) 1.4

      Total protein in grams (% total calories) 39 (9)

      Total carbohydrate in grams (% total calories) 382 (85)

      Total fat in grams (% total calories) 12 (6)

      Saturated fatty acid 3.7

      Monounsaturated fatty acid 3.6

      Polyunsaturated fatty acid 4.8

      Total fiber (grams) 23

      Food group Weight in grams (% total calories)


      Rice 154 (12)

      Wheat, barley, and other grains 38 (7)

      Nuts, seeds Less than 1 (less than 1)

      Sugars 3 (less than 1)

      Oils 3 (2)

      Legumes (e.g., soy and other beans) 71 (6)

      Fish 15 (1)

      Meat (including poultry) 3 (less than 1)

      Eggs 1 (less than 1)

      Dairy less than 1 (less than 1)


      Sweet potatoes 849 (69)

      Other potatoes 2 (less than1)

      Other vegetables 114 (3)

      Fruit less than 1 (less than 1)

      Seaweed 1 (less than 1)

      Pickled vegetables 0 (0)

      Foods: flavors & alcohol 7 (less than 1)

      Data derived from analysis of U.S. National Archives, archived food records, 1949 and based on survey of 2279 persons.

      Some points

      Their diet was 85% carb, and 6% fat. Sweet potatoes (a Japanese sweet potato) made up almost 70% of their calories. Nuts were less than 1% of calories (the equivalent of 1/10 of an ounce a day) Oil was less than 2% of calories (which is about 1 tsp a day) and sugars were less than 1% of calories (less than a tsp a day)

      The total animal products including fish was less than 4% of calories which is less then 70 calories a day. That is the equivalent of around 2 oz of animal products or less a day

    • victoria

      Look up the Blue Zone study. The vegans in Loma Linda, CA reach the centenarian mark with a much greater frequency than the general population.

  • Gramma Kat

    I hope Dr. Greger or another reader can help me with this. I have
    been a vegetarian for 23 years and vegan for most of it. I have a lot
    of arthritis, especially in an elbow that was injured over 60 years
    ago. My doc, an alternative consultant, put me on fish oil about eight
    years ago. At that time I was living a mostly vegan lifestyle in that
    my home life was vegan but I would sometimes eat scallops when in a restaurant. So I went along with his suggestion and began the fish oil. Then about one year ago I wised up, went 100% vegan again, which included stopping the fish oil supplements. A month later I had the most painful elbow attack , then another about three weeks later. I had to take very strong painkillers both times. My doc was alarmed that I had stopped the fish oil, but I told him it doesn’t fit with my ethical standards
    for so many reasons, not the least of which is over-fishing, pollution
    of the oceans, mercury levels and, of course, the suffering of the
    animal. He maintains that sometimes one has to do what is best for
    one’s health even if it means going against one’s values. I told him I
    was taking flax oil, but he claims that it doesn’t have the necessary
    DHA/EPA that I need. From what I can find out, he is right about the
    DHA; there doesn’t seem to be any in the flax oil. I want to know if
    there is any way I can get the vegetarian equivalent of fish oil for
    arthritis and inflammation. (I am back on the fish oil, and have had no
    more extreme pain in the elbow. I am happy about that, but most
    unhappy to be violating my vegan lifestyle in this manner.)

    • Thea

      Gramma Kat: What a dilemma. I’m no expert, but I know that Dr. Greger recommends that we take seaweed sourced DHA (potentially with EPA) supplements. That is a way to get the (often unfounded) benefits of fish oil without the contaminants and without destroying the oceans. Perhaps you could give that a try?

      There are others who know more about the specific supplements. Perhaps they will jump in with specific help. But I think you could get just about any brand and do fine with it.

      Hope that helps. Good luck!

      • Gramma Kat

        Thank you! It sounds like a good alternative, although I suppose seaweed becomes contaminated as well as fish. Still, I feel it would be a much better choice.

        • Thea

          re: seaweed becoming contaminated…

          I could be completely wrong, but it is my understanding that the companies which make the seaweed (or maybe it was algae?) based DHA supplements grow their own stuff in fully controlled vats. So, they aren’t getting it from the sea. *Should* be quite safe. (Of course there are no guarantees. But at least it seems like the safest option.)

          • Gramma Kat

            Yes, I was thinking the same thing. The best part is it doesn’t involve the killing of the animal. Now I need to figure out how much of the micro-algae to take to equal the same punch as the fish oil.

          • Thea

            Gramma Kat: In case you will find it helpful, here is a link to Dr. Greger’s nutrition recommendations, which includes a recommended amount to take of DHA:


            Hope that helps.

        • wideEyedPupil

          THe reason some fish have much higher levels of heavy metals than others is related to the process of bio-concentration. For instance a fish that eats weed will have less than a fish that eats 1000s of other fish a year which also eat 1000s of other fish a year. Hence older sharks will have some of the highest levels of Hg. The areas they inhabit would also be related, like bays historically subject to lots of industrial pollution you’d expect would have higher levels.

  • Kim

    Dr. Greger, thank you for being one of the people to lead this plant-based food revolution. This highlights shocking and important research that others, including our government are not giving us proper information about. My husband and I have been on a plant-based diet for a year and the difference is amazing….we will never go back.

  • Healthy, wealthy & wise

    Excellent, can the good doctor discuss the benefits of green/herbal teas as an adjunct to all diets discussed

  • Tom Dub

    I wonder how this plays out whilst intermittent fasting? Similar to how we use to eat hundreds and thousands of years ago.

  • Boki

    Thanks Doc, at first I thought you were a sellout when I started reading your spiel on flax seeds, but as soon as you mentioned “Preventing the problem from the start” I knew you meant a plant-based diet. Just wanted to say thank you for spreading the good word. I’m sick of doctors spreading misinformation and then I have to do hours of explanations a week to people who just needed some doctors “blessing” to continue torturing themselves with an “improper diet” as I like to call it. Thanks again.

  • Randy T.

    Great videos. Dr Greger how do you protect your work from confirmation bias and ‘cherry picking’ your sources?

  • 캣 그랜

    I find it HILARIOUS how so many people faced with real scientific research still say it’s not true. Sad as well because of the reasons for death can be prevented but not living on the cirrent American diet.

  • Thank you for all your hard work Dr. Greger. I have been on a whole food plant based diet for two years now. I have dropped about 25 lbs, and I haven’t been sick in two years, not even a cold. My energy is through the roof. I am 46 and I have reclaimed my 25 year old body and energy!

  • Cristine

    I needed this. Thank you.

  • cassian kramm

    Hi, Dr. Greger, I was wondering if you have commented on a recent medical publication stating that vegetarians have a lower life expectancy than those with a more omnivorous diet. Sorry, I don’t recall the source, but it made a splash on some social pages in the last week. I’d prefer to hear your opinion on this. I’m an MD trained in the 80’s when there was horribly little nutritional info in our curriculum and just discovered your youtube channel. Over the years I knew there was much more importance to nutritional issues and haven’t found anything like the scholarly work you are doing. Thanks.

  • Orgo-borgo

    a balanced diet is a balanced diet. N.A.s eat wa-a-ay too much meat and very fatty meat at that. add that the animals are “manufactured” and not allowed to grow in normal time without all the hormones; drugs and shots they have to be given for just being on the “factory farm floor”; add the GMO feeds with drugs in them; add that the animals dont get any exercise cuz theyre penned in- like people in office spaces..
    and if “we the people” dont stop monsanta-claws, the madam of food whores, well you can kiss-off the health benefits of ANY diet.

  • Dr. Kathleen Fuller

    Thank you – a friend referred me to your site since I have breast cancer stage 4. Used to eat only plant based foods from 1970’s to 1990s. Now I am changing back.

    • Thea

      Dr. Fuller – I’m so sorry to hear about the cancer. This is a great site for learning about foods shown to have an impact on cancer in general, and breast cancer in particular. You have probably already found some of those pages, but just in case, here is a recent article that links to a bunch of other videos on this site:

      The mushroom studies particularly interest me.

      Good luck to you. I’ll keep you in my thoughts.

  • kimberly

    Thank you for your hard work. I am so glad that there are Doctors like you out there giving us the information that we need to make good decisions on are health. I am learning so much and sharing it with ever one I can all though most think I am nuts. I am glad if one person listen and does there research and then starts to eat better I am happy. So again thank you

  • vegan

    can we be %80 vegan.? will it get us close to vegan risk levels by %80.?
    I love the idea of it but realisticly it is a life changing challenge. I am so much worried about food but egg specialy as an ingredient ( it is everywhere ), milk, cheese , yogurt.

    • JacquieRN

      If you have to put a name to it- sounds like you are more “vegetarian” not “vegan”. It is a learning process for sure but very doable and can be done using baby steps if that suits you best. Have you looked at the research on dairy and health?

      On a scale of 1-10, where 1 is not at all motivated to change your diet and 10 is 100% motivated, what number would you give yourself at the moment?

  • Mike

    Plant based diet sounds great, what about all the cancer causing pesticides used on the vegetables

    • Thea

      Mike: Dr. Greger has a great blog post where he puts pesticide consumption into perspective. :

      “A new study calculated that if half the U.S. population ate just one more serving of conventional fruits and vegetables, 20,000 cases of cancer could be prevented. At the same time the added pesticide consumption could cause up to 10 extra cancer cases. So by eating conventional produce we may get a tiny bump in cancer risk, but that’s more than compensated by the dramatic drop in risk that accompanies whole food plant consumption. Even if all we had to eat was the most ontaminated
      produce the benefits would far outweigh any risks.”


      I translate this bit of info into: Eat organic when you can, but don’t stress about it when you can’t.

      Happily, there is a way to take this advice a step further to minimize your risks without completely depleting the pocketbook. Every year, the Environmental Working Group actually measures pesticide levels in fruits and veggies–after those fruits and veggies have been prepared in the way people would normally eat them. (For example, peeling a banana or
      washing first.) If you scroll down on the following page, you will see a list for the “Dirty Dozen” and the “Clean Fifteen”.

      Hope that helps.

      • mike

        The FD allows tomatoes to be sprayed with as many as 5 different pesticides as long as they don’t go over the amount specified by the FD for each of the 5 pesticides. The government is killing us.

        • wideEyedPupil

          Yes and no combination trials have ever, in the history of pesticides, be required.

          One study that plotted population cancer incidence against pesticide usage in prevalent crops found that cotton growing areas positively associated with the highest cancer areas in the USA. They spray cotton with up to ten different pesticides and herbicides in high concentrations.

    • Toxins

      “A new study calculated that if half the U.S. population ate just one more serving of conventional fruits and vegetables, 20,000 cases of cancer could be prevented. At the same time the added pesticide consumption could cause up to 10 extra cancer cases. So by eating conventional produce we may get a tiny bump in cancer risk, but that’s more than compensated by the dramatic drop in risk that accompanies whole food plant consumption. Even if all we had to eat was the most contaminated produce the benefits would far outweigh any risks.”

  • JR
    • Eskil Jonsson

      I would be interested in hearing a response to this as well. I did notice quite a few biases and some misreferencing. However Dr. Greger does of course have biases as well and has arguably cherry picked evidence for this video.

  • Claudia Harpe

    With protein being such a crucial macronutrient and the powerhouse of our bodies structure and metabolism, how does one get proper amounts with a plant based diet?

    • Thea

      Claudia: You question is quite understandable given the information about protein that we are inundated with in the media. The happy news is that it is incredibly easy to get enough protein on a plant based diet by eating a well-rounded whole plant food based diet filled with enough calories. The even happier news is that it is harder to over-eat on protein eating a plant based diet – something that is a big concern for meat, dairy and egg eaters.

      If you want to get a thorough education on protein, check out these sources:

      Here is my favorite website for explaining all about protein. There is a section on the page that talks about the myth of the need to worry about protein combining.

      A close second, to fill in yet some more details is Dr. McDougall article from December 2003.
      You might also check out the January 2004 newsletter article, Protein Overload.

      Hope that helps.

  • MDBritt

    You are mischaracterizing the research you cite! Let me quote from the Harvard School of Public Health when discussing the Nurse’s Study:

    “In studies of more than 80,000 female nurses, Harvard researchers found
    that consuming about an egg a day was not associated with higher risk
    of heart disease (too few women in the study were eating more than an
    egg a day to evaluate the effects of higher egg intakes).”

    The Nurse’s study did find slightly elevated risk from eating eggs for people with existing heart disease or diabetes. I assume that your “facts” as presented in the video are simply taking the results for this select group and treating it as generally true when it isn’t.

    Counting the minutes until you delete this comment…

    • Guest

      This link seems to be broken. By the way, the Harvard Physicians’ Heath Study found that one egg a day clearly increased all causes of mortality and fewer eggs trended in that direction

  • sistadana

    Dr Greger, is most or all of what you present in this discussion still relevant. no new data to refute this. how about any more studies to support this? thanks.

  • Amazing video. Thank you so much for your great review and enthusiastic presentation.

  • Lam Mour

    Thank you very much for this precious video.

  • JeDI

    Our med school niece got most members of the family to view this video (short URL created so we can share: ) — no ax to grind one way or the other on animal rights, or our taste for meat/eggs/cheese … but the simple rationale facts sure seem to lean towards a vegan diet, which we have tried to adopt. — There is a “next level” of details that would be good — for example — a study guide for this video (take each cause of death, link to the research mentioned, and to other information on this site and others) — a second area of interest is “how bad is it to have those eggs when nothing else is on the menu? or perhaps the occasional meat dish … and where the choices are limited, which paths are most healthy? (eggs, fish, cheese, beef, etc.))
    Thanks for the excellent information … we are hungry for more. [Oh yes, 3 months doing this, some great meals, lost 10 lbs, and feeling at least as well as before if not better]

  • Paul

    As the video makes clear, vegetarians are less susceptible to the most prevalent diseases in a meat-eating society. But could the roles be reversed? Is there data available on the leading causes of death for vegetarians? And might some of these diseases be less pernicious among meat eaters? (Ditto for non-lethal but debilitating diseases.)

    Putting it simply, are there ANY diseases which are more prevalent among vegetarians/vegans?

  • Shellyvegan Norton

    This is the most informative health presentation I have ever watched.

  • radiostimme .

    11:12 a was laughing loud… I struggle with understanding, because my english isn’t good enough to understand all… but Dr. Greger its great

  • stevelittle

    I went “mostly” vegan last year because my husband was diagnosed with type-II diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. We started following Dr. Barnard’s book on controlling diabetes with diet. Eric followed it to the letter and everything was reversed. I didn’t follow it religiously because diabetes was not my issue and I had none of the other issues. So I got into a rut of eating McDonald’s breakfasts and the occasional meat at lunch. If you are not totally committed to eating this way, it’s hard to stick to it when you are getting food from outside the home. I had no problem sticking to it at home.

    Then, several months ago, I got the word I had Plasmablastic Lymphoma with a few tumors in my nose. I thought, what the heck, I am vegan and I shouldn’t be getting this. Of course, I really wasn’t vegan. Then, through chemo, I ended up not losing my appetite but used the chemo as an excuse to eat whatever the heck I want. Which, turned out pretty much to be the worst things I could possibly eat while fighting cancer. I started eating almost exclusively; processed meats, dairy and a lot of sugar. Part of that was to overcome taste issues with the chemo. But mostly, I just used it as an excuse to go crazy.

    So, long story short, instead of continuing on down this road while going through the radiation, your talk inspired me to get back on track and go back to a strict whole food/plant-based diet again. As most people on here (except for the trolls) will tell you, the meat is the easiest thing to cut out. For me it’s the dairy that is the hardest.

    I will watch your video again tonight, but I don’t remember hearing anything about plant based fats. Like nuts, avocado, olives. What is your take on eating that kind of thing? Barnard is pretty much against all pure and high-density fat foods.


    • Thea

      stevelittle: re: ” For me it’s the dairy that is the hardest.”
      You are not alone! It gets easier, especially when you learn some tricks for getting creamy textures in the food, but it can still be a hurdle for some people to give up dairy. Dairy is literally addictive.

      I’m sorry to hear about your tumors. I’m hoping you will be able to beat it. Dr. Greger has several videos on this site regarding the health value of nuts. So, a good 1 to 2 ounces of nuts (and/or seeds) a day would fit right in with Dr. Greger’s recommendations. Dr. Greger doesn’t generally support the use of oils. But a few olives would not be remiss. There is at least one video against the use of avocadoes on this site, but I consider it to be one of the weaker videos. It hasn’t stopped me from enjoying some avocados now and then.

      Here are Dr. Greger’s overall nutrition recommendations. I think it answers your question in terms of what is stressed and not stressed in the recommendations, even if it doesn’t directly address “fat”:

      Hope that helps and best of luck to you.
      PS: Thanks for the report on Eric and his success in treating diabetes. That’s great encouragement for others in a similar predicament.

    • Thea

      stevelittle: One more bit of advice: I recommend that you search NutritionFacts specifically on the topic of cancer. While a whole plant food based diet is generally good for just about anyone, there are tweaks you can do that will help with specific conditions. So, there may be certain foods you will want to focus on specifically because of your diagnosis.

    • Many of my patient’s find it difficult to give up dairy… may have something to do with the main protein in cow’s milk, casein, being converted to 8 casomorphins (morphine like substances) which are absorbed into our body. About 20% of folks are “cheese cravers”… eat cheese daily straight out of the package and 20% more are “cheese enhancers”… adding cheese to many of their foods. You might find reading “Whitewash” a bit illuminating and supportive of avoiding dairy as it effectively covers the wide range of problems with dairy. Michael Klaper MD calls dairy “baby cow growth food”. You should also consider viewing a selection from the over 80 video’s on dairy on PCRM’s resource, The Cancer Survivor’s Guide, is available for free download on the their website. Foods low in fat will typically lead to a more ideal body weight. Whole foods like nuts, avocados and olives are better then processed foods and should be consumed in moderation. Good luck with your treatment and finding the correct diet.

  • Julie @ Inflammaging

    Fascinating video as always – people interested in this topic may not know that there is now no doubt that what’s called chronic inflammation is a central cause of (heart disease/diabetes/stroke) and there’s
    a free report on how to prevent it at

  • Samantha

    This was so amazing I am so happy to have stumbled upon it & I cannot wait to share!!

  • Christoph

    Is eating one egg in total as harmful as smoking 5 cigarettes in total or as harmful as smoking 5 cigarettes every day for 15 years? I didn’t quite get that….

  • Derrek

    What do you say to someone that thinks that dietary cholesterol is good for you? It helps make cell walls and other structural processes.

    • Thea

      Derrek: The, “Your body needs cholesterol. Hence dietary cholesterol is good for you.” is an argument that we see all of the time. And it is an argument that is *very* easy to counter. The short answer is: “Yes, your body needs cholesterol. But your body makes all of the cholesterol that it needs. So, baring some serious genetic defect/disease, you don’t need to get cholesterol from your diet. The reverse is true: adding dietary cholesterol typically raises your body’s cholesterol levels above the known safe amount, which is a total 150 or below and LDL 70 or below.”

      I will write out a bit more for you to help you/others put this into perspective: If people making these claims were to think it through, they are (likely) really making one or both of these points: 1) cholesterol is necessary for our bodies, AND we need to eat it to get enough, and/or 2) cholesterol is SO necessary for so many important functions in our bodies that we can’t have too much of it in our bodies. The higher the number the better.

      Neither of these points is true. As stated above, we know that our bodies make all of the cholesterol that we need and that adding extra cholesterol by eating it increases our risk for disease and early death.

      The second point is also not true. *No one* is asking the question: do our bodies need cholesterol at all or not? The real question is: what level of cholesterol in our blood/bodies is healthy? Is there a level that is too high so that it is associated with higher risk of disease and death? (Too low?–another question for another time) And does eating cholesterol raise our body’s cholesterol levels above the safe amount?

      To presume that there is *no* upper limit to healthy cholesterol is against all common sense. For example, our bodies *need* water. But we all know that if your body gets too much water, you can die from it. It doesn’t make sense to think that cholesterol would be any different. Common sense tells us that there is an upper line where having too much cholesterol causes bad things to happen, just like having too much water (a necessary ingredient for life!) causes bad things to happen.

      Reasonable people can argue over where that line is for cholesterol, but it seems to me that paleo/atkins/etc people tend to argue that there is no line at all. While I and others argue that we have a mountain of evidence showing that a) there is a line and b) we are pretty sure that that line for the general population is: a total cholesterol below 150 with LDL below 70 in order to be heart-attack proof. I’ve never seen a paleo person show a study where people below 150/70 got heart attacks. (Might happen with a rare genetic defect. But not a pattern.)

      Suppose someone is willing to concede the 150/70 point/line for the sake of argument. They might then counter with: “But that doesn’t mean that eating animal products (ie eating dietary cholesterol) will cause our body’s cholesterol levels to rise.” The “evidence” that “supports” this statement is fatally flawed. On the other hand, there is a mountain of good evidence that counters this statement. (Check out Plant Positive as well as videos on this site.) Further, it is my understanding that in general, when most people eat cholesterol (animal products) beyond *trivial* amounts, their cholesterol levels tend to go into the danger zone (above 150/70). (And based on anecdotes, I would say, once that cholesterol level goes up for years/decades on end/from childhood, it can be very hard for people to get their levels in the safe zone even after they try to change their diet. But I don’t know that for a fact.)

      To get back to the point: Yes, our bodies need cholesterol, but the belief of “the more the better” for body levels of cholesterol is not supported by the evidence.

      Does that help?

  • Kathy Morris

    Excellent video on the leading causes of death. I am a 62 yo female with chronic low back pain from DDD and arthritis and Fibromyalgia. Both showed up after a car accident 9 yrs ago. I want to go Vegan and get off the bad meds. How do I start? I know much to ask here but I want to be pain-free, lose 50 lbs and finally be healthy, again! U can email me directly at email on file. I really need your help and support. Do you have a recipe book out on eating Vegan and how to do it? God bless you Dr Greger and I so appreciate all u do to help us be healthy as God intended.

    • Thea

      Kathy: This website has some videos on lower back pain. As well as arthritis and Fibromaylgia. You may want to check some of those out.

      But I can see that you are read to get off of the theory and start getting some practical advice! Here are some of my favorite resources and recommendations for people who are starting out:

      1) Consider going through the free 21 Day Kickstart program by PCRM. They will hold your hand for 21 days, including meal plans, recipes, videos, inspirational messages, and a forum where you can ask questions.
      (Click the green “Register Now” button.)

      2) Pick some good cookbooks and start making recipes. You don’t have to go cold-turkey and expect that you aren’t going to like every recipe you try. So, just keep trying dishes until you build up a set that you really like and are easy enough for you to make. Then you can just make those recipes and stop making your old ones. Some cookbooks that I recommend are:
      Let Them Eat Vegan
      Vegan On The Cheap
      Vegan Casseroles
      Everyday Happy Herbivore (or any book in that series)

      Or if you have a specific condition you want to work on, there are some great books that have recipes in the back for those conditions. Let me know if you want some suggestions for diabetes, heart disease, memory/dimentia or one that is good for athletes, etc. Actually, the main diet is the same for all of these conditions. But it is nice to get the specific books and recommended recipes when you are first starting out so that you start to get a handle on what you are looking for in terms of what is healthy.

      3) Check out some good recipe blogs. These sites have free recipes as well as some emotional support as you can read about the lives of others. Here are some sites people really like:
      There are A LOT more out there! So, keep looking until you find one or two that you like.

      4) Get a copy of Jeff Novick’s Fast Food DVD series. Jeff does a great job of giving simple, tasty, extremely healthy recipes, all in a mini cooking show format. Here’s one to get you started:
      The burgers and fries DVD is a good one too!

      5) Don’t forget your B12 supplement. Here are Dr. Greger’s overall nutrition recommendations. This will give you a very general, overall game plan along with some advice on specific nutrients to make sure you have all your bases covered:

      I hope that helps.

  • D Kidd

    If any person thinks that one diet fits all, please show us the evidence. If any person thinks that one pill fits all, show us the evidence. If any person thinks that each person has the same microbiome, show us the evidence. I have completely won the argument against all comments on this site…..The vegan diet, the paleo diet, the whatever diet is not going to affect each person the same….PERIOD. So, what the hell is the answer? The answer is that each of us will find what does work….that’s the answer to all of this non sense.

    The minute people start saying that a certain way of eating is wrong, they have lost the argument. How many people take a medicine and it doesn’t work for you like it did your friend or family member? How many people eat certain things that do not agree with you, but it’s fine for someone else? If people on this site actually care about other people’s health, then stop your stupidity and realize that eating is different for each of us.

    The reality is that our gut flora is the universe to health. As the microbiome project goes forward, we will be learning what works for each individual as far as health is concerned….STOP YOUR INSANITY AND REALIZE THAT YOUR DIET ISN’T MY DIET.

    • Although we may have different genetics, we do share the SAME biology.

      • D Kidd

        However, we do not share the same microbiomes….

        • If you make an array of sterile petrie dishes, each with a different culture composition, then lift the lids for a few seconds and replace them, individual colonies will begin to grow. The colonies will be made up of bacteria that found that culture to its liking. All the plates were subjected to the same background exposure. But different culture media support different “spectra” of bacteria colonies.

          If you lay down a good culture medium in your gut by eating whole plant foods, if you build it, then you will select for a good microbiome…they will come.

          • D Kidd

            Our genetics are different in each person…..your idea falls short of that fact. Our genetics will drive the microbiome to be different in each person. You cannot say that if everyone eats plants, we will all be healthy. First of all, people are not going to follow a plant based diet no matter what anyone says….it will never happen unless people are forced at gun point. The vegans are and will always be a tiny left wing radical group with no power.

          • Arjan den Hollander.

            You probably do want to have frequent human contact and avoid washing hands after shaking hands or handling money.
            And prepare your food with unwashed hands too, not as much a problem some people claim it to be as long as one is fit.
            And they will come ^^ :)

            Coacervate I came across a bit of yours where you divulged suffering from bipolar disorder and talked about meditation.
            Could you tell me a bit more about that? Other coping strategies you might be willing to share?
            I recently found some respite after 8 month downhill slide because of choline, but while immensely helpful not the end all to all.
            Nobody really seems to know what exactly to do with me in my healthcare system, so after my body its time I start fixing this myself too I guess. Kind of daunting, cross kind of replace with completely daunting, hypochondriac too and that is not helpful in the least.

            Anyway, any and all pointers would be very much appreciated indeed.

          • Well your sense of humor is in good health, at least I hope you were joking about the hand thing :) Glad to hear the choline is working. In my case, I was so sick I was planning to top myself and get it out of the way. So when I latched on to WFPB it was like someone tossed a lifesaver. Here is the short list of what I did:
            Quit my job – I was lucky and picked a supportive wife
            Quit my “friends” – anyone who brings me needless stress is out
            However, a close friend is also a Buddhist nun. She helped me throw away the clutter, both physical and meta, (I am not nor ever will be religous). I thought about what was important to me. Once sorted the needed changes were easy to do.
            Finally, I was only able to do most of the above AFTER the whole plant food transition. I felt good and strong again. The black days, the migraines, the gut problems, the joint pain, the meds- all gone now …. i can’t list all the things that have improved for me…everything … I was so happy to simply feel good I became more friendly and social.

            So, people do love to talk about themselves don’t they, heh? I wish I could tell you for sure this is what you need…I know you are already committed to restoring your health. That is the important part. OH right, I would recommend reading comments from Darryl, Boomer, Veganrunner and you know, the good Drs and professionals on the NF team. Seek out the ones who can sort out the good science from the … not so good. My spidey sense tells me you will be fine. And remember, you’re not Superman, ya know

          • Arjan den Hollander.

            But how far have you taken plant based?
            I went step by step, first going after ADHD grains and eggs then milk products 13 months ago, reducing meat to one moment a day and stepping down the number of days gradually.
            Every now and then though I had to eat meat again to feel better, now with the new experiences with choline I might know why.
            Eventually had a very nerve wrecking trial end of April stress through the roof, I must have burned all my magnesium back then. Still going lower on meat or wild salmon, the more my mind went manic the more I favored the fish because of possible oil benefit over meat. BUT there is even less choline in fish, hindsight ^^
            Anyway eventually still going less and less frequent reduced to fish once every two weeks, and that is as vegan as I’ve been.
            2 months into that new routine I could not control myself anymore, panicked and started eating fish regularly again.
            Always wild caught (frozen), yeah I know fish is bad but going crazy, and going by the fire on my scalp and upper spine I really was just bracing for seizures.

            Not stupid and recognized the danger, stopped frequenting another forum and nutrition facts, stopped everything that caused stimulation of whatever kind and just binge watched stupid tv series a mystery science theater 3000 every now and then.
            Threw out the TV 8 month before that already but now just had to stop browsing too. If anything peaked my interest to much it was just to toxic for me, talking to people toxic to me. Had to stop exercise to, I really hate that part, wanting to do it but you know its just to stimulating. And then the depression comes, sigh!

            Even now better protected by the magnesium and choline I’m still in need finding my new equilibrium.
            I gave this site to my dentist, an ever so very friendly lady, for me after 5 years of isolation and so out of touch just,
            knowing what I write might be read by her can keep me up. Noticed I posted to much because of re-checking things,
            I dunno its all so weird. Everything is so uncertain, cannot plan anything because I never know how I’ll feel.
            Its horrible.

            Did you have to go vegan all the way for the difference? I suppose I can give that a try again but this time with the choline and algea DHA. I’m not worried about b/protein but very uncertain about the fats with regard to my ADHD, seems that throws things wildly off balance.

            On meditation, I’m always just way to distracted to plan this for myself, doing it in a group also not an option. Those people ask a lot of money, it all seems nothing more than luxury leisure. Wellness my ass. ^^

          • Arjan, I had no idea what you were up against. Of course I am not qualified to give you medical advice, but I also have little faith in psychiatry. I have to ask though, have you ever been on Prozac? or has anyone in the field prescribed a med that helps subdue the PEAKs? It is clear that you are not getting much traction from the “professionals” so I encourage you to continue to work on your own…do you keep a journal? could be useful to record daily data on meals, activities, events, moods.

            I went hardcore WFPB for 2 years starting in 2011. My worry was death from advanced heart disease. One cause was extreme stress caused by worry about death from heart disease. really. So it was easy for me to make the change. After the second year I started adding back traditional Holiday meals, but I have actually lost my desire for all that crap so usually I backslide into whole plant foods even then. To answer you question, I felt so much better and in control of myself…the peaks and lows, my physical strength..everything came back into place for me.

            I am really sorry that you have to fight through this. I wish there was more I could do. I’m at -175, -40 (-13 hour GMT at the moment)…can I ask whats your time zone? Latitude? I had a friend in northern sweden who suffered terribly in the winter. Then one dr. gave him a bank of lights and practically overnight he was off Prozac and doing much much better. Just a thought.

            I just remembered something, when I was having trouble with PEAKS I learned to take deep breaths in trhough my nose, out through my mouth…just 5 minutes of that would bring me back to terra firma.
            Wishing the best for you Arjan.

          • Arjan den Hollander.

            Thank you very much for that extensive reply. I’ve given up on doctors and psychiatry for the most part too. They seem to have no clue or understanding on so many levels that communicating issues is damn near impossible.

            I’ve been on prozac for 6 years during my first “lost years” to anxiety. Don’t regard it as something that has helped me much.
            I’m not keeping a journal, I probably should, but I’m completely hopeless in a systematic work approach.
            Even the most simple list keeping efforts like possibly interesting supplements or foods in a WFPBD fail.
            Probably because I just stopped paying attention to school when I started the Dutch equivalent of high school.

            I did have a heart incident last summer which I thought was a minor infarction but I recently came across stress cardiomyopathy which now seems far more likely. To be honest I cared and still do care about atherosclerosis, fixing that making the best out of that, but “an event”, I die, I die, I just hope its a somewhat clean death and do not have to be too nauseous and throw up. That is pretty much my kryptonite.

            How hardcore WFPBD did you go? Vegan all the way?
            I hardly ever eat anything processed at all anymore for quite a long while now actually,
            I did eventually return to a piece of wild salmon a day.
            But with the added choline I’m now experimenting with limiting that intake again, a small piece of wild fish every 3 days,
            and no other animal products. If there is no worsening of symptoms once a week, once every two weeks.

  • RK

    excellent presentation. I became a vegetarian since last 8 years and became vegan since last 4 years. I can see a huge difference in my energy levels, health, and guilt free (of eating meat) I noticed that eating one banana per day and a handful of pumpkin seeds a day, makes a lot of difference which eliminates depression, calm down the tension etc. Thank you so much for your amazing videos that help thousands of people. It really make sense how the prescription drugs makes people sick. It is happening in my family and they are trying to get out of prescription drugs. The only think bothers me is, thyroid (Hypo/Hyper) is there no cure for under active thyroid? why do we need to take that for lifelong? If anyone have any ideas, please share. thanks.

  • Celia

    Doctor Greger, i really like your talks, and this talk is especially interesting. i’ve also watched your talk about the 40-year vegan who died of heart attack. These days, i’ve heard a few online summits in which the medical professionals and researchers say that new studies have found that it’s not cholesterol that causes heart disease, but rather just inflammation, and that sugar is the major cause. They also say that if cholesterol is too low (under 150), the body cannot make its hormones. Some doctors, particularly authors of Grain Brain and Wheat Belly, are proposing a high fat and low carb diet. And they say that saturated fat is not a problem. Rather bad fat is a problem – fat from factory farms, etc. As a consequence, the “paleo diet” is gaining ground, and for most people, that diet means a lot of meat, butter and so on. i haven’t seen or heard any in-depth discussion between the two opposing camps regarding the cause of heart disease, point by point. I feel now there’s a great deal of confusion. i’ve seen a video of a debate that ended up inconclusive:

    Is it possible if you have a talk on this thoroughly? Thank you so much!

    • Next week Dr. Greger will have a vide addressing the Paleo issue. The debate you posted is a good example of how this type of format doesn’t lend itself to resolution of the debate. The science is clear at this point always subject to change… that’s why it is important to keep tuned. The interpretation of studies can be used to support a range of positions for a sense of this see video… Many of the “experts” have a minimum understanding of the issues both statistical and commercial surrounding studies. Sugar has not been shown to be a problem as long as it is below 5% of total calorie intake… although it does make a good target. It is also depends on the company it keeps see the video… and the dose see…

      • Celia

        Thank you, doctor. That’s very helpful!

    • Thea

      Celia: I’m not sure if someone replied ot you or not. Just in case you haven’t gotten a reply, Dr. Greger’s does have a video which directly addresses Grain Brain and Wheat Belly, but despite multiple searches, I can’t find it. Maybe you could find it??? Or someone else can and will help out?

      Also note that many other videos on this site indirectly address the flaws of those books by showing abundant evidence showing the healthfulness of grains and legumes and the health problems with meat.

      Cholesterol below 150 is definitely not a problem. Dr. Greger has addressed this in the past and has another video on the topic coming up in the next batch.

      For a super in-depth and wonderfully scholarly work on understanding the flaws of the paleo arguments and cholesterol’s role in heart disease, check out Plant Positive’s work:
      (The video series are listed to the right of the screen.)

      Hope that helps.

      • Celia

        Thank you so much, Thea! That’s a very great help!

  • Jordan

    Well what about this…

    “”It’s the right decision,” said Steven Nissen, chairman of cardiovascular medicine at the famed Cleveland Clinic. “We got the dietary guidelines wrong. They’ve been wrong for decades.”

    He noted that only 20% of a person’s blood cholesterol — the levels measured with standard cholesterol tests — comes from diet. The rest comes from genes, he said.”

    “We told people not to eat eggs. It was never based on good science,” Nissen said.”

    Mind you im a vegan but …what about this?

  • Michael Brown

    What do you all think of this: “The U.S. government is poised to withdraw longstanding warnings about cholesterol”

    The government agency isn’t going to shift unless the data/evidence is overwhelming, so I wonder how you can reconcile these various studies.

  • Heather Johnstone

    The tidbit about nuts is especially interesting. Such a small change in our routine can impact our health incredibly. While there are many videos on the site which explore the topic of how nuts impact health, this video is a good starter video

  • Shari Rogers

    All I see is the word “appears”. This “appears” to cause that, etc. What that means to me is that most research is incomplete at best, highly biased in various ways and therefore agenda-based at worst. Eat whatever you eat but do it all in moderation and get exercise on a regular basis.

  • dougtheslug

    Too bad this guy is such an asshole in his presentation. He belongs on the Gong Show.

  • farmcountry

    Thank you doctor. Your research-based analysis is compelling and I have already experienced considerable improvement in a chronic disease by implementing these strategies. What’s equally stunning to me is the extent those with a conflict of interest will go to try to discredit proven research to protect profit. Perhaps they’ve had their conscience surgically removed.

  • Peggy Young

    Are you able to give an estimate of what percentage of death would be prevented for each of the top fourteen causes for death by converting to a whole foods vegan diet?

    • Joseph Gonzales R.D.

      That’s a good question, Peggy. I think it is far too hard to tell. This study reviews diet and cancer risk and mentions that dietary factors may account for up to 70% of cancer mortality. Of course, this is not looking at whole-food vegan diets, but it goes to show diet plays a dramatic role on cancer mortality and other illnesses that Dr. Greger describes in this video.

  • kngfshr

    Am concerned about this New York Times editorial:
    Please advise.

    • Joseph Gonzales R.D.

      I have seen this making the rounds. I’ll let one of Dr. Greger’s favorite cancer-specific organizations give their take, here. I agree with the bottom line from this review, which is the American Institute for Cancer Research guideline to limit red meat to < 18 oz per week and avoid processed meat. There is convincing research linking red meat to colorectal cancer risk and this NYT article does not alter previous evidence.

  • Claude

    Dr.Greger,I wonder why you cater to the typical online attention span,one of the reasons people watch these videos in the first place is to improve their own brain function,including their attention span.

  • Simon Templar

    Dr. Greger is brilliant.

  • Josh Mcqueen

    Quick question…. at around 02:24 Michael talks about a big study were the participants ate the equivalent amount of cholesterol found in one egg. This apparently resulted in a reduced life expectancy comparable to smoking 5 cigarettes a day for fifteen years. Lets be clear here, eating a single egg a day is not as bad as smoking 5 cigarettes a day for fifteen years. What if the participants had a horrendous diet which resulted in the having both an amount of cholesterol equivalent to 1 egg per day AND extra anti-nutrients ?

  • Rachelle Charlebois

    exactly!!!!!! the proof is in the pudding, as it is eloquently said!!! no more proof is needed, either, that this man is most HUMANE, …imho. thanks so kindly for your insight! Praise is needed, where praise is DESERVED!!

  • I found this study online that was done in Austria that said their vegetarians lived shorter lives. Any answers on why this study turned out that way. ( I don’t believe it’s true judging by other info I’ve found, but was met with some hostility from my husbands father when he found out I wasn’t eating meat and this is what he brought up) Here’s the link

  • alecmm

    Dear Dr. Greger,

    Healthy arteries, improved immune function, disease prevention! Lets go vegan, Lets go!

    You have changed my life for the better. I have gone from an animal product heavy diet to mostly vegan because your videos informed me of the health problems associated with animal product consumption. Thank you for exposing the truth in a way only you could do, with fun and seriousness, you have kept me on the edge of my seat. There are times when I have watched your videos when I found tears in my eyes, but you lighten things up with your good humor. You have opened my eyes to so many different nutrition concerns and I have changed the way I eat and the way I cook for my family. Before I started watching your videos I was eating eggs for breakfast and meat practically every meal. I thought that meat and eggs were nutritious and fundamental parts of a healthy diet. I have been studying health and nutrition for many years as a hobby. Through my nutrition research I had realized that disease was linked with inflammation, and diet, but was not aware that animal products cause inflammation! When I learned how egg, meat and dairy consumption are linked with artery clogging diseases of all kinds such as, Atherosclerosis, alzheimer’s, heart disease, and other diseases as well like diabetes, obesity, cancer, and depression it was a very pivotal moment in my understanding of how diet can either cause or prevent disease. You are an inspiration and hero for fearlessly coming forth and teaching the powerful knowledge you have in a way that regular folks can understand. Humanity is better off now that your videos are accessible to all! When you demonstrated how diet can prevent treat and even reverse heart disease, and our top 10 killers. My mind was made up I was going vegan! I am still on a mostly vegan plant based diet since I began watching your videos. This means I base my diet on whole plant foods; steamed veggies, Broccoli is my favorite!, squash, whole grains like quinoa, oatmeal, brown rice, whole grain bread, Pecans, Peanut butter, nuts, legumes, great northern beans are my favorite beans, blueberries, red delicious apples, tomatoes, onions, garlic, turmeric, ground black pepper, and i feel so much better now! I used to feel sluggish and lethargic after meals, because I was eating too much processed foods and meat, now that I base my meals on veggies, legumes, and whole grains I have so much more energy. The way you show how the immune systems of vegans fight cancer and infection better than those on a S.A.D. really motivated me to give vegan eating a try, and it worked! I am trying to focus on nutrient dense, fiber rich ingredients. After a few months of experimenting I have developed a collection of easy tasty vegan recipes I can whip up in a flash. I LOVE NUTRITIONFACTS.ORG!!!!!! YOU ARE AWESOME!!!!

  • john tiffany

    Dr greger–

    in a couple of your videos you mention black crowberries and dog rose hips, implying these are the best anti-oxidants. Is that correct? Where in the world do I get crowberries–travel to Greenland and buy them from the Eskimos? And dog rose mainly grows in Europe–are other rose hips just as good?

    On another note: Should we be getting berberine in our diets? I hear it is the latest big thing. But do we have to inject the extract or can we just eat plants containing berberine? And would that include Oregon grape berries? Phellodendron drupes? Tree turmeric? Goldenseal tea? Goldthread? Barberries? (Probably too small to be practical.)

    • Joseph Gonzales R.D.

      All of these plants are full of antioxidants and health-promoting. The crowberries and dog rose hips were high in antioxidants but I have no idea where to find! So I suggest sticking to other foods like black berries, regular rose hips, etc. Berberine is an Ethiopian spice, right? The whole spice is generally preferred. I have not heard of some of these herbs but I know many different plants help counter many ailments.

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  • W. Burke

    In how to persuade one learns to start from the persuaded’s point of view and try and move them in the right direction. Since your work is quite over the top for most eaters, there needs to be a way to reach the majority who are unlikely to comprehend your great messages. For example, how does one evolve from the typical to the vegan diet? The Mediterranean diet is better, an almost vegan is better still and vegan is best. It could also go a long way towards selling rather than telling and hammering with logic. People are not logical enough for your approach, at least most of them. You obviously respond well to logic. Your message is sooo strong (and good for me) that it undermines its own credibility, since it, by logic, leaves out of the mainstream of popular nutrition discussions. First time readers can just write you off as extremist. Your material resonates with believers and receptive minorities only.

  • Meghan

    I am absolutely outraged ! Went to the hospital today and there was a Tim Horton’s, Subway, Pizza place… I just can’t believe this horror. People are dying in the hospital and they’re going to make animal products THIS easily accessible??? I am disgusted with this world. I need to change this one day.

    • S Slavin

      Forget animal products, it’s probably processed to the point where you can’t even identify the type of protein..

    • Joseph Gonzales R.D.

      Sad huh? Luckily Dr. Greger and other groups are calling out the folks responsible for setting up this mess. At least places like Kaiser Permanente – the largest U.S. managed care organization, is publishing patient education materials, like this healthful meal plan. Thanks for shedding some light on this! If interested, check out PCRM’s Hospital Report.

  • Frankie S. Capwell

    I love you! Thank you for saving my life with this video.

  • Frankie S. Capwell

    Is there anyway you can create a streamlined video that is much shorter and gets quickly to the point? Many of the people I have been showing the video to have a serious problem with maintaining focus (probably due to the consumption of animal products as I know my ability to focus has increased ten fold since going on a plant based diet) long enough to get the requisite nuggets that help the viewer put the dots together and understand that animal products are straight up poison. This video is fantastic and changed my life, but the social programming in some to support the animal product industry needs a surgical strike – and I really care about these people who are in such tight bondage of the mind.

    • Joseph Gonzales R.D.

      I suggest just using other videos that are shorter. Also, the blogs are helpful for those who don’t want to watch a video. I am so glad you have made some diet improvements and have seen good results!

  • Slam

    At only 7:00 (after the McMuffin thing), my jaw dropped and I stopped the video for a few seconds. Why is this guy taking the McMuffin study seriously? Why not put it aside as garbage immediately instead of going on another hypothesis about bacteria and saturated fat? I don’t get it. I’m astounded.

    However, I give him credit for criticizing studies (by actually reading them), even if they come from an authority.

  • Kevin diez

    I have a question.
    I’m eating vegetable every meal but I still drink those protein shake, because I still want that fit body. Is it possible to combine this two together and be healthy?
    P.S I also exercise 3 hours 4 to 3 days a week

  • premkumar

    Herbal life is a nutrition product mainly market their product for
    weight management and they mentioned ingredients used for their product
    is herbal extraction and 100% veg logo .I used this product for my
    weight management and the result is susceptible.My concern is whether it
    is really a natural extraction or they use chemical(drug) compounds for
    the product and how safe to use such product for nutrition compare to
    natural dieting system.

  • Eric Lent

    The plant based diet is presented has having significant benefits to everyone. However, it appears that “everyone” does not necessarily include starting this diet as an ‘elderly’ individual? I have benefited from this approach to health for over 20 years and now, being 70, feel I continue to do so. My concerns are with my volunteer work with the elderly in nursing homes. It appears that they could benefit significantly from this lifestyle. But! Can they? I’ve read one or two articles (my oligopolies for not keeping a record of which and what) that indicate adopting a plant based diet does not affect the mortality of the elderly in any significant way. On the surface, disappointing. However, there is no information on the possibility of improvement in end-of-life quality issues. As it may be, we might all die when we die regardless of lifestyle changes. But, if a lifestyle change can improve the last years, it would be worth it confronting the Residents’ resistance and the institutions archaic positions. What say you? Will a plant based diet mitigate medical issues for the 60+ or 70+ person — especially those who have a long term history of predominantly metabolic issues??

  • sandra

    My question is on insomnia. After trying very many strong prescriptions and none working well, a new doctor has me trying melatonin. I started with 3 mg and used 5 / 8 per night. It helped but still did not get a full nights sleep. He is prescribing 10mg and at the most 2 pills, so 20mg and if that doesn’t work, he will combine with Travasidone. Any suggestions on this subject?

  • Jessie Steer

    I loved it & am gonna try to change my carnivorous ways.

  • vlekim

    Loved your video. You are also too funny. Excellent presenter

  • Mark James Hill

    This study among other modern studies refutes the ckaim that increased dietary cholesterol intake raises cholesterol. At keast in 75% of the population the other 25% we call hyper responders.

    The framingham heart study is probably the best known longitudinal study.

  • Mark James Hill

    I have to say though doc when i look at your body and you being 41 i cant say you appear to be what most call healthy. No offense but you lack muscle tone and look older than your age and you have a pot belly? Is it genetics or what?

    The insides count as well but… ya know the proof is in the pudding.

    My personal dietary habits for the past 30 years has been a variety of foods as well as more recently caloric restriction slightly. I still eat what i want just not as much as i want and only as many carbs as i need. Lower fat and high protein mostly coming from fish chicken and pork. I am not against animal fat and see many benefits in all foods even coffee chocolate and wine. And well potato chips lowers my mental stress levels and make me happy.

    The main secret EXERCISE. religeously since i was a kid. And keep moving. Exercise covers over a multitude of sins.

    One health issue i have is elevated LDL but i am not sure which kind. I wish pysicians would test for LDL-P but alas medical science is behind the reaearch. I will not take statins. I get a cold once a year its lasts 2-3 days and i havent taken antibiotics in over 15 years not any other drug besides ibuprofin occasionally if injure a muscle working out.

  • Dan Winkler

    I’d like to see your review of this study which found that vegetarians are more often ill and have a lower quality of living than meat-eaters.

  • Dean Hoffman

    This is “Cherry Picked” research (Same thing Ancel Keys did)…. Dr. Greger, what about the “Framingham Heart Study”, supposedly one of the largest studies ever of its kind showing that those with the highest cholesterol lived the longest? Alternatively, what about this recent HUGE study showing that people who ate more saturated fat get LESS HEART DISEASE! You may disagree, but, at least, address it and explain why you disagree instead of simply cherry picking studies in a grand display of confirmation bias. I am not saying your conclusions are incorrect (they may not be), what I am saying is that it is unbalanced and unprofessional and credibility-killing not to present both sides, particularly when you have highly credible research that directly contradicts that which you are presenting. Also, you should make your affiliation with the Humane Society far more prominent. It represents potentially one of the most egregious conflicts of interest I have ever seen in this domain (bordering on malpractice in my opinion). Not too different from me reporting that people who smoke live to one hundred, and oh, by the way, I work for RJ Reynolds! However, I found fifty people who smoked and lived to one hundred years old and only used them in my study. Therefore, my cherry picked study proves 100% of the subjects who smoke live to one hundred. CMON! Furthermore, you do not promote open discussion, the last few comments I’ve made like this got deleted. Nonsense. Is this material for the uneducated? Because anybody with a simple understanding of statistics is laughing at these freshman errors and conflicts of interest. But since lives are on the line, there is something far worse than laughter taking place!

    I think you need to start your research here:

    • Thea

      Dean: Here’s what I have learned about the Framingham study: “…Framingham actually made clear that for people under 50 cholesterol levels were directly tied to overall and cardiovascular mortality. This Framingham study also makes clear that for older people, falling cholesterol is a reflection of the J-curve, which you know all about at this point.” You can learn more and get references by watching the following video:

      What that means is that when it comes to the elderly, you often see a reverse relationship, but the causes of that reverse relationship are well known. For example, people with cancer have lower cholesterol levels. And people with cancer tend to die sooner. That doesn’t mean that lower cholesterol causes early deaths. It means that older people with cancer then get lower cholesterol and then die sooner. In other words, it’s that whole correlation doesn’t equal causation thing. For everyone else, the relationship between higher cholesterol and higher mortality is clear. You can learn more by watching more videos on the site I linked to above. Or here on NutritionFacts.

      There are similar answers to all of your points. For example, this site *does* have articles and videos which explain how studies purporting the goodness of saturated fat are horribly flawed. I don’t have an interest in hearing Dr. Greger point out the errors of each and every fatally flawed study. But he has addressed them as a group, and more than once. I invite you to investigate this site more if you are interested. Here is one NutritionFacts article on the topic and it even specifically addresses your Framingham study:

      I agree that it is important to get such information right before spreading it. I disagree that you have the right of it. And I strongly disagree that any cherry picking has been done on this site.

  • David Belli

    Everyone read about carnosine and creatine and you’ll go straight to eating meat again. The world’s fixing your problem already. Richard Dawkins (one of the prime, leading scientists) has already said that once we can grow meat, slaughtering for food becomes unethical… Don’t give in to this vegan propaganda and don’t believe our corrupt society, listen to the scientists that can actually give you proof ‘confirmed by many’. Michael Gregor is just a general practitioner ‘cherry picking’ at research that covers a whole lot more material than what he shows you, he is not a biochemist nor does he have enough scientists backing him up…

  • Lucy Salerno

    Dr. Greger, I just finished watching your video, Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, as part of Rouxbe Cooking School. It was truely amazing. I’ve been a quasi vegan for about six months now but after the information you presented in your video, I will definitely be going back to a completely vegan lifestyle. Thank you so much for making this information available to everyone. There is so much false information out there that people don’t know what to believe anymore. Thanks again.

    • Tanya Meeth

      Good for you Lucy! Check out his book “How Not to Die” it is so good!

  • catsmeow05

    Greger is the Sh@#%t! Hell Yeah!

  • how can i cite some statements that the doctor mentioned? id like to include this to my reasearch

  • Lino V Metzger

    I want to translate this speech into German. How do I best go about it? Thanks for your work, Dr. Greger.

  • itasara

    I just heard part of your talk on WXXI AM radio. I kind of follow the controversies involved with high cholesterol. I have high cholesterol but my ratio is good and it’s really a genetic high cholesterol rather than something that food ever made any difference that I can tell. But NPR has another article out really kind of differs from what you said. He basically it says and I’ve heard this from other medical reports not to fear the fat. I have been for many years on a lower carbohydrate diet which happens to agree with me and I’ve kept myself then because of that. In the beginning I did and do eat cheese and eggs because basically they have a zero carbohydrate count and It kept be filled and not hungry. Otherwise I don’t eat much other dairy and I don’t think I overdo it as far as how much I eat. I only use half-and-half in my coffee My cholesterol is not higher than it ever was overall cholesterol that is and I’ve had it tested for many years. My mother did not die of cardiac disease and she had a very high overall cholesterol. Here is the link if you’re interested.

  • Haze

    Not sure if this is the right blog to post this issue. Is there an archived session on MSG and its 40 or more alternative names, which is “hidden” in almost all processed foods under those alternative names (in cans, packages, frozen) even organically labelled ones? That was a scary recent discovery for me, that this neurotoxin is almost everywhere in foods!! Most people do not have time to cook fresh food every day, and even if we do, sometimes we use cans andor packages, frozen foods to augment our dishes. Any ideas on how to handle this issue?

  • yummyhealthy

    I want to be a vegan.However, my family think I won’t get enough nutrients from that.So, I still eat fish, milk, and egg.I imitate the diet style from Corrina Rachel,a health coach who own the Youtube channel “Psyche Truth”. I need to convince them but have no idea what is really good. I think vitamin supplements are bad since they are not existed in food naturally like fish, milk, and egg. Can you shoe your what you consume daily in a month for optimal health?Like what supplements you take,how much food you eat for carb,protein and fat in a routine, how long do you exercise.And how do you come up with your life style now? Why are you they are all good for you? Thanks!

    • Thea

      yummhealthy: Would you be able to get a hold of Dr. Greger’s new book, How Not To Die? Because Dr. Greger explains his daily eating and exercise recommendations in that book. As for supplements and an overview of a diet recommendation, se this page:
      I understand why your family is concerned, because lots of people are not aware of what the science says in regards to nutrition and your family is probably picking up their bad information from places that seem like they should be reliable. But what we learn on NutritionFacts is that a properly designed whole plant food diet has way more nutrients in it than the diet that most people eat. And fish, milk and eggs are not very healthy as you have seen in this video and others on this site.
      Some of the videos on NutritionFacts are translated into other languages. I don’t know if that would be of assistance to you/would be something that your family would find helpful.

      If you would like a free program (one that Dr. Greger recommends also) which tells you what to eat for 21 days, complete with recipes and helpful videos, click the green Register Now button on the following page:
      Does any of that help?

      • yummyhealthy

        Thanks.I heard of that.But still I have difficulties to get it.So,I think asking questions to experienced vegans is better.I have a good idea to cancel the cons of the vegan diet.It seemed only VB12 and VD are the only things it lacks.What brands of supplements does Dr. Gregar take?

        • Thea

          yummyhealthy: As a general rule, Dr. Greger doesn’t recommend specific brands. Hopefully you can find some brands that you trust.

          • yummyhealthy

            I see. It might be that he doesn’t want to sell any product to people and cause controversy from meat-eaters. Well, how about you? I really have no idea about brands.

          • Thea

            What brands of supplements do I use? I do take B12 fairly often and sometimes vitamin D. And I can honestly say that I’m still picking a brand. I keep trying different products to find that perfect one. Or perhaps it may be more accurate to say that I don’t have brand loyalty when it comes to these supplements and so whatever store I’m at, I try to pick the best option available. Sorry I’m not more help!

          • yummyhealthy

            It’s okay. Maybe it is a good strategy. Don’t put all the eggs (trust) in the same basket(brand)

          • yummyhealthy

            “7 Nutrients That You Can’t Get From Plant Foods” This article reveals other uncommon vitamins that vegan diets can get. How to deal with them?

      • yummyhealthy

        Thanks. They’re good informations. I will make good use of them. And how long have you been a vegan? Please share your experience and how you become better by doing so.

      • yummyhealthy

        Do you also get benefits from a vegan diet economically? For instance, you spend less money on grocery shopping.

  • yummyhealthy

    Why there is no my comment?

  • Ana

    Hello dr. Gregor,
    First of all, thank oyu for all your work. Do you have some kind of comments about this: – it says satured fats don’t cause heart desease and make you lose weight :D. And this is suposingly the new Yourk Times best selling book :/. Thanks

    • Thea

      Ana: Dr. McDouggal like to say, “People love to hear good news about their bad habits.” That’s why people like books like this. I would add the corollary, “Greedy and unscrupulous people who distort the science love to make money off of people’s confusion.” This is why such books get written in the first place. What bothers me is that there is a whole system in place that allows such books to be born. It’s not just the authors who should be ashamed…

  • Concerned granny

    My grandson has been diagnosed with Ataxia telangiectasia, what foods and nutrients would be best to aid the quality of his life and what foods/processed junk should he avoid?

  • Mary

    I have read a couple of times that not everyone is suitable as a vegan and some people need meat and dairy to thrive, depending on blood type or some other issue. Does this have any scientific basis?

  • Kidneydoc

    Dr. Greger,
    I first became acquainted with this site several years ago. As your well aware, reviewing all of the medical literature is virtually impossible, aside from that of one’s own specialty or sub-specialty. I have for years, along with my colleagues in the Adult Medicine department at Kaiser (Southern California Permanente Medical Group), been encouraging my patients, who tend to have a plethora of chronic diseases, hence resulting in CKD, to switch to an all plant food lifestyle. There is unfortunately a lot of skepticism and resistance in many patients, generally due to the lack of knowledge concerning the evidence based reasons for doing so. As one comment below suggested, this video should be mandatory in all medical schools, and even in continuing education sessions at community hospitals around the country. My colleagues have published in the Permanente Journal, which you recently featured on this blog. The trend, from my perspective, is that more physicians are becoming aware of the importance of plant based dietary lifestyle. Your videos and book, are much appreciated and helpful toward that goal of ridding this country of its unhealthful diet.

    • Thea

      Kidneydoc: You are one of the heros out there! Thank you for your post. I enjoyed reading it.

  • Disappointed

    what happened to number three? It used to be the medical profession was number 3 in this video, which you have replaced with what must be a later video you made that changed the list so it did not include or even suggest the medical profession was on that list. Sell out, is all you are, at the end of the day. Milktoast sell out. Spineless. Yellow bellied, liar. . . . . . now that you pander to those you used to out. Took 3 years for you to sell out Greger. Dropped the ball, and now. . . you have none. ;) Too bad.

    • Thea

      Disappointed: Ummm, this video is unchanged. The video you are looking for is the following year’s summary video which can be found here: and which includes the information you are looking for right at the start of the video. This video is still proudly displayed at the bottom of the home page, just like all the summary videos.

      I am disappointed that you chose to make a slanderous post rather than just ask a question if you can’t find the information you are looking for. If you wish to keep posting here on NutritionFacts, please click the green ‘Comment Etiquette’ button at the top of the comments section and review the posting rules found on that page.

  • Disappointed

    And I can’t even find that video anywhere now. I knew I should have saved it when I saw it several years ago. I COULD NOT BELIEVE you were ballsy enough and allowed (by Them) to put it up. But I guess they had just not found it yet. I could slap myself for not knowing better and saving it, so I could spread it out and send it and, well, you get the drift. . . . (what someone who was not a coward would do). Shame on you.

  • R Recchi

    When will “How Not to Die” be available in audiobook?


      it already is, we bought ours in march.

  • Mika Schulman

    Thanks for another great lecture, Dr. Greger! There is one part though, that based on my limited understanding, seemed to possibly be incorrect.

    Around 36-37 minutes to the lecture, there was talk about Serotonin in plants and its effects on the mood.

    Firstly, based on what I remember having read, Serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine) can’t itself cross the blood-brain-barrier. And serotonin in blood is picked up by blood platelets instead, which store it and release it when they bind to a clot, in which case serotonin is used as a vasoconstrictor. But the serotonin that is used as a neurotransmitter is made in the brain from an essential amino acid tryptophan.

    Some fruits and vegetables do contain tryptophan, as well as some nuts, seeds and brown rice, but also it easily looses the battle, of crossing the BBB, to other amino acids. So a diet high in protein might not be optimal for tryptophan passing to the brain.

    If you have the time, or somebody else who knows better, to let me know if I’m correct or not. It would be nice thing to know if I’ve gotten it right or if I’m remembering some older information that’s been debunked nowadays or just had bad sources for my information.

    In any case, thanks ones again for all that you are doing. I’ve learned a great deal from this site and your lectures.

  • Dean Hoffman

    I understand that in any science there is always confirmation bias, so you are forgiven. However, to be unbalanced is fraudulent. Telling half the truth is the same thing as lying. There are countless variations of this conclusion from credible research worldwide.Does it prove they are correct? NO! But as a responsible “Doctor” should balance be introduced. I’ll let you readers decide.

    • Thea

      Dean Hoffman: That’s an old article. It talks about the USDA’s committee recommendations to be released later in the year. When those recommendations came out, the committee affirmed that consuming cholesterol is still a concern. They had to affirm that, because the vast majority of valid science still backs that basic understanding.
      If a site that stood for sharing the body of evidence regarding smoking failed to tell you about the studies supporting smoking as being either neutral or healthful, that would be perfectly valid. Because the vast majority of valid science does indeed show that smoking is harmful. The same is true for high serum cholesterol. Dr. Greger has several videos on this site explaining how studies showing that serum cholesterol levels do not matter are fatally flawed studies. I highly recommend taking a look at those educational videos. It will explain to you why you can find published studies which *seem* to show that cholesterol levels do not matter. Several tricks or faulty reasoning is employed to produce those studies.
      There is no lying on this site. I sadly can’t say the same thing for the sites you are paying attention to. For a real eye opener, you might check out the Plant Positive site. That site contains an in-depth look at the main players behind cholesterol denialism, thoroughly debunking the movement.


      5 years ago I cut out all oral cholesterol by going on a WFPBD because my blood cholesterol levels were just under 300 (and, btw, I was terminal).

      a few weeks ago I received my last lipid panel and my cholesterol level was 101.

      oral cholesterol has a DIRECT correlation to blood levels but if you want an excuse to continue eating the disease causing western diet, then by all means believe the cholesterol deniers and ignore fact based sites like this one.

      they are no different than the doctors in the 50’s who promoted cigarette smoking because they also had that nasty dirty habit which they couldn’t kick.

      as thea stated, THERE IS NO LYING ON THIS SITE.




  • Dean Hoffman

    Dr. Peter Attia “Eating cholesterol has very little impact on the cholesterol levels in your body. This is a fact, not my opinion. Anyone who tells you different is, at best, ignorant of this topic. At worst, they are a deliberate charlatan. Years ago the Canadian Guidelines removed the limitation of dietary cholesterol. The rest of the world, especially the United States, needs to catch up. To see an important reference on this topic, please look here.”

    • Thea

      Dean Hoffman: After you last post, I referred you to the site so you could learn about the intellectual dishonesty of cholesterol deniers. Peter Attia is specifically addressed in several of the videos on that site. Here’s one of those videos:

      And here is a quote from that video: “For example, he wants us to think that in Framingham there was no association between cholesterol and saturated fat consumption. Attia must believe in recycling. I addressed this one in my first Anomaly Hunter video about Gary Taubes. Is he seriously arguing that saturated fat doesn’t raise cholesterol? Is he going to try to make this argument using unpublished epidemiological findings when we have seen what saturated fat does to cholesterol in hundreds of controlled trials? Watch videos 4 and 5 of this playlist if you aren’t convinced that saturated fat raises one’s cholesterol.”

      and also:

      “…Attia knows you can’t properly interpret this result without that information. Dr. Attia presents himself as a very careful person. We can see here that he can actually be quite careless. He knows better than this.”

      Those quotes are just getting started. There is a lot more on that one video and lots more in the videos that follow. Before you quote Peter Attia, you might want to find out if he has anything to back up what he says.

  • Shaia Wolf



      I just had a terrible case of oral-GI thrush that you couldn’t imagine. i had profound, severe fatigue and it went from candida overgrowth to fungal infection which means it ‘rooted’. my black tongue turned to white tongue then fresh new red tongue tissue all in short order.





      my terrible, profound fatigue was gone in 3 days. my tongue turned from black to white in about 4 days. then about a week and a half after that I began to have very red patches of new tongue tissue form. they were so red and prominent the first day I noticed them that I was afraid I had done some damage and used a q tip to see if it hurt or was raw. it wasn’t.

      hit it hard, don’t give up and it will be gone very fast.

      keep up the protocol as just because you can’t see it anymore doesn’t mean it’s still not rooted onto something like your bowels or other internal tissue.

      let me know how it went for you.





      hi shaia, did you ever get this reply?

  • Ryan Michael Harlow

    How many deaths a year would be avoided if everyone ate a whole-food plant-based diet?

  • Bernard Vartuli

    Dr Gregor, thanks for all your great info. I’m vegan now. I had my appendix removed 25 years ago. What does the appendix do and if removed how can we compensate for it in terms of diet etc?

    • Joanne B, RD

      Although I’m not a medical doctor my understanding is that the function of the appendix is unknown and seen as something a person can easily live without and not have to make any compensations for in terms of diet. However, I did a quick a search and there is a theory that the appendix acts as a storehouse for good bacteria, “rebooting” the digestive system after diarrheal illnesses. Maybe a case for probiotics if you don’t have an appendix? Not sure. But rest assured you are doing well by following your usual healthy diet.

      • Bernard Vartuli

        Thanks Joanne, I was aware of that possible function. It would make sense that it does something. I don’t think there’s any data on how it may affect someone long term in terms of being at risk of other problems from having the appendix removed?

        Yes, I don’t think I can do better than a vegan diet, maybe just eat more fermented foods like saukraut, miso, kefir etc is what I hear people saying. Cheers.

  • Vanessa

    WHy does it say: The overall cancer incidence rates of both the vegetarians and the nonvegetarians in this study are low compared with national rates. Within the study, the incidence of all cancers combined was lower among vegetarians than among meat eaters, but the incidence of colorectal cancer was higher in vegetarians than in meat eaters.
    In the article on cancer? Why do vegetarians have a higher risk of colorectal cancer?

  • Wendy Dresen

    Are there good video’s that have Dutck subtitles so I can share them with others in my country?

    • Wendy Dresen

      I meant Dutch subtitles offcourse. Sorry

  • abderrahman

    Thank you again for your work. I just pre-ordered the set along with those extra DVDs (cancer prevention, bird flu, etc).

    فوائد الرمان

  • Keith Rice

    Currently the Worlds Oldest Women is 117, And Her Top Secret for Longevity is Raw Eggs,